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31 Research products, page 1 of 4

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  • Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Rumadanu, F. (Friko); Masri, E. (Esther); Handayani, O. (Otih);
    Publisher: Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya
    Country: Indonesia

    Notaris saat ini diperbolehkan melakukan sertifikasi dokumen elektronik. Kewenangan ini termaktub dalam Pasal 15 ayat (3) Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2014 Tentang Jabatan Notaris. Selain mengesahkan akta, notaris juga dapat menyimpan berkas dalam bentuk file. Namun, tidak sedikit notaris yang masih enggan menggunakan teknologi untuk membuat dan mengesahkan sebuah akta dikarenakan adanya pertentangan antar pasal baik dalam Undang-Undang Jabatan Notaris sendiri maupun dengan pasal dalam Undang-Undang lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah akta yang menggunakan teknologi informatika memiliki kekuatan pembuktian layaknya akta autentik dan apakah sertifikasi elektronik yang dilakukan oleh notaris sejalan dengan tugas dan jabatan notaris. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu jenis penelitian hukum normatif yang dilakukan dengan cara penelaahan bahan pustaka atau data sekunder dengan menggunakan pendekatan undang-undang dan pendekatan konseptual. Penelitian ini berfokus pada akta hasil Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham Luar Biasa PT. Lippo Karawaci. Tbk yang dilakukan melalui video konferensi pada tanggal 13 Oktober 2021. Adanya ketidaksepakatan dari beberapa pemegang saham atas sertifikasi yang dilakukan secara elektronik karena dinilai dapat membuat akta tersebut menjadi akta di bawah tangan. Selain adanya pertentangan antara pasal, hal ini juga disebabkan tidak adanya peraturan pelaksana terkait pembuatan akta melalui teknologi informasi (Cyber Notary) oleh notaris sehingga perlunya pengkajian ulang terhadap Undang-Undang terkait dan pembuatan peraturan pelaksana khusus cyber notary.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; Rybczynski, Natalia; Gosse, John C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.;
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research: A... (1418421), NSERC , NWO | Perturbations of System E... (024.002.001), EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Langowski, Martin P.; Savigny, Christian; Burrows, John P.; Fussen, Didier; Dawkins, Erin C. M.; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.; Marsh, Daniel R.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | CODITA (291332)

    During the last decade, several limb sounding satellites have measured the global sodium (Na) number densities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Datasets are now available from Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartography (SCIAMACHY) (both on Envisat) and the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) (on Odin). Furthermore, global model simulations of the Na layer in the MLT simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, including the Na species (WACCM-Na), are available. In this paper, we compare these global datasets.The observed and simulated monthly averages of Na vertical column densities agree reasonably well with each other. They show a clear seasonal cycle with a summer minimum most pronounced at the poles. They also show signs of a semi-annual oscillation in the equatorial region. The vertical column densities vary from 0. 5 × 109 to 7 × 109 cm−2 near the poles and from 3 × 109 to 4 × 109 cm−2 at the Equator. The phase of the seasonal cycle and semi-annual oscillation shows small differences between the Na amounts retrieved from different instruments. The full width at half maximum of the profiles is 10 to 16 km for most latitudes, but significantly smaller in the polar summer. The centroid altitudes of the measured sodium profiles range from 89 to 95 km, whereas the model shows on average 2 to 4 km lower centroid altitudes. This may be explained by the mesopause being 3 km lower in the WACCM simulations than in measurements. Despite this global 2–4 km shift, the model captures well the latitudinal and temporal variations. The variation of the WACCM dataset during the year at different latitudes is similar to the one of the measurements. Furthermore, the differences between the measured profiles with different instruments and therefore different local times (LTs) are also present in the model-simulated profiles. This capturing of latitudinal and temporal variations is also found for the vertical column densities and profile widths.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley A.; Sioris, Chris; Schneider, Matthias; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Sommer, Michael; Weigel, Katja; Rozanov, Alexei; +4 more
    Project: NSERC , EC | MUSICA (256961)

    Improving measurements of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a priority for the atmospheric science community. In this work, UTLS water vapour profiles derived from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite measurements are assessed with coincident ground-based measurements taken at a high Arctic observatory at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada. Additional comparisons to satellite measurements taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartography (SCIAMACHY), and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are included to put the ACE Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and ACE Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) results in context. Measurements of water vapour profiles at Eureka are made using a Bruker 125HR solar absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) and radiosondes launched from the Eureka Weather Station. Radiosonde measurements used in this study were processed with software developed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) to account for known biases and calculate uncertainties in a well-documented and consistent manner. ACE-FTS measurements were within 11 ppmv (parts per million by volume; 13 %) of 125HR measurements between 6 and 14 km. Between 8 and 14 km ACE-FTS profiles showed a small wet bias of approximately 8 % relative to the 125HR. ACE-FTS water vapour profiles had mean differences of 13 ppmv (32 %) or better when compared to coincident radiosonde profiles at altitudes between 6 and 14 km; mean differences were within 6 ppmv (12 %) between 7 and 11 km. ACE-MAESTRO profiles showed a small dry bias relative to the 125HR of approximately 7 % between 6 and 9 km and 10 % between 10 and 14 km. ACE-MAESTRO profiles agreed within 30 ppmv (36 %) of the radiosondes between 7 and 14 km. ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO comparison results show closer agreement with the radiosondes and PEARL 125HR overall than other satellite datasets – except for AIRS. Close agreement was observed between AIRS and the 125HR and radiosonde measurements, with mean differences within 5 % and correlation coefficients above 0.83 in the troposphere between 1 and 7 km. Comparisons to MLS at altitudes around 10 km showed a dry bias, e.g. mean differences between MLS and radiosondes were −25.6 %. SCIAMACHY comparisons were very limited due to minimal overlap between the vertical extent of the measurements. TES had no temporal overlap with the radiosonde dataset used in this study. Comparisons between TES and the 125HR showed a wet bias of approximately 25 % in the UTLS and mean differences within 14 % below 5 km.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reed, Bruce; Yuditsky, Yelena;
    Publisher: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik
    Country: Germany

    A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n --> infty). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Canals, Rocío; Hammarlöf, Disa; Kröger, Carsten; Owen, Siân; Fong, Wai Yee; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Zhu, Xiaojun; Wenner, Nicolas; Carden, Sarah; Honeycutt, Jared; +9 more
    Project: UKRI | MicrobesNG: A scalable re... (BB/L024209/1), SNSF | Characterization of novel... (158684), WT | Novel virulence propertie... (106914), EC | DISTINCT (628450)

    Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 causes invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting susceptible HIV + , malarial or malnourished individuals. An in-depth genomic comparison between the ST313 isolate D23580, and the well-characterized ST19 isolate 4/74 that causes gastroenteritis across the globe, revealed extensive synteny. To understand how the 856 nucleotide variations generated phenotypic differences, we devised a large-scale experimental approach that involved the global gene expression analysis of strains D23580 and 4/74 grown in sixteen infection-relevant growth conditions. Comparison of transcriptional patterns identified virulence and metabolic genes that were differentially expressed between D23580 versus 4/74, many of which were validated by proteomics. We also uncovered the S. Typhimurium D23580 and 4/74 genes that showed expression differences during infection of murine macrophages. Our comparative transcriptomic data are presented in a new enhanced version of the Salmonella expression compendium SalComD23580: bioinf.gen.tcd.ie/cgi-bin/salcom_v2.pl . We discovered that the ablation of melibiose utilization was caused by 3 independent SNP mutations in D23580 that are shared across ST313 lineage 2, suggesting that the ability to catabolise this carbon source has been negatively selected during ST313 evolution. The data revealed a novel plasmid maintenance system involving a plasmid-encoded CysS cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, highlighting the power of large-scale comparative multi-condition analyses to pinpoint key phenotypic differences between bacterial pathovariants.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; Toledo, Isadora; Puchi, Paulina; Sauchyn, David; Crespo, Sebastián; Frene, Cristian; Mundo, Ignacio; +2 more
    Project: EC | ECOADAPT (283163)

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lin, Dawei; Crabtree, Jonathan; Dillo, Ingrid; Downs, Robert R.; Edmunds, Rorie; Giaretta, David; De Giusti, Marisa; L’Hours, Hervé; Hugo, Wim; Jenkyns, Reyna; +9 more

    As information and communication technology has become pervasive in our society, we are increasingly dependent on both digital data and repositories that provide access to and enable the use of such resources. Repositories must earn the trust of the communities they intend to serve and demonstrate that they are reliable and capable of appropriately managing the data they hold. Following a year-long public discussion and building on existing community consensus1, several stakeholders, representing various segments of the digital repository community, have collaboratively developed and endorsed a set of guiding principles to demonstrate digital repository trustworthiness. Transparency, Responsibility, User focus, Sustainability and Technology: the TRUST Principles provide a common framework to facilitate discussion and implementation of best practice in digital preservation by all stakeholders. Refereed Best Practice Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc)

  • Other research product . 2021
    English
    Authors: 
    Hnatkovska, Viktoria; Hou, Chenyu; Lahiri, Amartya;
    Country: Germany

    India has witnessed a remarkable catch-up by the historically disadvantaged scheduled castes and tribes (SC/STs) towards non-SC/ST levels in their education attainment levels, occupation choices as well as wages during the period 1983-2012. Using a heterogenous agent, multi-sector model we show that sectoral productivity growth during this period can explain 75 percent of the observed wage convergence between the castes. Inter-sectoral net flows of workers are key as they account for 3/4 of the predicted convergence. Absent these net flows, the caste wage gaps would have marginally widened. Selection effects, while present in these net flows, account for just a quarter of the predicted wage convergence. We also find that affirmative action policies that reduced skilling costs for SC/STs may have reduced the levels of the caste wage gaps at all times but played a limited role in accounting for the dynamics of the wage gap. Growth was key for the dynamic wage convergence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morato, T.; Kvile, K. Ø.; Taranto, G. H.; Tempera, F.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; Santos, R. S.; Pitcher, T. J.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | HERMIONE (226354), EC | CORALFISH (213144), FCT | SFRH/BPD/79801/2011 (SFRH/BPD/79801/2011)

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic) and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region), 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region) and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
31 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Rumadanu, F. (Friko); Masri, E. (Esther); Handayani, O. (Otih);
    Publisher: Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya
    Country: Indonesia

    Notaris saat ini diperbolehkan melakukan sertifikasi dokumen elektronik. Kewenangan ini termaktub dalam Pasal 15 ayat (3) Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2014 Tentang Jabatan Notaris. Selain mengesahkan akta, notaris juga dapat menyimpan berkas dalam bentuk file. Namun, tidak sedikit notaris yang masih enggan menggunakan teknologi untuk membuat dan mengesahkan sebuah akta dikarenakan adanya pertentangan antar pasal baik dalam Undang-Undang Jabatan Notaris sendiri maupun dengan pasal dalam Undang-Undang lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah akta yang menggunakan teknologi informatika memiliki kekuatan pembuktian layaknya akta autentik dan apakah sertifikasi elektronik yang dilakukan oleh notaris sejalan dengan tugas dan jabatan notaris. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu jenis penelitian hukum normatif yang dilakukan dengan cara penelaahan bahan pustaka atau data sekunder dengan menggunakan pendekatan undang-undang dan pendekatan konseptual. Penelitian ini berfokus pada akta hasil Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham Luar Biasa PT. Lippo Karawaci. Tbk yang dilakukan melalui video konferensi pada tanggal 13 Oktober 2021. Adanya ketidaksepakatan dari beberapa pemegang saham atas sertifikasi yang dilakukan secara elektronik karena dinilai dapat membuat akta tersebut menjadi akta di bawah tangan. Selain adanya pertentangan antara pasal, hal ini juga disebabkan tidak adanya peraturan pelaksana terkait pembuatan akta melalui teknologi informasi (Cyber Notary) oleh notaris sehingga perlunya pengkajian ulang terhadap Undang-Undang terkait dan pembuatan peraturan pelaksana khusus cyber notary.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; Rybczynski, Natalia; Gosse, John C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.;
    Project: NSF | Collaborative Research: A... (1418421), NSERC , NWO | Perturbations of System E... (024.002.001), EC | PACEMAKER (226600)

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Langowski, Martin P.; Savigny, Christian; Burrows, John P.; Fussen, Didier; Dawkins, Erin C. M.; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.; Marsh, Daniel R.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | CODITA (291332)

    During the last decade, several limb sounding satellites have measured the global sodium (Na) number densities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). Datasets are now available from Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartography (SCIAMACHY) (both on Envisat) and the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) (on Odin). Furthermore, global model simulations of the Na layer in the MLT simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, including the Na species (WACCM-Na), are available. In this paper, we compare these global datasets.The observed and simulated monthly averages of Na vertical column densities agree reasonably well with each other. They show a clear seasonal cycle with a summer minimum most pronounced at the poles. They also show signs of a semi-annual oscillation in the equatorial region. The vertical column densities vary from 0. 5 × 109 to 7 × 109 cm−2 near the poles and from 3 × 109 to 4 × 109 cm−2 at the Equator. The phase of the seasonal cycle and semi-annual oscillation shows small differences between the Na amounts retrieved from different instruments. The full width at half maximum of the profiles is 10 to 16 km for most latitudes, but significantly smaller in the polar summer. The centroid altitudes of the measured sodium profiles range from 89 to 95 km, whereas the model shows on average 2 to 4 km lower centroid altitudes. This may be explained by the mesopause being 3 km lower in the WACCM simulations than in measurements. Despite this global 2–4 km shift, the model captures well the latitudinal and temporal variations. The variation of the WACCM dataset during the year at different latitudes is similar to the one of the measurements. Furthermore, the differences between the measured profiles with different instruments and therefore different local times (LTs) are also present in the model-simulated profiles. This capturing of latitudinal and temporal variations is also found for the vertical column densities and profile widths.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley A.; Sioris, Chris; Schneider, Matthias; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Sommer, Michael; Weigel, Katja; Rozanov, Alexei; +4 more
    Project: NSERC , EC | MUSICA (256961)

    Improving measurements of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a priority for the atmospheric science community. In this work, UTLS water vapour profiles derived from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite measurements are assessed with coincident ground-based measurements taken at a high Arctic observatory at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada. Additional comparisons to satellite measurements taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartography (SCIAMACHY), and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are included to put the ACE Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and ACE Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) results in context. Measurements of water vapour profiles at Eureka are made using a Bruker 125HR solar absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) and radiosondes launched from the Eureka Weather Station. Radiosonde measurements used in this study were processed with software developed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) to account for known biases and calculate uncertainties in a well-documented and consistent manner. ACE-FTS measurements were within 11 ppmv (parts per million by volume; 13 %) of 125HR measurements between 6 and 14 km. Between 8 and 14 km ACE-FTS profiles showed a small wet bias of approximately 8 % relative to the 125HR. ACE-FTS water vapour profiles had mean differences of 13 ppmv (32 %) or better when compared to coincident radiosonde profiles at altitudes between 6 and 14 km; mean differences were within 6 ppmv (12 %) between 7 and 11 km. ACE-MAESTRO profiles showed a small dry bias relative to the 125HR of approximately 7 % between 6 and 9 km and 10 % between 10 and 14 km. ACE-MAESTRO profiles agreed within 30 ppmv (36 %) of the radiosondes between 7 and 14 km. ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO comparison results show closer agreement with the radiosondes and PEARL 125HR overall than other satellite datasets – except for AIRS. Close agreement was observed between AIRS and the 125HR and radiosonde measurements, with mean differences within 5 % and correlation coefficients above 0.83 in the troposphere between 1 and 7 km. Comparisons to MLS at altitudes around 10 km showed a dry bias, e.g. mean differences between MLS and radiosondes were −25.6 %. SCIAMACHY comparisons were very limited due to minimal overlap between the vertical extent of the measurements. TES had no temporal overlap with the radiosonde dataset used in this study. Comparisons between TES and the 125HR showed a wet bias of approximately 25 % in the UTLS and mean differences within 14 % below 5 km.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reed, Bruce; Yuditsky, Yelena;
    Publisher: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik
    Country: Germany

    A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n --> infty). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Canals, Rocío; Hammarlöf, Disa; Kröger, Carsten; Owen, Siân; Fong, Wai Yee; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Zhu, Xiaojun; Wenner, Nicolas; Carden, Sarah; Honeycutt, Jared; +9 more
    Project: UKRI | MicrobesNG: A scalable re... (BB/L024209/1), SNSF | Characterization of novel... (158684), WT | Novel virulence propertie... (106914), EC | DISTINCT (628450)

    Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 causes invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting susceptible HIV + , malarial or malnourished individuals. An in-depth genomic comparison between the ST313 isolate D23580, and the well-characterized ST19 isolate 4/74 that causes gastroenteritis across the globe, revealed extensive synteny. To understand how the 856 nucleotide variations generated phenotypic differences, we devised a large-scale experimental approach that involved the global gene expression analysis of strains D23580 and 4/74 grown in sixteen infection-relevant growth conditions. Comparison of transcriptional patterns identified virulence and metabolic genes that were differentially expressed between D23580 versus 4/74, many of which were validated by proteomics. We also uncovered the S. Typhimurium D23580 and 4/74 genes that showed expression differences during infection of murine macrophages. Our comparative transcriptomic data are presented in a new enhanced version of the Salmonella expression compendium SalComD23580: bioinf.gen.tcd.ie/cgi-bin/salcom_v2.pl . We discovered that the ablation of melibiose utilization was caused by 3 independent SNP mutations in D23580 that are shared across ST313 lineage 2, suggesting that the ability to catabolise this carbon source has been negatively selected during ST313 evolution. The data revealed a novel plasmid maintenance system involving a plasmid-encoded CysS cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, highlighting the power of large-scale comparative multi-condition analyses to pinpoint key phenotypic differences between bacterial pathovariants.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; Toledo, Isadora; Puchi, Paulina; Sauchyn, David; Crespo, Sebastián; Frene, Cristian; Mundo, Ignacio; +2 more
    Project: EC | ECOADAPT (283163)

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lin, Dawei; Crabtree, Jonathan; Dillo, Ingrid; Downs, Robert R.; Edmunds, Rorie; Giaretta, David; De Giusti, Marisa; L’Hours, Hervé; Hugo, Wim; Jenkyns, Reyna; +9 more

    As information and communication technology has become pervasive in our society, we are increasingly dependent on both digital data and repositories that provide access to and enable the use of such resources. Repositories must earn the trust of the communities they intend to serve and demonstrate that they are reliable and capable of appropriately managing the data they hold. Following a year-long public discussion and building on existing community consensus1, several stakeholders, representing various segments of the digital repository community, have collaboratively developed and endorsed a set of guiding principles to demonstrate digital repository trustworthiness. Transparency, Responsibility, User focus, Sustainability and Technology: the TRUST Principles provide a common framework to facilitate discussion and implementation of best practice in digital preservation by all stakeholders. Refereed Best Practice Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc)

  • Other research product . 2021
    English
    Authors: 
    Hnatkovska, Viktoria; Hou, Chenyu; Lahiri, Amartya;
    Country: Germany

    India has witnessed a remarkable catch-up by the historically disadvantaged scheduled castes and tribes (SC/STs) towards non-SC/ST levels in their education attainment levels, occupation choices as well as wages during the period 1983-2012. Using a heterogenous agent, multi-sector model we show that sectoral productivity growth during this period can explain 75 percent of the observed wage convergence between the castes. Inter-sectoral net flows of workers are key as they account for 3/4 of the predicted convergence. Absent these net flows, the caste wage gaps would have marginally widened. Selection effects, while present in these net flows, account for just a quarter of the predicted wage convergence. We also find that affirmative action policies that reduced skilling costs for SC/STs may have reduced the levels of the caste wage gaps at all times but played a limited role in accounting for the dynamics of the wage gap. Growth was key for the dynamic wage convergence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morato, T.; Kvile, K. Ø.; Taranto, G. H.; Tempera, F.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; Santos, R. S.; Pitcher, T. J.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | HERMIONE (226354), EC | CORALFISH (213144), FCT | SFRH/BPD/79801/2011 (SFRH/BPD/79801/2011)

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic) and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region), 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region) and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.