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  • Authors: Kana Maruyama-Fumoto; Risa Futokoro; John J. McGuire; Kazumasa Shinozuka; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: Yanfei Huang; Yan Zhang; Xinying Li; Jinjun Liu; +1 Authors

    For single-phase DC-AC power conversion, power decoupling is always required due to the existence of double-line-frequency ripple caused by the instantaneous unbalanced power between AC and DC side. The typical power decoupling method utilizes a large electrolytic capacitor and consequently increases the passive components requirement. The active power decoupling scheme introduces an additional low power converter to compensate the ripple, which inevitably increases the system cost and control complexity. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a novel suppression method based on three-level topology. By optimizing the capacitance design and improved control algorithm, the instantaneous unbalanced power is dynamically redistributed between two series connected intermediate capacitors in order to make the capacitor voltage ripple complementary to each other. Thus the de-link voltage ripple can be reduced to a large extent. Simulation verifies the correctness and effectiveness of the new suppression method.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lars Olof Karlsson; Hanna Erixon; Hanna Erixon; Tino Ebbers; +6 Authors

    BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cause of cardiovascular morbidity, including thromboembolism and heart failure. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) detected in AF patients may be either precursor or consequence of the arrythmia. Successful cardioversion of chronic AF is often followed by a transient period of left atrial (LA) stunning, where depressed mechanical atrial contraction persists despite reinstitution of sinus rhythm. To determine if AF-associated LVD would improve with resolution of LA dysfunction, AF patients were examined immediately and 4 weeks after cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses ventricular function according to the volumes and energetics of functional components of the LV volume. Previously, described 4D CMR markers of LVD include decreased volume and end-diastolic kinetic energy (KE) of the Direct flow, which is the portion of LV volume that passes directly from inflow to outflow in a single cycle. We hypothesize that impaired LV flow patterns and energetics will be found immediately after cardioversion during atrial stunning, and that those parameters will improve as atrial function returns.MethodsTen patients with a history of AF underwent CMR 2–3 h (Time-1) and 4 weeks (Time-2), following electrical cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D phase-contrast velocity data and morphological images were acquired at a 3T CMR system. Using a previously evaluated method, pathlines were emitted from the LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and traced forward and backward in time until end-systole. The LVEDV was automatically separated into four functional flow components whose volume and KE were calculated.ResultsLeft atrial fractional area change increased over the follow-up period (P = 0.001), indicating recovery of LA mechanical function. LVEF increased between Time-1 and Time-2 (P = 0.003); LVEDVI did not change (P = 0.319). Over that interval, the ratios of Direct flow/LVEDV volume and KE increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), while the ratios of Residual volume/LVEDV volume and KE decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively).ConclusionPost-cardioversion recovery of LA function was associated with improvements in conventional and 4D CMR markers of LV function. Flow-specific measures demonstrate the negative but potentially reversible impact of LA dysfunction on volume and energetic aspects of LV function.

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    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Elaine C. Marqueze; Cibele A. Crispim; Claudia R. C. Moreno; Claudia R. C. Moreno;
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    Frontiers in Public Health
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Public Health
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      Frontiers in Public Health
      Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Public Health
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    Authors: Zhujun J. Gu; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Jilu Feng; Sen Cao;

    This study analyzed the predictability of leaf area index (LAI) to the variation of vegetation type, observation angle, and vegetation index (VI). The analysis was conducted by using the R 2 of the LAI-VI models between in situ measured LAIs and VIs derived from CHRIS/PROBA data. The results show that the discrepancy of vegetation type mostly influences the LAI-VI models. The predictability of LAI to the variation of both vegetation type and index demonstrates the differences of oblique/vertical and backward/forward observa- tions, and backward series are greater than the forward. The predictabilities of LAI to the varia- tion of observation angle are greatest for the soil-adjusted VIs and least for the traditional ratio-based indices. Multivariable linear modeling with all VIs from all five angles yields accept- able accuracy except for the sparse shrub. The backward less-oblique observation (�36 deg )i s the only angle chosen in the modeling for grass, shrub, and broad leafforest, while the nadir view performs best for forests with coniferous trees. These results provide a reference to multiangular LAI estimation for different vegetation communities. VIs accounting for angular soil effects require further investigation in the future. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. (DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.096085)

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    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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      Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lei Xiang; Shane D. Schoepfer; Shu-zhong Shen; Changqun Cao; +1 Authors

    Abstract The “Cambrian explosion” is one of the most fascinating episodes of diversification in the history of life; however, its relationship to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere around the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition is not fully understood. Marine inventories of redox-sensitive trace elements reflect the relative balance of oxidative weathering on land and deposition in anoxic water masses, and can be used to explore the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric redox conditions. For this study, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses on the upper Lantian, Piyuancun, and Hetang formations in the Chunye-1 well, part of the lower Yangtze Block in western Zhejiang. Iron speciation results indicate that the entire studied interval was deposited under anoxic conditions, with three intervals of persistent euxinia occurring in the uppermost Lantian Fm., the lower Hetang Formation (Fm.), and the upper Hetang Fm. Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents and Mo/TOC and U/TOC ratios from the anoxic/euxinic intervals of the Chunye-1 well, combined with published data from the sections in the middle and upper Yangtze Block, suggest that the oceanic Mo reservoir declined consistently from the Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3, while the size of the oceanic U reservoir remained relatively constant. Both metals were depleted in the ocean in lower Cambrian Stage 4, before increasing markedly at the end of Stage 4. The lack of an apparent increase in the size of the marine Mo and U reservoir from the upper Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3 suggests that oxic water masses did not expand until Cambrian Stage 4. The increase in marine Mo and U availability in the upper Hetang Fm. may have been due to the expansion of oxic water masses in the oceans, associated with oxygenation of the atmosphere during Cambrian Stage 4. This expansion of oxic waters in the global ocean postdates the main phase of Cambrian diversification, suggesting that pervasive oxygenation of the ocean on a large scale was not the primary control on animal diversity following the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition.

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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2017
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Earth and Planetary ...arrow_drop_down
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      Earth and Planetary Science Letters
      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wanzhi Li; Jinman Wang; Yafu Zhang; Min Zhang;

    Abstract Soil and vegetation, as the basic structural unit of artificial ecosystems, play an important role in ecological restoration in opencast coal mining areas, and both exhibit a complex interaction. However, the traditional method cannot well characterize the inter action between the soil and vegetation. In order to reveal the interaction between soil and vegetation in the reclaimed area of opencast coalmine, and explore the interaction mechanism between soil and vegetation, the soil and vegetation data from 70 reclaimed points in Antaibao and Anjialing opencast coal mines in Shanxi province of China were selected to conduct an investigation study. Ten soil and three vegetation indicators were determined, and the joint multifractal method was innovatively introduced to characterize the relationships of soil and vegetation on multiple scales using joint multifractal spectra and grayscale images. The interaction between soil and vegetation can be clearly obtained using the joint multifractal method. The canopy density was negatively correlated with soil bulk density, silt content, and pH; whereas, it was positively correlated with rock content, sand content, total nitrogen, soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium content. The average diameter at breast height was negatively correlated with soil bulk density, clay content, and pH; however, it was positively correlated with silt content, sand content, total nitrogen, soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium content. The herb coverage was negatively correlated with rock content, silt content, clay content, pH, soil organic matter, available phosphorus and available potassium content. Soil bulk density and clay content showed negative correlation with herb coverage. Compared to the traditional method, the novel joint multifractal method can more accurately charecterize the correlations from multiple scales. This novel method can be used to study the interaction between soil and vegetation.

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    Article . 2021
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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Ecological Indicators
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    Authors: Gregory W. McGarr; Naoto Fujii; Madison D. Schmidt; Caroline M. Muia; +1 Authors

    Abstract Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) modulates exercise‐induced cutaneous vasodilation in young men via nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but only when core temperature is elevated ~1.0°C. While less is known about modulation of this heat loss response in women during exercise, sex differences may exist. Further, the mechanisms regulating cutaneous vasodilation can differ between exercise‐ and passive‐heat stress. Therefore, in 11 young women (23 ± 3 years), we evaluated whether HSP90 contributes to NOS‐dependent cutaneous vasodilation during exercise (Protocol 1) and passive heating (Protocol 2) and directly compared responses between end‐exercise and a matched core temperature elevation during passive heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC%max) was measured at four forearm skin sites continuously treated with (a) lactated Ringers solution (control), (b) 178 μM Geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor), (c) 10 mM L‐NAME (NOS inhibitor), or (d) combined 178 μM Geldanamycin and 10 mM L‐NAME. Participants completed both protocols during the early follicular (low hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle (0–7 days). Protocol 1: participants rested in the heat (35°C) for 70 min and then performed 50 min of moderate‐intensity cycling (~55% VO2peak) followed by 30 min of recovery. Protocol 2: participants were passively heated to increase rectal temperature by 1.0°C, comparable to end‐exercise. HSP90 inhibition attenuated CVC%max relative to control at end‐exercise (p < .05), but not during passive heating. While NOS inhibition and combined HSP90 + NOS inhibition attenuated CVC%max relative to control for both protocols (all p < .05), they did not differ from each other. We show that HSP90 modulates cutaneous vasodilation NOS‐dependently during exercise in young women, with no effect during passive heating, despite a similar NOS contribution. We evaluated whether HSP90 contributes to NOS‐dependent cutaneous vasodilation during exercise and passive heating in young women. We directly compared these responses at end‐exercise and the matched core temperature elevation during passive heating. We showed that HSP90 modulates cutaneous vasodilation NOS‐dependently during exercise in young women, while there was no effect of HSP90 inhibition during passive heating, despite a similar NOS contribution.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Physiological Reports
    Article . 2020
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    Physiological Reports
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2020
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      Physiological Reports
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    Authors: Chakrabarty, Aurab; Bouhali, Othmane; Mousseau, Normand; Becquart, Charlotte S.; +1 Authors

    Adsorption and dissociation of hydrocarbons on metallic surfaces represent crucial steps to carburization of metal. Here, we use density functional theory total energy calculations with the climbing-image nudged elastic band method to estimate the adsorption energies and dissociation barriers for different CO coverages with surface supercells of different sizes. For the absorption of CO, the contribution from van der Waals interaction in the computation of adsorption parameters is found important in small systems with high CO-coverages. The dissociation process involves carbon insertion into the Fe surface causing a lattice deformation that requires a larger surface system for unrestricted relaxation. We show that, in larger surface systems associated with dilute CO-coverages, the dissociation barrier is significantly decreased. The elastic deformation of the surface is generic and can potentially applicable for all similar metal-hydrocarbon reactions and therefore a dilute coverage is necessary for the simulation of these reactions as isolated processes. Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to Journal of Applied Physics

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Article . 2016
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    Authors: Aillerie, Karine;

    Esta contribución tiene por objetivo analizar las posibles evoluciones de los modelos «prescriptivos» de la búsqueda de información, en función de los aportes conceptuales de la noción de transalfabetización en el campo de la information literacy (alfabetización informacional). Se abordan las modificaciones de los referenciales tradicionales de dominio de la alfabetización informacional, así como dos propuestas inéditas: el modelo estadounidense Metaliteracy (metalfabetización) y el modelo inglés InFlow (information flow; flujo informacional). Estos dos modelos no reivindican explícitamente la postura transalfabética, aunque pueden detectarse puntos de confluencia que renuevan en profundidad los dispositivos de desarrollo de habilidades informativas, así como el fundamento teórico que los respalda. Cette contribution vise à interroger les évolutions possibles des modèles « prescriptifs » de la recherche d’information au vu des apports conceptuels de la notion de translittératie au champ de l’information literacy. Y sont abordées les transformations des référentiels de maîtrise de l’information traditionnels ainsi que deux propositions inédites : le modèle américain Metaliteracy et le modèle anglais InFlow (information flow). Ces deux modèles ne se revendiquent pas explicitement de l’approche translittératique même si des points de jonction forts peuvent être repérés qui renouvellent en profondeur les dispositifs de formation à l’information ainsi que l’arrière-plan théorique qui les sous-tend. The purpose of this article is to examine the possible evolution of the prescriptive models used for information research in the light of the concepts associated with transliteracy in the field of information literacy. The modifications made to the reference guides used for the mastery of traditional information as well as two unpublished proposals are considered; the American model of metaliteracy and the English model of InFlow (information flow). Both models do not explicitly advocate a transliteral approach even though they share several points in common that renew the information training methods as well as the theory that support them.

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    Documentation et bibliothèques; Érudit
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      Documentation et bibliothèques; Érudit
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  • Authors: Kana Maruyama-Fumoto; Risa Futokoro; John J. McGuire; Kazumasa Shinozuka; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: Yanfei Huang; Yan Zhang; Xinying Li; Jinjun Liu; +1 Authors

    For single-phase DC-AC power conversion, power decoupling is always required due to the existence of double-line-frequency ripple caused by the instantaneous unbalanced power between AC and DC side. The typical power decoupling method utilizes a large electrolytic capacitor and consequently increases the passive components requirement. The active power decoupling scheme introduces an additional low power converter to compensate the ripple, which inevitably increases the system cost and control complexity. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a novel suppression method based on three-level topology. By optimizing the capacitance design and improved control algorithm, the instantaneous unbalanced power is dynamically redistributed between two series connected intermediate capacitors in order to make the capacitor voltage ripple complementary to each other. Thus the de-link voltage ripple can be reduced to a large extent. Simulation verifies the correctness and effectiveness of the new suppression method.

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    Authors: Lars Olof Karlsson; Hanna Erixon; Hanna Erixon; Tino Ebbers; +6 Authors

    BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cause of cardiovascular morbidity, including thromboembolism and heart failure. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) detected in AF patients may be either precursor or consequence of the arrythmia. Successful cardioversion of chronic AF is often followed by a transient period of left atrial (LA) stunning, where depressed mechanical atrial contraction persists despite reinstitution of sinus rhythm. To determine if AF-associated LVD would improve with resolution of LA dysfunction, AF patients were examined immediately and 4 weeks after cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses ventricular function according to the volumes and energetics of functional components of the LV volume. Previously, described 4D CMR markers of LVD include decreased volume and end-diastolic kinetic energy (KE) of the Direct flow, which is the portion of LV volume that passes directly from inflow to outflow in a single cycle. We hypothesize that impaired LV flow patterns and energetics will be found immediately after cardioversion during atrial stunning, and that those parameters will improve as atrial function returns.MethodsTen patients with a history of AF underwent CMR 2–3 h (Time-1) and 4 weeks (Time-2), following electrical cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D phase-contrast velocity data and morphological images were acquired at a 3T CMR system. Using a previously evaluated method, pathlines were emitted from the LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and traced forward and backward in time until end-systole. The LVEDV was automatically separated into four functional flow components whose volume and KE were calculated.ResultsLeft atrial fractional area change increased over the follow-up period (P = 0.001), indicating recovery of LA mechanical function. LVEF increased between Time-1 and Time-2 (P = 0.003); LVEDVI did not change (P = 0.319). Over that interval, the ratios of Direct flow/LVEDV volume and KE increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), while the ratios of Residual volume/LVEDV volume and KE decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively).ConclusionPost-cardioversion recovery of LA function was associated with improvements in conventional and 4D CMR markers of LV function. Flow-specific measures demonstrate the negative but potentially reversible impact of LA dysfunction on volume and energetic aspects of LV function.

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    Authors: Elaine C. Marqueze; Cibele A. Crispim; Claudia R. C. Moreno; Claudia R. C. Moreno;
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    Frontiers in Public Health
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    Authors: Zhujun J. Gu; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa; Jilu Feng; Sen Cao;

    This study analyzed the predictability of leaf area index (LAI) to the variation of vegetation type, observation angle, and vegetation index (VI). The analysis was conducted by using the R 2 of the LAI-VI models between in situ measured LAIs and VIs derived from CHRIS/PROBA data. The results show that the discrepancy of vegetation type mostly influences the LAI-VI models. The predictability of LAI to the variation of both vegetation type and index demonstrates the differences of oblique/vertical and backward/forward observa- tions, and backward series are greater than the forward. The predictabilities of LAI to the varia- tion of observation angle are greatest for the soil-adjusted VIs and least for the traditional ratio-based indices. Multivariable linear modeling with all VIs from all five angles yields accept- able accuracy except for the sparse shrub. The backward less-oblique observation (�36 deg )i s the only angle chosen in the modeling for grass, shrub, and broad leafforest, while the nadir view performs best for forests with coniferous trees. These results provide a reference to multiangular LAI estimation for different vegetation communities. VIs accounting for angular soil effects require further investigation in the future. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. (DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.096085)

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    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
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