search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • Canada
  • Research data
  • Other dataset type
  • Rural Digital Europe

Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lee, Joey; Christen, Andreas; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    A method for directly measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using a mobile sensor network in cities at fine spatial resolution was developed and tested. First, a compact, mobile system was built using an infrared gas analyzer combined with open-source hardware to control, georeference and log measurements of CO2 mixing ratios on vehicles (car, bikes). Second, two measurement campaigns, one in summer and one in winter (heating-season) were carried out. Five mobile sensors were deployed within a 1 x 12.7 km transect across the City of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The sensors were operated for 3.5 hours on pre-defined routes to map CO2 mixing ratios at street level, which was then averaged to 100 x 100 m grids. The grid-averaged CO2 mixing ratios were 417.9 ppm in summer and 442.5 ppm in winter. In both campaigns, mixing ratios were highest in the downtown core and along arterial roads and lowest in parks and well vegetated residential areas. Third, an aerodynamic resistance approach to calculating emissions was used to derive CO2 emissions from the gridded CO2 mixing ratio measurements in conjunction with mixing ratios and fluxes collected from a 28-m tall eddy-covariance tower located within the study area. These measured emissions showed a range of -12 to 226 kg CO2/ha/hr in summer and of -14 to 163 kg CO2/ha/hr in winter, with an average of 35.1 kg CO2 ha/hr (summer) and 25.9 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter). Fourth, an independent emissions inventory was developed for the study area using buildings energy simulations from a previous study and routinely available traffic counts. The emissions inventory for the same area averaged to 22.06 kg CO2/ha/hr (summer) and 28.76 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter) and was used to compare against the measured emissions from the mobile sensor network. The comparison on a grid-by-grid basis showed linearity between CO2 mixing ratios and the emissions inventory (R2 = 0.53 in summer and R2 = 0.47 in winter). 87 % (summer) and 94 % (winter) of measured grid cells show a difference within ±1 order, and 49 % (summer) and 69 % (winter) show an error of less than a factor 2. Although associated with considerable errors at the individual grid cell level, the study demonstrates a promising method of using a network of mobile sensors and an aerodynamic resistance approach to rapidly map greenhouse gases at high spatial resolution across cities. The method could be improved by longer measurements and a refined calculation of the aerodynamic resistance. The datasets presented here contain processed and modelled data from two field campaigns in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada, where a total of five mobile sensor systems were operated simultaneously on cars and bikes within a few hours to measure and map ground-level carbon dioxide mixing ratios used to calculate spatially resolved carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dick, Terry A; Chambers, Carl; Gallagher, Colin P;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    Shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) from Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, is a slow growing long-lived species. A wide range of diet items were present in the stomachs of the shorthorn sculpins sampled but 2-3 diet items (amphipod species) comprised 99.5 % of total food consumed. These amphipods were present in the stomachs in similar proportions among all age classes of shorthorn sculpin. Several new host records for parasites were reported and mean numbers of parasite species increased with shorthorn sculpin age. The increased diversity of parasite species and higher d15N values in older/larger individuals suggest that their diets were more diverse and the prey items consumed had higher d15N values. By contrast, the value of d13C in dominant diet items masked the d13C values of minor diet items. We conclude that parasites and stable isotope values provide complementary data on feeding patterns of the shorthorn sculpin. The ubiquitous marine acanthocephalan, Echinorhynchus gadi, was found at high prevalences (87-100 %) and mean intensities (28-35), and were localized in the midgut. In contrast to other studies on acanthocephalans, E. gadi did not influence fish condition as measured by condition factor, liver somatic and gonado-somatic indices. Data extracted in the frame of a joint ICSTI/PANGAEA IPY effort, see http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Couture, Nicole; Irrgang, Anna Maria; Pollard, Wayne H; Lantuit, Hugues; Fritz, Michael;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), NSERC

    Narrowing uncertainties about carbon cycling is important in the Arctic where rapid environmental changes contribute to enhanced mobilization of carbon. Here we quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) contents of permafrost soils along the Yukon Coastal Plain and determine the annual fluxes from erosion. Different terrain units are assessed based on surficial geology, morphology, and ground ice conditions. To account for the volume of wedge ice and massive ice in a unit, sample SOC contents are reduced by 19% and sediment contents by 16%. The SOC content in a 1 m**2 column of soil varies according to the height of the bluff, ranging from 30 to 662 kg, with a mean value of 183 kg. Forty-four per cent of the SOC is within the top 1 m of soil and values vary based on surficial materials, ranging from 30 to 53 kg C/m**3, with a mean of 41 kg. Eighty per cent of the shoreline is erosive with a mean annual rate of change is 0.7 m/a. This results in a SOC flux per meter of shoreline of 131 kg C/m/a, and a total flux for the entire Yukon coast of 35.5 10**6 kg C/a (0.036 Tg C/a). The mean flux of sediment per meter of shoreline is 5.3 10**3 kg/m/a, with a total flux of 1,832.0 10**6 kg/a (1.832 Tg/a). Sedimentation rates indicate that approximately 13% of the eroded carbon is sequestered in nearshore sediments, where the overwhelming majority of organic carbon is of terrestrial origin.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lange, Benjamin Allen; Beckers, Justin; Casey, J Alec; Haas, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    Helicopter-borne laser profiling of sea ice surface roughnessLaser profiler measurements were performed during the CCGS Henry Larsen cruise: Canadian Arctic Through flow (CATs) 2009 cruise to Nares Strait. Airborne surveys were conducted on August 16, 18 and 19, 2009.A laser was mounted on a helicopter pointing vertically downwards to measure the altitude above the ice surface which nominally was 30 m. Depending on flight speed, the spatial sampling interval ranged between 0.02 and 0.15 m. Positioning of the profiles was performed by means of a Global Positioning System (GPS).After eye inspection of the data and removal of outliers, the low frequency helicopter motion is eleminated from the data using a multiple filter procedure described by Hibler (1972, doi:10.1029/JC077i036p07190), Dierking (1995, doi:10.1029/94JC01938), and Haas et al. (1998, doi:10.1016/S0165-232X(97)00019-0). It takes advantage of the fact that the helicopter height variations are only at low frequencies, whereas the surface roughness is a superimposed, high frequency signal. The resulting ice morphology is obtained relative to the surface of the surrounding level ice. Absolute freeboard, i.e. the height of the surface above the water level, cannot be obtained unless the helicopter height variations are independently determined by means of differential GPS and Inertial navigation systems. The resulting surface profiles can be used to identify pressure ridges, e.g. by a Rayleigh criterion. By this criterion only local maxima which are twice as high as the surrounding local minima are defined as pressure ridges.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lee, Joey; Christen, Andreas; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    A method for directly measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using a mobile sensor network in cities at fine spatial resolution was developed and tested. First, a compact, mobile system was built using an infrared gas analyzer combined with open-source hardware to control, georeference and log measurements of CO2 mixing ratios on vehicles (car, bikes). Second, two measurement campaigns, one in summer and one in winter (heating-season) were carried out. Five mobile sensors were deployed within a 1 x 12.7 km transect across the City of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The sensors were operated for 3.5 hours on pre-defined routes to map CO2 mixing ratios at street level, which was then averaged to 100 x 100 m grids. The grid-averaged CO2 mixing ratios were 417.9 ppm in summer and 442.5 ppm in winter. In both campaigns, mixing ratios were highest in the downtown core and along arterial roads and lowest in parks and well vegetated residential areas. Third, an aerodynamic resistance approach to calculating emissions was used to derive CO2 emissions from the gridded CO2 mixing ratio measurements in conjunction with mixing ratios and fluxes collected from a 28-m tall eddy-covariance tower located within the study area. These measured emissions showed a range of -12 to 226 kg CO2/ha/hr in summer and of -14 to 163 kg CO2/ha/hr in winter, with an average of 35.1 kg CO2 ha/hr (summer) and 25.9 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter). Fourth, an independent emissions inventory was developed for the study area using buildings energy simulations from a previous study and routinely available traffic counts. The emissions inventory for the same area averaged to 22.06 kg CO2/ha/hr (summer) and 28.76 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter) and was used to compare against the measured emissions from the mobile sensor network. The comparison on a grid-by-grid basis showed linearity between CO2 mixing ratios and the emissions inventory (R2 = 0.53 in summer and R2 = 0.47 in winter). 87 % (summer) and 94 % (winter) of measured grid cells show a difference within ±1 order, and 49 % (summer) and 69 % (winter) show an error of less than a factor 2. Although associated with considerable errors at the individual grid cell level, the study demonstrates a promising method of using a network of mobile sensors and an aerodynamic resistance approach to rapidly map greenhouse gases at high spatial resolution across cities. The method could be improved by longer measurements and a refined calculation of the aerodynamic resistance. The datasets presented here contain processed and modelled data from two field campaigns in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada, where a total of five mobile sensor systems were operated simultaneously on cars and bikes within a few hours to measure and map ground-level carbon dioxide mixing ratios used to calculate spatially resolved carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dick, Terry A; Chambers, Carl; Gallagher, Colin P;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    Shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) from Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, is a slow growing long-lived species. A wide range of diet items were present in the stomachs of the shorthorn sculpins sampled but 2-3 diet items (amphipod species) comprised 99.5 % of total food consumed. These amphipods were present in the stomachs in similar proportions among all age classes of shorthorn sculpin. Several new host records for parasites were reported and mean numbers of parasite species increased with shorthorn sculpin age. The increased diversity of parasite species and higher d15N values in older/larger individuals suggest that their diets were more diverse and the prey items consumed had higher d15N values. By contrast, the value of d13C in dominant diet items masked the d13C values of minor diet items. We conclude that parasites and stable isotope values provide complementary data on feeding patterns of the shorthorn sculpin. The ubiquitous marine acanthocephalan, Echinorhynchus gadi, was found at high prevalences (87-100 %) and mean intensities (28-35), and were localized in the midgut. In contrast to other studies on acanthocephalans, E. gadi did not influence fish condition as measured by condition factor, liver somatic and gonado-somatic indices. Data extracted in the frame of a joint ICSTI/PANGAEA IPY effort, see http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Couture, Nicole; Irrgang, Anna Maria; Pollard, Wayne H; Lantuit, Hugues; Fritz, Michael;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), NSERC

    Narrowing uncertainties about carbon cycling is important in the Arctic where rapid environmental changes contribute to enhanced mobilization of carbon. Here we quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) contents of permafrost soils along the Yukon Coastal Plain and determine the annual fluxes from erosion. Different terrain units are assessed based on surficial geology, morphology, and ground ice conditions. To account for the volume of wedge ice and massive ice in a unit, sample SOC contents are reduced by 19% and sediment contents by 16%. The SOC content in a 1 m**2 column of soil varies according to the height of the bluff, ranging from 30 to 662 kg, with a mean value of 183 kg. Forty-four per cent of the SOC is within the top 1 m of soil and values vary based on surficial materials, ranging from 30 to 53 kg C/m**3, with a mean of 41 kg. Eighty per cent of the shoreline is erosive with a mean annual rate of change is 0.7 m/a. This results in a SOC flux per meter of shoreline of 131 kg C/m/a, and a total flux for the entire Yukon coast of 35.5 10**6 kg C/a (0.036 Tg C/a). The mean flux of sediment per meter of shoreline is 5.3 10**3 kg/m/a, with a total flux of 1,832.0 10**6 kg/a (1.832 Tg/a). Sedimentation rates indicate that approximately 13% of the eroded carbon is sequestered in nearshore sediments, where the overwhelming majority of organic carbon is of terrestrial origin.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lange, Benjamin Allen; Beckers, Justin; Casey, J Alec; Haas, Christian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSERC

    Helicopter-borne laser profiling of sea ice surface roughnessLaser profiler measurements were performed during the CCGS Henry Larsen cruise: Canadian Arctic Through flow (CATs) 2009 cruise to Nares Strait. Airborne surveys were conducted on August 16, 18 and 19, 2009.A laser was mounted on a helicopter pointing vertically downwards to measure the altitude above the ice surface which nominally was 30 m. Depending on flight speed, the spatial sampling interval ranged between 0.02 and 0.15 m. Positioning of the profiles was performed by means of a Global Positioning System (GPS).After eye inspection of the data and removal of outliers, the low frequency helicopter motion is eleminated from the data using a multiple filter procedure described by Hibler (1972, doi:10.1029/JC077i036p07190), Dierking (1995, doi:10.1029/94JC01938), and Haas et al. (1998, doi:10.1016/S0165-232X(97)00019-0). It takes advantage of the fact that the helicopter height variations are only at low frequencies, whereas the surface roughness is a superimposed, high frequency signal. The resulting ice morphology is obtained relative to the surface of the surrounding level ice. Absolute freeboard, i.e. the height of the surface above the water level, cannot be obtained unless the helicopter height variations are independently determined by means of differential GPS and Inertial navigation systems. The resulting surface profiles can be used to identify pressure ridges, e.g. by a Rayleigh criterion. By this criterion only local maxima which are twice as high as the surrounding local minima are defined as pressure ridges.