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  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Celia Sanchez-Medina; Ashok Sekhar; Pramodh Vallurupalli; Michele Cerminara; Victor Muñoz; Lewis E. Kay;
    Project: NSERC , CIHR , EC | MOLRHEOSTAT (323059)

    The topographic features of the free energy landscapes that govern the thermodynamics and kinetics of conformational transitions in proteins, which in turn are integral for function, are not well understood. This reflects the experimental challenges associated with characterizing these multidimensional surfaces, even for small proteins. Here we focus on a 62-residue protein, gpW, that folds very rapidly into a native structure with an α/β topology in which α-helices are at the N- and C-terminal ends of the molecule with a central β-hairpin positioned orthogonally to the helices. Using relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy to probe the conformational fluctuations in gpW at 1 °C, we found that the native state interconverts with a transiently formed, sparsely populated second state with a lifetime of 250 μs, consistent with the global folding–unfolding rate under these conditions. In this low-populated state, the β-hairpin is unfolded whereas the α-helices remain predominantly formed. Our results argue for...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Emmanuelle Ranza; Werner J. Z’Graggen; Mathias Lidgren; Maurice Beghetti; Michel Guipponi; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Michael Absoud; Sushma Goyal; Deb K. Pal; Christian Korff;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: CIHR

    Anoxic-epileptic seizures (AES) are rare outcomes of common childhood reflex anoxic syncope that trigger a true epileptic seizure. The term AES was coined by Stephenson in 1983, to differentiate these events from convulsive syncopes and the more common reflex anoxic syncopes. A genetic susceptibility for AES has been postulated; but, its molecular basis has up to now been elusive. We report here two illustrative cases and show the association of de novo SCN8A variants and AES. One of them had focal or generalized seizures and autonomic symptoms triggered by orthostatism; the second had breath-holding spells triggered by pain or exercise leading to tonic-clonic seizures; both had repeatedly normal EEGs and a family history of reflex syncope. The data of three additional AES patients further suggest, for the first time, a link between SCN8A pathogenic variants and AES. The neurodevelopment of four patients was abnormal. Four of the five SCN8A mutations observed here were previously described in patients with seizure disorders. Seizures responded particularly well to sodium channel blockers. Our observation enriches the spectrum of seizures linked with SCN8A pathogenic variants.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Nikita Reznik; Guillaume Lajoinie; Oleksandr Shpak; Erik Gelderblom; Ross Williams; Nico de Jong; Michel Versluis; Peter N. Burns;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    The acoustic characteristics of microbubbles created from vaporized submicron perfluorocarbon droplets with fluorosurfactant coating are examined. Utilizing ultra-high-speed optical imaging, the acoustic response of individual microbubbles to low-intensity diagnostic ultrasound was observed on clinically relevant time scales of hundreds of milliseconds after vaporization. It was found that the vaporized droplets oscillate non-linearly and exhibit a resonant bubble size shift and increased damping relative to uncoated gas bubbles due to the presence of coating material. Unlike the commercially available lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agents, which may exhibit compression-only behavior, vaporized droplets may exhibit expansion-dominated oscillations. It was further observed that the non-linearity of the acoustic response of the bubbles was comparable to that of SonoVue microbubbles. These results suggest that vaporized submicron perfluorocarbon droplets possess the acoustic characteristics necessary for their potential use as ultrasound contrast agents in clinical practice. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    David Hammond; Samantha Goodman; Cesar Leos-Toro;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: CIHR
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Natalie C. Marshall; Theo Klein; Maichael Thejoe; Niklas von Krosigk; Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu; B. Brett Finlay; Christopher M. Overall;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    The human genome encodes ∼20 mitochondrial proteases, yet we know little of how they sculpt the mitochondrial proteome, particularly during important mitochondrial events such as the initiation of apoptosis. To characterize global mitochondrial proteolysis we refined our technique, terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates, for mitochondrial SILAC (MS-TAILS) to identify proteolysis across mitochondria and parent cells in parallel. Our MS-TAILS analyses identified 45% of the mitochondrial proteome and identified protein amino (N)-termini from 26% of mitochondrial proteins, the highest reported coverage of the human mitochondrial N-terminome. MS-TAILS revealed 97 previously unknown proteolytic sites. MS-TAILS also identified mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) removal by proteolysis during protein import, confirming 101 MTS sites and identifying 135 new MTS sites, revealing a wobbly requirement for the MTS cleavage motif. To examine the relatively unknown initial cleavage events occurring before the well-studied activation of caspase-3 in intrinsic apoptosis, we quantitatively compared N-terminomes of mitochondria and their parent cells before and after initiation of apoptosis at very early time points. By identifying altered levels of >400 N-termini, MS-TAILS analyses implicated specific mitochondrial pathways including protein import, fission, and iron homeostasis in apoptosis initiation. Notably, both staurosporine and Bax activator molecule-7 triggered in common 7 mitochondrial and 85 cellular cleavage events that are potentially part of an essential core of apoptosis-initiating events. All mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD009054.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Sara García-Viñuales; Rashik Ahmed; Michele Sciacca; Valeria Lanza; Maria Laura Giuffrida; Stefania Zimbone; Valeria Romanucci; Armando Zarrelli; Corrado Bongiorno; Natalia Spinella; +4 more
    Publisher: American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. , Stati Uniti d'America
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | INCIPIT (665403), CIHR , NSERC

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to the abnormal accumulation of amyloid ? peptide (A?) aggregates in the brain. Silybin B, a natural compound extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to significantly inhibit A? aggregation in vitro and to exert neuroprotective properties in vivo. However, further explorations of silybin B's clinical potential are currently limited by three main factors: (a) poor solubility, (b) instability in blood serum, and (c) only partial knowledge of silybin's mechanism of action. Here, we address these three limitations. We demonstrate that conjugation of a trehalose moiety to silybin significantly increases both water solubility and stability in blood serum without significantly compromising its antiaggregation properties. Furthermore, using a combination of biophysical techniques with different spatial resolution, that is, TEM, ThT fluorescence, CD, and NMR spectroscopy, we profile the interactions of the trehalose conjugate with both A? monomers and oligomers and evidence that silybin may shield the "toxic" surfaces formed by the N-terminal and central hydrophobic regions of A?. Finally, comparative analysis with silybin A, a less active diastereoisomer of silybin B, revealed how even subtle differences in chemical structure may entail different effects on amyloid inhibition. The resulting insight on the mechanism of action of silybins as aggregation inhibitors is anticipated to facilitate the future investigation of silybin's therapeutic potential.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Marc A. Rodger; Jean-Christophe Gris; Johanna I.P. de Vries; Ida Martinelli; Évelyne Rey; Ekkehard Schleussner; Saskia Middeldorp; Risto Kaaja; Nicole Langlois; Tim Ramsay; +9 more
    Countries: France, Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    International audience; BACKGROUND:Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate. These complications are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Affected women are at high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies; however, effective strategies to prevent recurrence are absent. Findings from our previous study-level meta-analysis suggested that low-molecular-weight heparin reduced the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. However, we identified significant heterogeneity in the results, possibly due to trial design or inclusion criteria. To identify which patients benefit from, and which outcomes are prevented by, low-molecular-weight heparin, we did an individual patient data meta-analysis.METHODS:We did a systematic review in May, 2013, which identified eight eligible randomised trials done between 2000 and 2013 of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. We excluded studies on the basis of the wrong population, the study being ongoing, inability to confirm eligibility of participants, intervention stopped too early, and no response from the principal investigator. We requested individual patient data from the study authors for eligible women (women pregnant at the time of the study with a history of previous pregnancy that had been complicated by one or more of the following: pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, birth of an SGA neonate [<10th percentile], pregnancy loss after 16 weeks' gestation, or two losses after 12 weeks' gestation) and recoded, combined, and analysed the data for our meta-analysis. The primary outcome was a composite of early-onset (<34 weeks) or severe pre-eclampsia, birth of an SGA neonate (<5th percentile), late pregnancy loss (≥20 weeks' gestation), or placental abruption leading to delivery, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42013006249.FINDINGS:We analysed data from 963 eligible women in eight trials: 480 randomly assigned to low-molecular-weight heparin and 483 randomly assigned to no low-molecular-weight heparin. Overall, the risk of bias was not substantial enough to affect decisions regarding trial inclusion. Participants were mostly white (795/905; 88%) with a mean age of 30·9 years (SD 5·0) and 403/963 (42%) had thrombophilia. In the primary analysis, low-molecular-weight heparin did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (low-molecular-weight heparin 62/444 [14%] versus no low-molecular-weight heparin 95/443 (22%) absolute difference -8%, 95% CI -17·3 to 1·4, p=0·09; relative risk 0·64, 95% CI 0·36-1·11, p=0·11). We noted significant heterogeneity between single-centre and multicentre trials. In subgroup analyses, low-molecular-weight heparin in multicentre trials reduced the primary outcome in women with previous abruption (p=0·006) but not in any of the other subgroups of previous complications.INTERPRETATION:Low-molecular-weight heparin does not seem to reduce the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in at-risk women. However, some decreases in event rates might have been too small for the power of our study to explore.FUNDING:Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Benyamin Rotberg; Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó; Simone N. Vigod; Joel G. Ray; Henrik Toft Sørensen; Eyal Cohen;
    Project: CIHR

    Background: The birth of a child with a major congenital anomaly may create chronic caregiving stress for mothers, yet little is known about their psychiatric outcomes. Aims: To evaluate the association of the birth of a child with a major congenital anomaly with subsequent maternal psychiatric risk. Methods: This Danish nationwide cohort study included mothers who gave birth to an infant with a major congenital anomaly (n = 19 220) between 1997 and 2015. Comparators were randomly selected mothers, matched on maternal age, year of delivery and parity (n = 195 399). The primary outcome was any new-onset psychiatric diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included specific psychiatric diagnoses, psychiatric in-patient admissions and redeemed psychoactive medicines. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for socioeconomic and medical variables. Results: Mothers of affected infants had an elevated risk for a new-onset psychiatric disorder vs. the comparison group (adjusted HR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.11–1.22). The adjusted HR was particularly elevated during the first postpartum year (1.65, 95% CI 1.42–1.90), but remained high for years, especially among mothers of children with multiorgan anomalies (1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.57). The risk was also elevated for most specific psychiatric diagnoses, admissions and medicines. Conclusions: Mothers who give birth to a child with a major congenital anomaly are at increased risk of new-onset psychiatric disorders, especially shortly after birth and for mothers of children with more severe anomalies. Our study highlights the need to screen for mental illness in this high-risk population, as well as to integrate adult mental health services and paediatric care.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2016
    Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Paul Eggleton; Edwin Bremer; Elzbieta Dudek; Marek Michalak;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    Introduction: Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein critical for maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and glycoprotein folding in the ER. The protein has also been identified on the cell surface of apoptotic and necrotic cells and implicated to play a role in immunogenic cell death and other extracellular functions. The molecular events that promote cell surface association of calreticulin are not clear. Under cell stress conditions (environmental, drug induced, hypoxia), calreticulin may be upregulated as it attempts to regulate cell survival, death or repair. The initial signaling mechanisms involved in these processes may be regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and genome damage response (GDR) pathways. Area covered: Here, the phenomenon of cell surface calreticulin and its extracellular functions are discussed, with a major emphasis on the process of immunogenic cell death. The evidence of how cell surface calreticulin may act as a damage associated molecular pattern molecule is evaluated, in addition to how these properties of the protein can be exploited for therapeutic vaccine development, cancer treatment and mediating other inflammatory processes. In addition, clarification of calreticulin functions from its intracellular, cell surface, and extracellular locations are provided. Expert opinion: While the protein folding and immune-stimulatory properties of calreticulin can be exploited to develop therapies, the molecular pathways involved remain to be elucidated. Nevertheless, exploiting the multifaceted properties of calreticulin may in the future provide a means to treat a number of diseases.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
122 Research products, page 1 of 13
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Celia Sanchez-Medina; Ashok Sekhar; Pramodh Vallurupalli; Michele Cerminara; Victor Muñoz; Lewis E. Kay;
    Project: NSERC , CIHR , EC | MOLRHEOSTAT (323059)

    The topographic features of the free energy landscapes that govern the thermodynamics and kinetics of conformational transitions in proteins, which in turn are integral for function, are not well understood. This reflects the experimental challenges associated with characterizing these multidimensional surfaces, even for small proteins. Here we focus on a 62-residue protein, gpW, that folds very rapidly into a native structure with an α/β topology in which α-helices are at the N- and C-terminal ends of the molecule with a central β-hairpin positioned orthogonally to the helices. Using relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy to probe the conformational fluctuations in gpW at 1 °C, we found that the native state interconverts with a transiently formed, sparsely populated second state with a lifetime of 250 μs, consistent with the global folding–unfolding rate under these conditions. In this low-populated state, the β-hairpin is unfolded whereas the α-helices remain predominantly formed. Our results argue for...

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Yannick Molgat-Seon; Sabina A. Guler; Carli M. Peters; Dragoş M. Vasilescu; Joseph H. Puyat; Harvey O. Coxson; Christopher J. Ryerson; Jordan A. Guenette;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    RATIONALE The pathophysiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) impacts body composition, whereby ILD severity is linked to lower lean mass. OBJECTIVES To determine i) if pectoralis muscle area (PMA) is a surrogate for whole-body lean mass in ILD, ii) whether PMA is associated with ILD severity, and iii) if the longitudinal change in PMA is associated with pulmonary function and mortality in ILD. METHODS Patients with ILD (n = 164) were analyzed retrospectively. PMA was quantified from a chest computed tomography scan. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and pulmonary function were obtained as part of routine clinical care. Dyspnea and quality of life were assessed using the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS PMA was associated with whole-body lean mass (p  0.05). The annual negative PMA slope was associated with annual negative slopes in FVC, FEV1, and DLCO (all p < 0.05), but not FEV1/FVC (p = 0.46). Annual slope in PMA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = -0.80, 95% CI:0.889-0.959; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In patients with ILD, PMA is a suitable surrogate for whole-body lean mass. A lower PMA is associated with indices of ILD severity, which supports the notion that ILD progression may involve sarcopenia.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Emmanuelle Ranza; Werner J. Z’Graggen; Mathias Lidgren; Maurice Beghetti; Michel Guipponi; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Michael Absoud; Sushma Goyal; Deb K. Pal; Christian Korff;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: CIHR

    Anoxic-epileptic seizures (AES) are rare outcomes of common childhood reflex anoxic syncope that trigger a true epileptic seizure. The term AES was coined by Stephenson in 1983, to differentiate these events from convulsive syncopes and the more common reflex anoxic syncopes. A genetic susceptibility for AES has been postulated; but, its molecular basis has up to now been elusive. We report here two illustrative cases and show the association of de novo SCN8A variants and AES. One of them had focal or generalized seizures and autonomic symptoms triggered by orthostatism; the second had breath-holding spells triggered by pain or exercise leading to tonic-clonic seizures; both had repeatedly normal EEGs and a family history of reflex syncope. The data of three additional AES patients further suggest, for the first time, a link between SCN8A pathogenic variants and AES. The neurodevelopment of four patients was abnormal. Four of the five SCN8A mutations observed here were previously described in patients with seizure disorders. Seizures responded particularly well to sodium channel blockers. Our observation enriches the spectrum of seizures linked with SCN8A pathogenic variants.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Nikita Reznik; Guillaume Lajoinie; Oleksandr Shpak; Erik Gelderblom; Ross Williams; Nico de Jong; Michel Versluis; Peter N. Burns;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    The acoustic characteristics of microbubbles created from vaporized submicron perfluorocarbon droplets with fluorosurfactant coating are examined. Utilizing ultra-high-speed optical imaging, the acoustic response of individual microbubbles to low-intensity diagnostic ultrasound was observed on clinically relevant time scales of hundreds of milliseconds after vaporization. It was found that the vaporized droplets oscillate non-linearly and exhibit a resonant bubble size shift and increased damping relative to uncoated gas bubbles due to the presence of coating material. Unlike the commercially available lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agents, which may exhibit compression-only behavior, vaporized droplets may exhibit expansion-dominated oscillations. It was further observed that the non-linearity of the acoustic response of the bubbles was comparable to that of SonoVue microbubbles. These results suggest that vaporized submicron perfluorocarbon droplets possess the acoustic characteristics necessary for their potential use as ultrasound contrast agents in clinical practice. (C) 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    David Hammond; Samantha Goodman; Cesar Leos-Toro;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: CIHR
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Natalie C. Marshall; Theo Klein; Maichael Thejoe; Niklas von Krosigk; Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu; B. Brett Finlay; Christopher M. Overall;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    The human genome encodes ∼20 mitochondrial proteases, yet we know little of how they sculpt the mitochondrial proteome, particularly during important mitochondrial events such as the initiation of apoptosis. To characterize global mitochondrial proteolysis we refined our technique, terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates, for mitochondrial SILAC (MS-TAILS) to identify proteolysis across mitochondria and parent cells in parallel. Our MS-TAILS analyses identified 45% of the mitochondrial proteome and identified protein amino (N)-termini from 26% of mitochondrial proteins, the highest reported coverage of the human mitochondrial N-terminome. MS-TAILS revealed 97 previously unknown proteolytic sites. MS-TAILS also identified mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) removal by proteolysis during protein import, confirming 101 MTS sites and identifying 135 new MTS sites, revealing a wobbly requirement for the MTS cleavage motif. To examine the relatively unknown initial cleavage events occurring before the well-studied activation of caspase-3 in intrinsic apoptosis, we quantitatively compared N-terminomes of mitochondria and their parent cells before and after initiation of apoptosis at very early time points. By identifying altered levels of >400 N-termini, MS-TAILS analyses implicated specific mitochondrial pathways including protein import, fission, and iron homeostasis in apoptosis initiation. Notably, both staurosporine and Bax activator molecule-7 triggered in common 7 mitochondrial and 85 cellular cleavage events that are potentially part of an essential core of apoptosis-initiating events. All mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD009054.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Sara García-Viñuales; Rashik Ahmed; Michele Sciacca; Valeria Lanza; Maria Laura Giuffrida; Stefania Zimbone; Valeria Romanucci; Armando Zarrelli; Corrado Bongiorno; Natalia Spinella; +4 more
    Publisher: American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. , Stati Uniti d'America
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | INCIPIT (665403), CIHR , NSERC

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to the abnormal accumulation of amyloid ? peptide (A?) aggregates in the brain. Silybin B, a natural compound extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to significantly inhibit A? aggregation in vitro and to exert neuroprotective properties in vivo. However, further explorations of silybin B's clinical potential are currently limited by three main factors: (a) poor solubility, (b) instability in blood serum, and (c) only partial knowledge of silybin's mechanism of action. Here, we address these three limitations. We demonstrate that conjugation of a trehalose moiety to silybin significantly increases both water solubility and stability in blood serum without significantly compromising its antiaggregation properties. Furthermore, using a combination of biophysical techniques with different spatial resolution, that is, TEM, ThT fluorescence, CD, and NMR spectroscopy, we profile the interactions of the trehalose conjugate with both A? monomers and oligomers and evidence that silybin may shield the "toxic" surfaces formed by the N-terminal and central hydrophobic regions of A?. Finally, comparative analysis with silybin A, a less active diastereoisomer of silybin B, revealed how even subtle differences in chemical structure may entail different effects on amyloid inhibition. The resulting insight on the mechanism of action of silybins as aggregation inhibitors is anticipated to facilitate the future investigation of silybin's therapeutic potential.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Marc A. Rodger; Jean-Christophe Gris; Johanna I.P. de Vries; Ida Martinelli; Évelyne Rey; Ekkehard Schleussner; Saskia Middeldorp; Risto Kaaja; Nicole Langlois; Tim Ramsay; +9 more
    Countries: France, Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    International audience; BACKGROUND:Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate. These complications are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Affected women are at high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies; however, effective strategies to prevent recurrence are absent. Findings from our previous study-level meta-analysis suggested that low-molecular-weight heparin reduced the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. However, we identified significant heterogeneity in the results, possibly due to trial design or inclusion criteria. To identify which patients benefit from, and which outcomes are prevented by, low-molecular-weight heparin, we did an individual patient data meta-analysis.METHODS:We did a systematic review in May, 2013, which identified eight eligible randomised trials done between 2000 and 2013 of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. We excluded studies on the basis of the wrong population, the study being ongoing, inability to confirm eligibility of participants, intervention stopped too early, and no response from the principal investigator. We requested individual patient data from the study authors for eligible women (women pregnant at the time of the study with a history of previous pregnancy that had been complicated by one or more of the following: pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, birth of an SGA neonate [<10th percentile], pregnancy loss after 16 weeks' gestation, or two losses after 12 weeks' gestation) and recoded, combined, and analysed the data for our meta-analysis. The primary outcome was a composite of early-onset (<34 weeks) or severe pre-eclampsia, birth of an SGA neonate (<5th percentile), late pregnancy loss (≥20 weeks' gestation), or placental abruption leading to delivery, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42013006249.FINDINGS:We analysed data from 963 eligible women in eight trials: 480 randomly assigned to low-molecular-weight heparin and 483 randomly assigned to no low-molecular-weight heparin. Overall, the risk of bias was not substantial enough to affect decisions regarding trial inclusion. Participants were mostly white (795/905; 88%) with a mean age of 30·9 years (SD 5·0) and 403/963 (42%) had thrombophilia. In the primary analysis, low-molecular-weight heparin did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (low-molecular-weight heparin 62/444 [14%] versus no low-molecular-weight heparin 95/443 (22%) absolute difference -8%, 95% CI -17·3 to 1·4, p=0·09; relative risk 0·64, 95% CI 0·36-1·11, p=0·11). We noted significant heterogeneity between single-centre and multicentre trials. In subgroup analyses, low-molecular-weight heparin in multicentre trials reduced the primary outcome in women with previous abruption (p=0·006) but not in any of the other subgroups of previous complications.INTERPRETATION:Low-molecular-weight heparin does not seem to reduce the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in at-risk women. However, some decreases in event rates might have been too small for the power of our study to explore.FUNDING:Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Benyamin Rotberg; Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó; Simone N. Vigod; Joel G. Ray; Henrik Toft Sørensen; Eyal Cohen;
    Project: CIHR

    Background: The birth of a child with a major congenital anomaly may create chronic caregiving stress for mothers, yet little is known about their psychiatric outcomes. Aims: To evaluate the association of the birth of a child with a major congenital anomaly with subsequent maternal psychiatric risk. Methods: This Danish nationwide cohort study included mothers who gave birth to an infant with a major congenital anomaly (n = 19 220) between 1997 and 2015. Comparators were randomly selected mothers, matched on maternal age, year of delivery and parity (n = 195 399). The primary outcome was any new-onset psychiatric diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included specific psychiatric diagnoses, psychiatric in-patient admissions and redeemed psychoactive medicines. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for socioeconomic and medical variables. Results: Mothers of affected infants had an elevated risk for a new-onset psychiatric disorder vs. the comparison group (adjusted HR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.11–1.22). The adjusted HR was particularly elevated during the first postpartum year (1.65, 95% CI 1.42–1.90), but remained high for years, especially among mothers of children with multiorgan anomalies (1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.57). The risk was also elevated for most specific psychiatric diagnoses, admissions and medicines. Conclusions: Mothers who give birth to a child with a major congenital anomaly are at increased risk of new-onset psychiatric disorders, especially shortly after birth and for mothers of children with more severe anomalies. Our study highlights the need to screen for mental illness in this high-risk population, as well as to integrate adult mental health services and paediatric care.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2016
    Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Paul Eggleton; Edwin Bremer; Elzbieta Dudek; Marek Michalak;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: CIHR

    Introduction: Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein critical for maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and glycoprotein folding in the ER. The protein has also been identified on the cell surface of apoptotic and necrotic cells and implicated to play a role in immunogenic cell death and other extracellular functions. The molecular events that promote cell surface association of calreticulin are not clear. Under cell stress conditions (environmental, drug induced, hypoxia), calreticulin may be upregulated as it attempts to regulate cell survival, death or repair. The initial signaling mechanisms involved in these processes may be regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and genome damage response (GDR) pathways. Area covered: Here, the phenomenon of cell surface calreticulin and its extracellular functions are discussed, with a major emphasis on the process of immunogenic cell death. The evidence of how cell surface calreticulin may act as a damage associated molecular pattern molecule is evaluated, in addition to how these properties of the protein can be exploited for therapeutic vaccine development, cancer treatment and mediating other inflammatory processes. In addition, clarification of calreticulin functions from its intracellular, cell surface, and extracellular locations are provided. Expert opinion: While the protein folding and immune-stimulatory properties of calreticulin can be exploited to develop therapies, the molecular pathways involved remain to be elucidated. Nevertheless, exploiting the multifaceted properties of calreticulin may in the future provide a means to treat a number of diseases.