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332 Research products, page 1 of 34

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sander Bruun; Sarah L. Harmer; Georgios Bekiaris; Wibke Christel; Lucia Zuin; Yongfeng Hu; Lars Stoumann Jensen; Enzo Lombi;
    Publisher: UK : Pergamon
    Country: Australia
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Biochar application to agricultural land has been proposed as a means for improving phosphorus (P) availability in soil. The purpose of the current study was to understand how pyrolysis temperature affects P speciation in biochar and how this affects availability of P in the amended soil. Biochar was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species. At low temperatures, pyrolysis had little effect on P speciation; however, as the temperature increased above 600 °C, the P gradually became more thermo-dynamically stable in species such as apatite. At very high temperatures above 1000 °C, there were indications of reduced forms of P. Biochar production decreased the immediate availability of P in comparison with the original digestate solids. However, for biochar produced at low temperatures, availability quickly increased to the same levels as in the digestate solids. For biochar produced at higher temperatures, availability remained depressed for much longer. The low availability of P in the biochar produced at high temperatures can probably be explained by the formation of less soluble P species in the biochar. In contrast, the transient decrease of availability of the P in the biochar produced at low temperatures can be explained by mechanisms, such as sorption on biochar, which gradually decreases because of oxidation of the biochar surfaces or changes in pH around the biochar particles. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jim D. Karagatzides; Meaghan J. Wilton; Leonard J. S. Tsuji;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    To address food insecurity in northern Canada, some isolated communities started gardening initiatives to reduce dependencies on expensive foods flown in to communities. From 2012–2014, soils in northern Ontario James Bay lowlands were cultivated with bush beans and potatoes, grown in sole and intercropping configurations, in an open field and an agroforestry system enclosed by willow trees. The objective of this study was to compare the supply rates of 15 plant-available nutrients in these soils using in situ ion exchange membranes. After three years of cultivation, the agroforestry site had significantly greater supply of PO4, Ca, and Zn and these nutrients had positive correlations with yield. By contrast, the open site had significantly greater supply of Mg, SO4, and B these nutrients, and Al, had negative correlations with yield. Whilst there were no differences between sole and intercropping configurations, significantly greater supply of NO3, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn occurred early in the growing season, compared to significantly greater supply of K, SO4, B, and Al later in the season. Significantly greater yields have been harvested in the agroforestry site and it is suspected that the presence of a willow shelterbelt improves the microclimate and plant-available PO4, Ca, and Zn.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rosemin Kassam; Sekiwunga, Richard; MacLeod, Duncan; Tembe, Juliet; Liow, Eric;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: CIHR

    Caregiversâ experiences with external sourcesa. (PDF 171 kb)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dena W. McMartin; Bruno H. Hernani Merino; Barrie Bonsal; Margot Hurlbert; Ricardo Villalba; Olga L. Ocampo; Jorge Julián Vélez Upegui; Germán Poveda; David J. Sauchyn;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Argentina
    Project: CIHR

    Debate and deliberation surrounding climate change has shifted from mitigation toward adaptation, with much of the adaptation focus centered on adaptive practices, and infrastructure development. However, there is little research assessing expected impacts, potential benefits, and design challenges that exist for reducing vulnerability to expected climate impacts. The uncertainty of design requirements and associated government policies, and social structures that reflect observed and projected changes in the intensity, duration, and frequency of water-related climate events leaves communities vulnerable to the negative impacts of potential flood and drought. The results of international research into how agricultural infrastructure features in current and planned adaptive capacity of rural communities in Argentina, Canada, and Colombia indicate that extreme hydroclimatic events, as well as climate variability and unpredictability are important for understanding and responding to community vulnerability. The research outcomes clearly identify the need to deliberately plan, coordinate, and implement infrastructures that support community resiliency. Fil: McMartin, Dena W.. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Hernani Merino, Bruno H.. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Bonsal, Barrie. Environment Canada; Canadá Fil: Hurlbert, Margot. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Villalba, Ricardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Regional de Investigaciones Cientifícas y Tecnológicas; Argentina Fil: Ocampo, Olga L.. Universidad Autónoma de Manizales; Colombia Fil: Upegui, Jorge Julián Vélez. Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Colombia Fil: Poveda, Germán. Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Colombia Fil: Sauchyn, David J.. University of Regina; Canadá

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eva Weyers; Daniel G. Strawn; Derek Peak; Leslie L. Baker;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: CIHR , NSERC

    Abstract In confined animal feeding operations, such as dairies, manure is amended to soils at high rates leading to increases in P and organic matter in the soils. Phosphorus reacts with soil-Ca to form Ca-P minerals, which controls P availability for leaching and transport through the watershed. In this research, the effects of manure sourced dissolved organic matter (DOM) on P sorption on calcite were measured at different reaction times and concentrations. Reactions were monitored in 1% and 10% manure-to-water extract solutions spiked with P. When manure-DOM was present, a significant reduction in P sorption occurred (2–90% absolute decrease) compared to samples without manure-DOM. The greatest decrease occurred in the samples reacted in the 10% manure solution. XANES spectroscopic analysis showed that at 1% manure solution, a Ca-P phase similar to hydroxyapatite formed. In the calcite samples reacted in the 10% manure solution, K-edge XANES spectroscopy revealed that P occurred as a Ca-Mg-P phase instead of the less soluble hydroxyapatite-like phase. Results from this study suggest that in manure-amended calcareous soils, increased DOM from manure will decrease P sorption capacity and increase the overall P concentration in solution, which will increase the mobility of P and subsequently pose greater risks for impairment of surface water quality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Walter Kipp; Joseph Konde-Lule; Tom Rubaale; Joa Okech-Ojony; Arif Alibhai; Duncan Saunders;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: CIHR

    Abstract Background Improved availability of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is intended to benefit all eligible HIV-infected patients; however in reality antiretroviral services are mainly offered in urban hospitals. Poor rural patients have difficulty accessing the drugs, making the provision of antiretroviral therapy inequitable. Initial tests of community-based treatment programs in Uganda suggest that home-based treatment of HIV/AIDS may equal hospital-based treatment; however the literature reveals limited experiences with such programs. The research This intervention study aimed to; 1) assess the effectiveness of a rural community-based ART program in a subcounty (Rwimi) of Uganda; and 2) compare treatment outcomes and mortality in a rural community-based antiretroviral therapy program with a well-established hospital-based program. Ethics approvals were obtained in Canada and Uganda. Results and outcomes Successful treatment outcomes after two years in both the community and hospital cohorts were high. All-cause mortality was similar in both cohorts. However, community-based patients were more likely to achieve viral suppression and had good adherence to treatment. The community-based program was slightly more cost-effective. Per capita costs in both settings were unsustainable, representing more than Uganda’s Primary Health Care Services current expenditures per person per year for all health services. The unpaid community volunteers showed high participation and low attrition rates for the two years that this program was evaluated. Challenges and successes Key successes of this study include the demonstration that antiretroviral therapy can be provided in a rural setting, the creation of a research infrastructure and culture within Kabarole’s health system, and the establishment of a research collaboration capable of enriching the global health graduate program at the University of Alberta. Challenging questions about the long-term feasibility and sustainability of a community-based ARV program in Uganda still remain. The partnership This project is a continuation of previous successful collaborations between the School of Public Health of Makerere University, the School of Public Health of University of Alberta, the Kabarole District Administration and the Kabarole Research and Resource Center.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Mathews; Maureen Seguin; Nurun L. Chowdhury; Robert T Card;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    INTRODUCTION: Canadian medical schools have increased enrolment and recruited more rural students in an effort to address general and rural physician shortages. The success of this approach depends on the recruitment of these newly trained physicians to under-serviced areas. Studies from North America suggest that the career expectations and practice patterns of younger, more recently graduated physicians differ from those of their older counterparts. This study explored the factors that influenced the work location choices of physicians of differing generations, who trained at universities in Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador, two Canadian provinces with large rural populations and no community larger than 235 000 population. METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians who graduated from either the Memorial University of Newfoundland or the University of Saskatchewan. Generation definitions were based on the graduation year. Early-career physicians graduated between 1995 and 1999; mid-career physician graduated between 1985 and 1989; late-career physicians graduated between 1975 and 1979; and end-career physicians graduated between 1965 and 1969. Each physician was asked questions about the number and nature of work location changes over the course of their careers and the factors related to their decision to choose each location. Interview transcripts and notes were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Although the study focus was on generational differences, similarities and differences between universities, sexes and specialties (family physicians/GPs vs specialists) were also examined. Recruitment to the provinces was focused on as a whole, because the largest communities in the provinces are small compared with most urban communities. RESULTS: Forty-eight physicians were interviewed, five to nine physicians who graduated in each decade and from each university. The desire to be near family and friends was cited as the primary consideration when choosing a work location, regardless of generation. Likewise, residency training location, the ability to use their skills and knowledge fully, and the quality of recruitment efforts were important considerations in choosing a work location for all physicians. For some, remuneration was very influential in their work location decision; however, many physicians who chose to remain in their smaller 'home' provinces noted the lower cost of living in these provinces. Physicians who graduated in the 1980s and 1990s placed greater emphasis on work-life balance and spouse's employment opportunities than their older generation counterparts. In contrast, physicians who graduated in the 1960s and 1070s highlighted the medical need of the community, and the desire for adventure and to see new places as important. CONCLUSIONS: While many factors for choosing a work location appear to be stable over generations, a number of generational differences were found. Younger physicians placed greater emphasis on work-life balance and spouse's employment than older generation physicians. These differences may have important implications for small population regions which may not be able to support physician-spouse pairs or certain subspecialties. Although economic factors have largely been the focus of recruitment and retention initiatives in these provinces, the findings highlight the importance of addressing the needs and expectations of younger generation physicians in order to attract these physicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nicole Nguenha; Benedito Cunguara; Stella Aguinaga Bialous; Jeffrey Drope; Raphael Lencucha;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: United States
    Project: CIHR

    s commitment to addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable disease and accession to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control indicate a potential for internal government tensions to balance immediate economic interests with long term health goals. Conclusions: With the decline in tobacco share of the overall economy, Mozambique may be well-positioned to explore alternative, sustainable livelihoods for farmers that grow tobacco, but it must overcome inter-sectoral barriers and advocate for a whole of government approach to address the health and economic impact of tobacco. s tobacco-growing history, the changes in the political economy of tobacco, and health policies addressing tobacco use and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Results: Despite its tobacco growing and exporting history, the contribution of tobacco to the economy has been in steady decline in the past two decades, including in the areas dedicated to growing. At the same time there has been an increase in multinational control of the tobacco economy. In parallel, Mozambique&rsquo s economy, but there is a dearth of analysis of the tobacco policy landscape in the country. Methods: Review of government and non-government documents and academic papers addressing Mozambique&rsquo Background: Tobacco growing has been considered a mainstay of Mozambique&rsquo

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mojgan Tavakolan; Zack Frehlick; Xinyi Yong; Carlo Menon;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: Canada
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows collaboration between humans and machines. It translates the electrical activity of the brain to understandable commands to operate a machine or a device. In this study, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of a 3-class BCI using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This BCI discriminates rest against imaginary grasps and elbow movements of the same limb. This classification task is challenging because imaginary movements within the same limb have close spatial representations on the motor cortex area. The proposed method extracts time-domain features and classifies them using a support vector machine (SVM) with a radial basis kernel function (RBF). An average accuracy of 74.2% was obtained when using the proposed method on a dataset collected, prior to this study, from 12 healthy individuals. This accuracy was higher than that obtained when other widely used methods, such as common spatial patterns (CSP), filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and band power methods, were used on the same dataset. These results are encouraging and the proposed method could potentially be used in future applications including BCI-driven robotic devices, such as a portable exoskeleton for the arm, to assist individuals with impaired upper extremity functions in performing daily tasks.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yue Xuan; Nicholas W. Bateman; Sebastien Gallien; Sandra Goetze; Yue Zhou; Pedro Navarro; Mo Hu; Niyati Parikh; Brian L. Hood; Kelly A. Conrads; +23 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Development of Protein Bi... (1U01CA214194-01)

    AbstractCancer has no borders: Generation and analysis of molecular data across multiple centers worldwide is necessary to gain statistically significant clinical insights for the benefit of patients. Here we conceived and standardized a proteotype data generation and analysis workflow enabling distributed data generation and evaluated the quantitative data generated across laboratories of the international Cancer Moonshot consortium. Using harmonized mass spectrometry (MS) instrument platforms and standardized data acquisition procedures, we demonstrated robust, sensitive, and reproducible data generation across eleven sites in nine countries on seven consecutive days in a 24/7 operation mode. The data presented from the high-resolution MS1-based quantitative data-independent acquisition (HRMS1-DIA) workflow shows that coordinated proteotype data acquisition is feasible from clinical specimens using such standardized strategies. This work paves the way for the distributed multi-omic digitization of large clinical specimen cohorts across multiple sites as a prerequisite for turning molecular precision medicine into reality.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
332 Research products, page 1 of 34
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sander Bruun; Sarah L. Harmer; Georgios Bekiaris; Wibke Christel; Lucia Zuin; Yongfeng Hu; Lars Stoumann Jensen; Enzo Lombi;
    Publisher: UK : Pergamon
    Country: Australia
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Biochar application to agricultural land has been proposed as a means for improving phosphorus (P) availability in soil. The purpose of the current study was to understand how pyrolysis temperature affects P speciation in biochar and how this affects availability of P in the amended soil. Biochar was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species. At low temperatures, pyrolysis had little effect on P speciation; however, as the temperature increased above 600 °C, the P gradually became more thermo-dynamically stable in species such as apatite. At very high temperatures above 1000 °C, there were indications of reduced forms of P. Biochar production decreased the immediate availability of P in comparison with the original digestate solids. However, for biochar produced at low temperatures, availability quickly increased to the same levels as in the digestate solids. For biochar produced at higher temperatures, availability remained depressed for much longer. The low availability of P in the biochar produced at high temperatures can probably be explained by the formation of less soluble P species in the biochar. In contrast, the transient decrease of availability of the P in the biochar produced at low temperatures can be explained by mechanisms, such as sorption on biochar, which gradually decreases because of oxidation of the biochar surfaces or changes in pH around the biochar particles. Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jim D. Karagatzides; Meaghan J. Wilton; Leonard J. S. Tsuji;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: CIHR

    To address food insecurity in northern Canada, some isolated communities started gardening initiatives to reduce dependencies on expensive foods flown in to communities. From 2012–2014, soils in northern Ontario James Bay lowlands were cultivated with bush beans and potatoes, grown in sole and intercropping configurations, in an open field and an agroforestry system enclosed by willow trees. The objective of this study was to compare the supply rates of 15 plant-available nutrients in these soils using in situ ion exchange membranes. After three years of cultivation, the agroforestry site had significantly greater supply of PO4, Ca, and Zn and these nutrients had positive correlations with yield. By contrast, the open site had significantly greater supply of Mg, SO4, and B these nutrients, and Al, had negative correlations with yield. Whilst there were no differences between sole and intercropping configurations, significantly greater supply of NO3, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn occurred early in the growing season, compared to significantly greater supply of K, SO4, B, and Al later in the season. Significantly greater yields have been harvested in the agroforestry site and it is suspected that the presence of a willow shelterbelt improves the microclimate and plant-available PO4, Ca, and Zn.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rosemin Kassam; Sekiwunga, Richard; MacLeod, Duncan; Tembe, Juliet; Liow, Eric;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: CIHR

    Caregiversâ experiences with external sourcesa. (PDF 171 kb)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dena W. McMartin; Bruno H. Hernani Merino; Barrie Bonsal; Margot Hurlbert; Ricardo Villalba; Olga L. Ocampo; Jorge Julián Vélez Upegui; Germán Poveda; David J. Sauchyn;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Argentina
    Project: CIHR

    Debate and deliberation surrounding climate change has shifted from mitigation toward adaptation, with much of the adaptation focus centered on adaptive practices, and infrastructure development. However, there is little research assessing expected impacts, potential benefits, and design challenges that exist for reducing vulnerability to expected climate impacts. The uncertainty of design requirements and associated government policies, and social structures that reflect observed and projected changes in the intensity, duration, and frequency of water-related climate events leaves communities vulnerable to the negative impacts of potential flood and drought. The results of international research into how agricultural infrastructure features in current and planned adaptive capacity of rural communities in Argentina, Canada, and Colombia indicate that extreme hydroclimatic events, as well as climate variability and unpredictability are important for understanding and responding to community vulnerability. The research outcomes clearly identify the need to deliberately plan, coordinate, and implement infrastructures that support community resiliency. Fil: McMartin, Dena W.. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Hernani Merino, Bruno H.. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Bonsal, Barrie. Environment Canada; Canadá Fil: Hurlbert, Margot. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Villalba, Ricardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Regional de Investigaciones Cientifícas y Tecnológicas; Argentina Fil: Ocampo, Olga L.. Universidad Autónoma de Manizales; Colombia Fil: Upegui, Jorge Julián Vélez. Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Colombia Fil: Poveda, Germán. Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Colombia Fil: Sauchyn, David J.. University of Regina; Canadá

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Eva Weyers; Daniel G. Strawn; Derek Peak; Leslie L. Baker;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: CIHR , NSERC

    Abstract In confined animal feeding operations, such as dairies, manure is amended to soils at high rates leading to increases in P and organic matter in the soils. Phosphorus reacts with soil-Ca to form Ca-P minerals, which controls P availability for leaching and transport through the watershed. In this research, the effects of manure sourced dissolved organic matter (DOM) on P sorption on calcite were measured at different reaction times and concentrations. Reactions were monitored in 1% and 10% manure-to-water extract solutions spiked with P. When manure-DOM was present, a significant reduction in P sorption occurred (2–90% absolute decrease) compared to samples without manure-DOM. The greatest decrease occurred in the samples reacted in the 10% manure solution. XANES spectroscopic analysis showed that at 1% manure solution, a Ca-P phase similar to hydroxyapatite formed. In the calcite samples reacted in the 10% manure solution, K-edge XANES spectroscopy revealed that P occurred as a Ca-Mg-P phase instead of the less soluble hydroxyapatite-like phase. Results from this study suggest that in manure-amended calcareous soils, increased DOM from manure will decrease P sorption capacity and increase the overall P concentration in solution, which will increase the mobility of P and subsequently pose greater risks for impairment of surface water quality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Walter Kipp; Joseph Konde-Lule; Tom Rubaale; Joa Okech-Ojony; Arif Alibhai; Duncan Saunders;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Project: CIHR

    Abstract Background Improved availability of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is intended to benefit all eligible HIV-infected patients; however in reality antiretroviral services are mainly offered in urban hospitals. Poor rural patients have difficulty accessing the drugs, making the provision of antiretroviral therapy inequitable. Initial tests of community-based treatment programs in Uganda suggest that home-based treatment of HIV/AIDS may equal hospital-based treatment; however the literature reveals limited experiences with such programs. The research This intervention study aimed to; 1) assess the effectiveness of a rural community-based ART program in a subcounty (Rwimi) of Uganda; and 2) compare treatment outcomes and mortality in a rural community-based antiretroviral therapy program with a well-established hospital-based program. Ethics approvals were obtained in Canada and Uganda. Results and outcomes Successful treatment outcomes after two years in both the community and hospital cohorts were high. All-cause mortality was similar in both cohorts. However, community-based patients were more likely to achieve viral suppression and had good adherence to treatment. The community-based program was slightly more cost-effective. Per capita costs in both settings were unsustainable, representing more than Uganda’s Primary Health Care Services current expenditures per person per year for all health services. The unpaid community volunteers showed high participation and low attrition rates for the two years that this program was evaluated. Challenges and successes Key successes of this study include the demonstration that antiretroviral therapy can be provided in a rural setting, the creation of a research infrastructure and culture within Kabarole’s health system, and the establishment of a research collaboration capable of enriching the global health graduate program at the University of Alberta. Challenging questions about the long-term feasibility and sustainability of a community-based ARV program in Uganda still remain. The partnership This project is a continuation of previous successful collaborations between the School of Public Health of Makerere University, the School of Public Health of University of Alberta, the Kabarole District Administration and the Kabarole Research and Resource Center.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Mathews; Maureen Seguin; Nurun L. Chowdhury; Robert T Card;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    INTRODUCTION: Canadian medical schools have increased enrolment and recruited more rural students in an effort to address general and rural physician shortages. The success of this approach depends on the recruitment of these newly trained physicians to under-serviced areas. Studies from North America suggest that the career expectations and practice patterns of younger, more recently graduated physicians differ from those of their older counterparts. This study explored the factors that influenced the work location choices of physicians of differing generations, who trained at universities in Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador, two Canadian provinces with large rural populations and no community larger than 235 000 population. METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians who graduated from either the Memorial University of Newfoundland or the University of Saskatchewan. Generation definitions were based on the graduation year. Early-career physicians graduated between 1995 and 1999; mid-career physician graduated between 1985 and 1989; late-career physicians graduated between 1975 and 1979; and end-career physicians graduated between 1965 and 1969. Each physician was asked questions about the number and nature of work location changes over the course of their careers and the factors related to their decision to choose each location. Interview transcripts and notes were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Although the study focus was on generational differences, similarities and differences between universities, sexes and specialties (family physicians/GPs vs specialists) were also examined. Recruitment to the provinces was focused on as a whole, because the largest communities in the provinces are small compared with most urban communities. RESULTS: Forty-eight physicians were interviewed, five to nine physicians who graduated in each decade and from each university. The desire to be near family and friends was cited as the primary consideration when choosing a work location, regardless of generation. Likewise, residency training location, the ability to use their skills and knowledge fully, and the quality of recruitment efforts were important considerations in choosing a work location for all physicians. For some, remuneration was very influential in their work location decision; however, many physicians who chose to remain in their smaller 'home' provinces noted the lower cost of living in these provinces. Physicians who graduated in the 1980s and 1990s placed greater emphasis on work-life balance and spouse's employment opportunities than their older generation counterparts. In contrast, physicians who graduated in the 1960s and 1070s highlighted the medical need of the community, and the desire for adventure and to see new places as important. CONCLUSIONS: While many factors for choosing a work location appear to be stable over generations, a number of generational differences were found. Younger physicians placed greater emphasis on work-life balance and spouse's employment than older generation physicians. These differences may have important implications for small population regions which may not be able to support physician-spouse pairs or certain subspecialties. Although economic factors have largely been the focus of recruitment and retention initiatives in these provinces, the findings highlight the importance of addressing the needs and expectations of younger generation physicians in order to attract these physicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nicole Nguenha; Benedito Cunguara; Stella Aguinaga Bialous; Jeffrey Drope; Raphael Lencucha;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: United States
    Project: CIHR

    s commitment to addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable disease and accession to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control indicate a potential for internal government tensions to balance immediate economic interests with long term health goals. Conclusions: With the decline in tobacco share of the overall economy, Mozambique may be well-positioned to explore alternative, sustainable livelihoods for farmers that grow tobacco, but it must overcome inter-sectoral barriers and advocate for a whole of government approach to address the health and economic impact of tobacco. s tobacco-growing history, the changes in the political economy of tobacco, and health policies addressing tobacco use and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Results: Despite its tobacco growing and exporting history, the contribution of tobacco to the economy has been in steady decline in the past two decades, including in the areas dedicated to growing. At the same time there has been an increase in multinational control of the tobacco economy. In parallel, Mozambique&rsquo s economy, but there is a dearth of analysis of the tobacco policy landscape in the country. Methods: Review of government and non-government documents and academic papers addressing Mozambique&rsquo Background: Tobacco growing has been considered a mainstay of Mozambique&rsquo

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mojgan Tavakolan; Zack Frehlick; Xinyi Yong; Carlo Menon;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: Canada
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows collaboration between humans and machines. It translates the electrical activity of the brain to understandable commands to operate a machine or a device. In this study, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of a 3-class BCI using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This BCI discriminates rest against imaginary grasps and elbow movements of the same limb. This classification task is challenging because imaginary movements within the same limb have close spatial representations on the motor cortex area. The proposed method extracts time-domain features and classifies them using a support vector machine (SVM) with a radial basis kernel function (RBF). An average accuracy of 74.2% was obtained when using the proposed method on a dataset collected, prior to this study, from 12 healthy individuals. This accuracy was higher than that obtained when other widely used methods, such as common spatial patterns (CSP), filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and band power methods, were used on the same dataset. These results are encouraging and the proposed method could potentially be used in future applications including BCI-driven robotic devices, such as a portable exoskeleton for the arm, to assist individuals with impaired upper extremity functions in performing daily tasks.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yue Xuan; Nicholas W. Bateman; Sebastien Gallien; Sandra Goetze; Yue Zhou; Pedro Navarro; Mo Hu; Niyati Parikh; Brian L. Hood; Kelly A. Conrads; +23 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Development of Protein Bi... (1U01CA214194-01)

    AbstractCancer has no borders: Generation and analysis of molecular data across multiple centers worldwide is necessary to gain statistically significant clinical insights for the benefit of patients. Here we conceived and standardized a proteotype data generation and analysis workflow enabling distributed data generation and evaluated the quantitative data generated across laboratories of the international Cancer Moonshot consortium. Using harmonized mass spectrometry (MS) instrument platforms and standardized data acquisition procedures, we demonstrated robust, sensitive, and reproducible data generation across eleven sites in nine countries on seven consecutive days in a 24/7 operation mode. The data presented from the high-resolution MS1-based quantitative data-independent acquisition (HRMS1-DIA) workflow shows that coordinated proteotype data acquisition is feasible from clinical specimens using such standardized strategies. This work paves the way for the distributed multi-omic digitization of large clinical specimen cohorts across multiple sites as a prerequisite for turning molecular precision medicine into reality.