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1,246 Research products, page 1 of 125

  • Canada
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  • 2017-2021
  • Transport Research

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  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ali Zirahi; Ali Haddadnia; Mohammadjavad Mohammadi; Bahareh Azinfar; Mohsen Zirrahi; Hassan Hassanzadeh; Jalal Abedi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract Environmental impact and economics of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and bitumen transportation are among the major challenges of oil sands operations. We propose and assess a new approach to address these important challenges by using diluted bitumen (DilBit) as a carrier for large-scale CO2 transportation. The proposed approach provides a unique prospect to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 transportation from the carbon capture and storage (CCS) value chain, facilitate more efficient detection of DilBit spills from pipelines, utilize CO2, and improve public perception of both oil sands and CCS operations. These opportunities will offer the possibility of sustaining access to oil resources while reducing environmental impact and improving the economics of CCS and oil sands operations. Through experimental measurements, we have shown that 80–200 kg of CO2 per m3 of DilBit can be dissolved and transported. We also report simulation results from the simultaneous transportation of DilBit and CO2 and DilBit spill detection through monitoring concentration of leaked CO2.

  • Authors: 
    Abu Hena Muntakim; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar;
    Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

    AbstractThe maximum axial force on a pipeline subjected to axial ground movement is commonly calculated using a design equation developed without proper consideration of soil-pipe interaction. The ...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Yisha Luo; Ali Alaghbandrad; Tersoo K. Genger; Amin Hammad;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The density and unsustainable placement of buried utilities in the limited underground space lead to coordination issues between utility owners and increase the social costs because of repeated excavations. Multi-purpose utility tunnels (MUTs) integrate all utilities in one tunnel that can be easily accessed for inspection and maintenance activities, which can be conducted all-year-round irrespective of the weather conditions. MUTs reduce the need for repeated excavations for intervention activities, and consequently, lower the traffic congestion. This paper aims to conduct a historical review of the development of MUTs in different countries, the motivation and strategies of this development, financing and cost-sharing methods, and regulations and standards. Despite the high promises of MUTs as a sustainable and resilient option for infrastructure development, their recent implementation in Europe and North America is limited mainly because of the high initial cost. China is currently leading the development of MUTs in the world on a large scale because of the central government initiatives. It is hoped that this paper will encourage further research about the development of MUTs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Parththeeban Murugathasan; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar; Bipul Hawlader;
    Publisher: Canadian Science Publishing

    Buried pipelines, used for transporting liquid and gas, are often subjected to axial pulling forces due to seasonal temperature changes and (or) relative ground movements. The axial pullout force is exerted through soil–pipe interaction, which depends on the pipe material, surrounding soil and pipe–soil interface properties. In this research, axial pullout force on ductile iron pipe buried in sand is first experimentally investigated through development of a new laboratory facility. Based on the test results, simplified methods for predicting the axial forces are discussed. Finite element modelling is then used to investigate the mechanism of soil–pipe interaction and identify the key parameters contributing to the axial pullout force, which could not be measured during the laboratory tests. The constrained dilation of sand near the pipe–soil interface and arching effects due to a different stiffness of the pipe with respect to the soil are found to influence the mobilized axial forces on pipes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Geraldine J. Fuenmayor; John E Abraham; John Douglas Hunt;
    Publisher: University of Minnesota

    We applied the PECAS Framework, a spatial economic system for forecasting and policy analysis, to the region of Caracas, Venezuela. In this paper, we describe in 12 steps the elements developed for an Activity Allocation model in this region. A detailed inventory of built space and household characteristics was developed using a population synthesis technique. The model design and implementation reflected informal (slum) housing and social equity (with 20 residential space types), while accounting for the industrial mix of the region. Transport costs for economic interactions were calculated using a TRANUS travel demand model. We also describe the calibration of the model and the application to two policy scenarios: provision of public housing and increasing transit fares. The 12 steps can guide future researchers, specifically listing the data and processes that were applied in this context. The sensitivity tests showed how this type of model can be used to anticipate social equity effects due to policy. Based on the know-how gained, we provide valuable insights for other modelling teams, particularly for applications in developing economies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Saad Nahi Saleh; Thamer J. Mohammed; Huda Kadhim Hassan; Shahzad Barghi;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Transportation of heavy crude oil via pipelines possesses many technological issues that are inherently flow related. Accurate prediction of flow characteristics is an essential step for a reliable piping design of transporting the crude oil. A rheology-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Iraqi heavy crude oil flow through a horizontal pipe (1 m length of 3/4 in. inside diameter) was developed using the commercial software Ansys 15 Fluent. By using power law rheological model, the Iraqi heavy crude oil exhibits a non-Newtonian dilatant behavior over the examined shear rate range of 1–40 s−1. The proposed axi-symmetric CFD model identifies velocity profile and generates values of friction factor, which are validated with experimental measurements. Additionally, wall shear stress and entrance length were numerically predicted and compared with well-established correlations from the literature for Non-Newtonian flow. Detailed results of the CFD model exhibited a reliable prediction of the characteristics of heavy crude oil flow.

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,246 Research products, page 1 of 125
  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ashley Zachariah; Arno de Klerk;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    Solvent deasphalting and visbreaking are two important technologies in the development of processes for partial upgrading of oilsands-derived bitumen to improve oil fluidity for pipeline transport. This work investigated the impact of the process sequence, solvent deasphalting followed by visbreaking (SDA-Vis) compared to visbreaking followed by solvent deasphalting (Vis-SDA). Thermal conversion during visbreaking was performed at 380 °C for 85 min, and solvent deasphalting was performed with n-pentane. Using this combination of processes in either sequence changed bitumen from a viscosity-limited fluid to a density-limited fluid with respect to pipeline specifications. The density and viscosity of the oil products from SDA-Vis and Vis-SDA were comparable. It was found that SDA-Vis achieved 2 wt % higher liquid yield than Vis-SDA. Conversely, Vis-SDA produced an oil product with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio compared to SDA-Vis. This difference could be explained in terms of hydrogen transfer during the...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adrien Cervesato; E. Owen D. Waygood;
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council National Academy of Sciences
    Country: Canada

    Children’s independent mobility (CIM) on school days (weekdays) and on the weekend are examined in this study. Previous studies have focused primarily on weekday trips, with a vast majority only examining trips to school. However, the types of trips and the available time differ between weekdays and weekends. Weekday trips are more regular and possibly more local, whereas on the weekend the children may have more free time (i.e., no school) to engage in activities. Parents (as a group) are also less likely to have work obligations, and thus potentially more time, on the weekend. Theoretically, each context for the weekend could facilitate more independent or active mode trips. Nonetheless, this may be linked to whether destinations are local, which is linked to the built environment. Using origin–destination data (2011) for the City of Québec, this paper will expand knowledge in the field of children’s travel by examining all trips during a weekday ( n = 979) and weekend ( n = 315) for children aged 9 to 11 across five built environment types. The findings show that weekend trips are rarely independent, and that the key explanatory factors for greater CIM are shorter distances, having an older sibling, and more urban environments. Other sociodemographic variables were not significant or were inconsistent between the two types of weekday.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ali Zirahi; Ali Haddadnia; Mohammadjavad Mohammadi; Bahareh Azinfar; Mohsen Zirrahi; Hassan Hassanzadeh; Jalal Abedi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Abstract Environmental impact and economics of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and bitumen transportation are among the major challenges of oil sands operations. We propose and assess a new approach to address these important challenges by using diluted bitumen (DilBit) as a carrier for large-scale CO2 transportation. The proposed approach provides a unique prospect to significantly reduce the cost of CO2 transportation from the carbon capture and storage (CCS) value chain, facilitate more efficient detection of DilBit spills from pipelines, utilize CO2, and improve public perception of both oil sands and CCS operations. These opportunities will offer the possibility of sustaining access to oil resources while reducing environmental impact and improving the economics of CCS and oil sands operations. Through experimental measurements, we have shown that 80–200 kg of CO2 per m3 of DilBit can be dissolved and transported. We also report simulation results from the simultaneous transportation of DilBit and CO2 and DilBit spill detection through monitoring concentration of leaked CO2.

  • Authors: 
    Abu Hena Muntakim; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar;
    Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

    AbstractThe maximum axial force on a pipeline subjected to axial ground movement is commonly calculated using a design equation developed without proper consideration of soil-pipe interaction. The ...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Yisha Luo; Ali Alaghbandrad; Tersoo K. Genger; Amin Hammad;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The density and unsustainable placement of buried utilities in the limited underground space lead to coordination issues between utility owners and increase the social costs because of repeated excavations. Multi-purpose utility tunnels (MUTs) integrate all utilities in one tunnel that can be easily accessed for inspection and maintenance activities, which can be conducted all-year-round irrespective of the weather conditions. MUTs reduce the need for repeated excavations for intervention activities, and consequently, lower the traffic congestion. This paper aims to conduct a historical review of the development of MUTs in different countries, the motivation and strategies of this development, financing and cost-sharing methods, and regulations and standards. Despite the high promises of MUTs as a sustainable and resilient option for infrastructure development, their recent implementation in Europe and North America is limited mainly because of the high initial cost. China is currently leading the development of MUTs in the world on a large scale because of the central government initiatives. It is hoped that this paper will encourage further research about the development of MUTs.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Parththeeban Murugathasan; Ashutosh Sutra Dhar; Bipul Hawlader;
    Publisher: Canadian Science Publishing

    Buried pipelines, used for transporting liquid and gas, are often subjected to axial pulling forces due to seasonal temperature changes and (or) relative ground movements. The axial pullout force is exerted through soil–pipe interaction, which depends on the pipe material, surrounding soil and pipe–soil interface properties. In this research, axial pullout force on ductile iron pipe buried in sand is first experimentally investigated through development of a new laboratory facility. Based on the test results, simplified methods for predicting the axial forces are discussed. Finite element modelling is then used to investigate the mechanism of soil–pipe interaction and identify the key parameters contributing to the axial pullout force, which could not be measured during the laboratory tests. The constrained dilation of sand near the pipe–soil interface and arching effects due to a different stiffness of the pipe with respect to the soil are found to influence the mobilized axial forces on pipes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Geraldine J. Fuenmayor; John E Abraham; John Douglas Hunt;
    Publisher: University of Minnesota

    We applied the PECAS Framework, a spatial economic system for forecasting and policy analysis, to the region of Caracas, Venezuela. In this paper, we describe in 12 steps the elements developed for an Activity Allocation model in this region. A detailed inventory of built space and household characteristics was developed using a population synthesis technique. The model design and implementation reflected informal (slum) housing and social equity (with 20 residential space types), while accounting for the industrial mix of the region. Transport costs for economic interactions were calculated using a TRANUS travel demand model. We also describe the calibration of the model and the application to two policy scenarios: provision of public housing and increasing transit fares. The 12 steps can guide future researchers, specifically listing the data and processes that were applied in this context. The sensitivity tests showed how this type of model can be used to anticipate social equity effects due to policy. Based on the know-how gained, we provide valuable insights for other modelling teams, particularly for applications in developing economies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Saad Nahi Saleh; Thamer J. Mohammed; Huda Kadhim Hassan; Shahzad Barghi;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Transportation of heavy crude oil via pipelines possesses many technological issues that are inherently flow related. Accurate prediction of flow characteristics is an essential step for a reliable piping design of transporting the crude oil. A rheology-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Iraqi heavy crude oil flow through a horizontal pipe (1 m length of 3/4 in. inside diameter) was developed using the commercial software Ansys 15 Fluent. By using power law rheological model, the Iraqi heavy crude oil exhibits a non-Newtonian dilatant behavior over the examined shear rate range of 1–40 s−1. The proposed axi-symmetric CFD model identifies velocity profile and generates values of friction factor, which are validated with experimental measurements. Additionally, wall shear stress and entrance length were numerically predicted and compared with well-established correlations from the literature for Non-Newtonian flow. Detailed results of the CFD model exhibited a reliable prediction of the characteristics of heavy crude oil flow.