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  • 15. Life on land

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Travis Freeland; Brandon Heung; David V. Burley; Geoffrey Clark; +1 Authors

    Abstract Recent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey in Tonga has documented a dense and complex archaeological landscape, particularly on the principal island of Tongatapu. Among the features revealed by the LiDAR are a profusion of earthen mounds, most of which are associated with residence, sporting, or burial in the period 1000–1850 CE. For identification and mapping of the mounds we use and evaluate two automated feature extraction (AFE) techniques, object-based image analysis and an inverted pit-filling algorithm (“iMound”). Accuracy of these methods was measured using an F1-score (harmonic mean of precision and recall). Variable AFE results indicate that continual and iterative fine-tuning is required. Successful mapping of some 10,000 mounds on Tongatapu reveals a distinct spatial structure that relates to traditional land division and tenure.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Archaeolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Archaeolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: H. B. O'Neill; Christopher R. Burn; Steven V. Kokelj; Trevor C. Lantz;

    AbstractPermafrost conditions were examined between 2010 and 2014 at four sites across an alpine treeline on Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ground and air temperature sensors were installed in forest and tundra between 30 and 500 m asl. Annual mean air temperatures increased and the number of freezing degree days declined with elevation, due to persistent winter air temperature inversions. The annual mean temperature at the permafrost surface (Tps) in mineral soils increased with elevation from about −2.5 °C in lowland forest to about −1.5 °C in dwarf shrub tundra. The increase in Tps coincided with higher air temperatures and earlier snow accumulation at tundra sites. The higher Tps in alpine tundra compared to lowland forest in Peel Plain contrasts with the northward decrease in Tps across latitudinal treeline elsewhere in the western Arctic. An increase in Tps with elevation may be common in Arctic mountain environments due to the prevalence of atmospheric temperature inversions in winter. In such contexts, although vegetation characteristics are governed by summer climate, permafrost conditions are critically influenced by the winter regime. The tundra permafrost on Peel Plateau is considerably warmer and, hence, more sensitive to disturbance than perennially frozen ground north of treeline in other parts of the western Arctic. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Permafrost and Perig...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Permafrost and Perig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pauline Priol; Marc J. Mazerolle; Louis Imbeau; Pierre Drapeau; +2 Authors

    AbstractDynamic N‐mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (: Biometrics, 67, 577–587) dynamic N‐mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before‐after control‐impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N‐mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture–mark–recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N‐mixture models were similar to those from capture–mark–recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N‐mixture models were higher and less precise than those from CJS models. However, N‐mixture models can be particularly useful to evaluate management effects on animal populations, especially for species that are difficult to detect in situations where individuals cannot be uniquely identified. They also allow investigating the effects of covariates at the site level, when low recapture rates would require restricting classic CMR analyses to a subset of sites with the most captures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Ecology and Evolution
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Ecology and Evolution
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthias Kretschmer; Daniel Croll; James W. Kronstad;

    SummaryThe ability of biotrophic fungi to metabolically adapt to the host environment is a critical factor in fungal diseases of crop plants. In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of maize tumours induced by Ustilago maydis to identify key features underlying metabolic shifts during disease. Among other metabolic changes, this analysis highlighted modifications during infection in the transcriptional regulation of carbohydrate allocation and starch metabolism. We confirmed the relevance of these changes by establishing that symptom development was altered in an id1 (indeterminate1) mutant that showed increased accumulation of sucrose as well as being defective in the vegetative to reproductive transition. We further established the relevance of specific metabolic functions related to carbohydrate allocation by assaying disease in su1 (sugary1) mutant plants with altered starch metabolism and in plants treated with glucose, sucrose and silver nitrate during infection. We propose that specific regulatory and metabolic changes influence the balance between susceptibility and resistance by altering carbon allocation to promote fungal growth or to influence plant defence. Taken together, these studies reveal key aspects of metabolism that are critical for biotrophic adaptation during the maize–U. maydis interaction.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://onlinelibrar...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://onlinelibrar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Janok P. Bhattacharya; Andrew D. Miall; Curtis Ferron; Jeremy J. Gabriel; +4 Authors

    Abstract Coastal fluvial and deltaic deposits are locally incomplete recorders of elapsed time, but where detailed three-dimensional stratigraphic geometries can be constructed from well sections or high-resolution seismic data, and dated using high-precision chronostratigraphic methods, such as 14C dating, the construction of three-dimensional time-space (Wheeler) diagrams reveals important insights regarding the relationships between basin architecture, accommodation rates, sedimentation rates, stratigraphic preservation, and the nature of autogenic and allogenic processes. Analysis of the time-stratigraphic history of point-sourced delta systems, using strike and dip cross sections, is used to evaluate the completeness of the stratigraphic record to resolve how basins fill, how vertical stratigraphic successions record time, and which surfaces record the longest hiatuses. The paper includes analyses and comparison of Quaternary and Cretaceous river and delta systems. Supply-dominated systems fed by rivers that are free to avulse, like the Holocene highstand Mississippi Deltas in the Gulf of Mexico, show a strong autogenic record. In the Mississippi deltas, a quasi-continuous Holocene stratigraphic record can be reconstructed but this record is distributed among a series of laterally offset delta complexes and component delta lobes. Although 1D vertical sections may sample less than 25% of the total time, and in many cases less than a few percent, a hiatus in one section typically correlates to deposits elsewhere. Deltas fed by entrenched rivers, and especially the lowstand shelf edge systems in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the Mahakam in Kalimantan Indonesia, form a series of laterally-offset lobes at the shelf edge that look superficially similar in their pattern and areal scale to the autogenic lobes of the Mississippi delta, but the time stratigraphic relationships are very different. Rather than a quasi-complete time-stratigraphic record, each shelf edge lobe is interpreted as an allogenic lowstand delta, deposited over tens of thousands, versus thousands of years, and are bounded by a prolonged non-depositional hiatus, time equivalent to highstand deposition confined to the inner shelf. Analysis of strike cross sections within an allogenic lobe of the Lagniappe lowstand delta reveals an autogenic signal, similar, but at a smaller scale than the Mississippi. In 1D, the progradational part of an upward coarsening deltaic parasequence records the time it takes the delta to prograde past a given point, which is estimated to be a few hundred years, representing only a few percent of the time associated with progradation and transgression of a parasequence. Nevertheless, this part of the succession records the highest rates of deposition (typically 10–50 m/ka). Much of the time associated with a parasequence is tied up at the top surfaces that record periods of bypass, as the lobe progrades farther seaward, as well as transgressive surfaces of erosion and deepening. The trangressive units deposit at much slower rates (1 m/ka) recorded by highly bioturbated condensed sections. Analysis of fluvial and deltaic floodplains and channel belts also show a highly incomplete record (as little as 5% of elapsed time), reflecting the observation that rivers only occupy a small part of any given floodplain at any given time, especially when rivers are entrenched and floodplains may be exposed to form paleosols. Entrenched river deposits, such as valley fills, may record only a few percent of the total time, indicating that most of the valley records bypass and erosion. Aggrading floodplains, which may be more common during highstands of sea level, may contain more complete records, including peats and coals, with up to 50% of time recorded by sediment. A tentative reconstruction of the development of the fluvial Canterbury Plain of South Island, New Zealand, is offered as an example of the highly discontinuous nature of alluvial sedimentation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Earth-Science Review...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Earth-Science Review...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Kirsten Grond; Jorge W. Santo Domingo; Richard B. Lanctot; Ari Jumpponen; +14 Authors

    Gut microbiota can have important effects on host health, but explanatory factors and pathways that determine gut microbial composition can differ among host lineages. In mammals, host phylogeny is one of the main drivers of gut microbiota, a result of vertical transfer of microbiota during birth. In birds, it is less clear what the drivers might be, but both phylogeny and environmental factors may play a role. We investigated host and environmental factors that underlie variation in gut microbiota composition in eight species of migratory shorebirds. We characterized bacterial communities from 375 fecal samples collected from adults of eight shorebird species captured at a network of nine breeding sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic ecoregions of North America, by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Firmicutes (55.4%), Proteobacteria (13.8%), Fusobacteria (10.2%), and Bacteroidetes (8.1%) dominated the gut microbiota of adult shorebirds. Breeding location was the main driver of variation in gut microbiota of breeding shorebirds (R-2 = 11.6%), followed by shorebird host species (R-2 = 1.8%), and sampling year (R-2 = 0.9%), but most variation remained unexplained. Site variation resulted from differences in the core bacterial taxa, whereas rare, lowabundance bacteria drove host species variation. Our study is the first to highlight a greater importance of local environment than phylogeny as a driver of gut microbiota composition in wild, migratory birds under natural conditions. Avian Health Program grants from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2013-02]; National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [DDIG-1501479]; Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative; U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceUS Fish & Wildlife Service; Division of Biology at the Kansas State University; Kansas State University Open Access Publishing Fund This work was funded by the Avian Health Program grants from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (to JS and RL, and 2013-02 to KG and RL), a Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant from the National Science Foundation (DDIG-1501479 to KG), the Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Division of Biology at the Kansas State University. Publication of this article was funded in part by the Kansas State University Open Access Publishing Fund.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    VTechWorks
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: VTechWorks
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NINA Brage
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NINA Brage
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Microbiology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Microbi...arrow_drop_down
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      VTechWorks
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      Frontiers in Microbiology
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    Authors: Erica H. Lawrence; Joseph R. Stinziano; David T. Hanson;

    AbstractThe rapid A‐Ci response (RACiR) technique alleviates limitations of measuring photosynthetic capacity by reducing the time needed to determine the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax) in leaves. Photosynthetic capacity and its relationships with leaf development are important for understanding ecological and agricultural productivity; however, our current understanding is incomplete. Here, we show that RACiR can be used in previous generation gas exchange systems (i.e., the LI‐6400) and apply this method to rapidly investigate developmental gradients of photosynthetic capacity in poplar. We compared RACiR‐determined Vcmax and Jmax as well as respiration and stomatal conductance (gs) across four stages of leaf expansion in Populus deltoides and the poplar hybrid 717‐1B4 (Populus tremula × Populus alba). These physiological data were paired with leaf traits including nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll concentrations, and specific leaf area. Several traits displayed developmental trends that differed between the poplar species, demonstrating the utility of RACiR approaches to rapidly generate accurate measures of photosynthetic capacity. By using both new and old machines, we have shown how more investigators will be able to incorporate measurements of important photosynthetic traits in future studies and further our understanding of relationships between development and leaf‐level physiology.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Plant Cell & Environ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ryan Boxem; Emma L. Davis; Jesse C. Vermaire;

    Plant macrofossils and pollen were analyzed from sediment cores to identify long-term changes in the aquatic plant community of Jones Creek, Thousand Islands National Park, Ontario, Canada. Six sediment cores were recovered from Jones Creek in February 2014. One complete core and five top/bottom samples were analyzed for plant macrofossil abundance and diversity. Sediment analysis and 210Pb dating confirmed a productive wetland throughout the core, dating back beyond 1883 AD. Jones Creek is currently dominated by thick stands of cattails, particularly the hybrid white cattail (Typha x glauca Godr). The relative abundance of Typha pollen began to increase in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, reaching a relative abundance of nearly 40% in the modern day surface sediment. Common macrofossils recovered from the sediment record included seeds of Carex, Schoenoplectus, Najas, and Eleocharis. There is evidence that community composition, as recorded by the macrofossil record, has shifted in Jones Creek in response to human activities. In particular there has been a reduction in sedge species between historical and present day conditions as the wetland shifted from a sedge dominated wet-meadow wetland to a cattail dominated system. The results of our study indicate that future restoration efforts should be directed towards reintroducing native sedge species that were present prior to major changes in land-use that occurred in the St. Lawrence region throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Paleolimn...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Paleolimn...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Tête; Clémentine Fritsch; Eve Afonso; Michael Coeurdassier; +3 Authors

    International audience; : Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism) and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants). Individual variables (e.g., age, gender) affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys) as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560) captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided). The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd) concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    PLoS ONE
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2013
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luis A. Buatois; M. Gabriela Mángano; Nicholas J. Minter; Kai Zhou; +3 Authors

    The Cambrian explosion (CE) and the great Ordovician biodiversification event (GOBE) are the two most important radiations in Paleozoic oceans. We quantify the role of bioturbation and bioerosion in ecospace utilization and ecosystem engineering using information from 1367 stratigraphic units. An increase in all diversity metrics is demonstrated for the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition, followed by a decrease in most values during the middle to late Cambrian, and by a more modest increase during the Ordovician. A marked increase in ichnodiversity and ichnodisparity of bioturbation is shown during the CE and of bioerosion during the GOBE. Innovations took place first in offshore settings and later expanded into marginal-marine, nearshore, deep-water, and carbonate environments. This study highlights the importance of the CE, despite its Ediacaran roots. Differences in infaunalization in offshore and shelf paleoenvironments favor the hypothesis of early Cambrian wedge-shaped oxygen minimum zones instead of a horizontally stratified ocean. Biogenic reworking played a major role in early Paleozoic oceans, and its study helps to constrain paleo-oxygenation models.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Science Advancesarrow_drop_down
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    Science Advances
    Article . 2020
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    Science Advances
    Article . 2020
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      Science Advances
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Travis Freeland; Brandon Heung; David V. Burley; Geoffrey Clark; +1 Authors

    Abstract Recent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey in Tonga has documented a dense and complex archaeological landscape, particularly on the principal island of Tongatapu. Among the features revealed by the LiDAR are a profusion of earthen mounds, most of which are associated with residence, sporting, or burial in the period 1000–1850 CE. For identification and mapping of the mounds we use and evaluate two automated feature extraction (AFE) techniques, object-based image analysis and an inverted pit-filling algorithm (“iMound”). Accuracy of these methods was measured using an F1-score (harmonic mean of precision and recall). Variable AFE results indicate that continual and iterative fine-tuning is required. Successful mapping of some 10,000 mounds on Tongatapu reveals a distinct spatial structure that relates to traditional land division and tenure.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Archaeolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Archaeolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: H. B. O'Neill; Christopher R. Burn; Steven V. Kokelj; Trevor C. Lantz;

    AbstractPermafrost conditions were examined between 2010 and 2014 at four sites across an alpine treeline on Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ground and air temperature sensors were installed in forest and tundra between 30 and 500 m asl. Annual mean air temperatures increased and the number of freezing degree days declined with elevation, due to persistent winter air temperature inversions. The annual mean temperature at the permafrost surface (Tps) in mineral soils increased with elevation from about −2.5 °C in lowland forest to about −1.5 °C in dwarf shrub tundra. The increase in Tps coincided with higher air temperatures and earlier snow accumulation at tundra sites. The higher Tps in alpine tundra compared to lowland forest in Peel Plain contrasts with the northward decrease in Tps across latitudinal treeline elsewhere in the western Arctic. An increase in Tps with elevation may be common in Arctic mountain environments due to the prevalence of atmospheric temperature inversions in winter. In such contexts, although vegetation characteristics are governed by summer climate, permafrost conditions are critically influenced by the winter regime. The tundra permafrost on Peel Plateau is considerably warmer and, hence, more sensitive to disturbance than perennially frozen ground north of treeline in other parts of the western Arctic. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Permafrost and Perig...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Permafrost and Perig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Pauline Priol; Marc J. Mazerolle; Louis Imbeau; Pierre Drapeau; +2 Authors

    AbstractDynamic N‐mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (: Biometrics, 67, 577–587) dynamic N‐mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before‐after control‐impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N‐mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture–mark–recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N‐mixture models were similar to those from capture–mark–recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N‐mixture models were higher and less precise than those from CJS models. However, N‐mixture models can be particularly useful to evaluate management effects on animal populations, especially for species that are difficult to detect in situations where individuals cannot be uniquely identified. They also allow investigating the effects of covariates at the site level, when low recapture rates would require restricting classic CMR analyses to a subset of sites with the most captures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Ecology and Evolution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Ecology and Evolution
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