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304,635 Research products, page 1 of 30,464

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  • 2013-2022
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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Sgro; Douglas M Campbell; Kaitlyn Luisa Mellor; Kathleen Hollamby; Jaya Bodani; Prakesh S. Shah;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate trends in organisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Congruent with recent reports, we hypothesized there would be an increase in EONS caused by Escherichia coli.Study DesignNational data on infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units from 2009 to 2014 were compared to previously reported data from 2003 to 2008. We report 430 cases of EONS from 2009 to 2014. Bivariate analyses were used to analyze the distribution of causative organisms over time and differences by gestational age. Linear regression was used to estimate trends in causative organisms.ResultsSince 2003, there has been a trend of increasing numbers of cases caused by E coli (P<0.01). The predominant organism was E coli in preterm infants and Group B Streptococcus in term infants.ConclusionsWith the majority of EONS cases now caused by E coli, our findings emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of causative organism patterns and developing approaches to reduce cases caused by E coli.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Colak; Felipe Kitamura; Stephen B Hobbs; Carol C Wu; Matthew P. Lungren; Luciano M. Prevedello; Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer; Robyn L Ball; George Shih; Anouk Stein; +20 more
    Publisher: Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)

    This dataset is composed of CT pulmonary angiograms and annotations related to pulmonary embolism. It is available at https://www.rsna.org/education/ai-resources-and-training/ai-image-challenge/rsn...

  • Publication . Conference object . 2021
    Authors: 
    Tuofu Li; Javin Jia Liu; Yintao Tai; Yuxuan Tian;
    Publisher: SPIE

    Brain tumors are a hazardous type of tumor, and they build pressure inside the skull when they grow, which can potentially cause brain damage or even death. Attention mechanisms are widely adopted in state-of-the-art deep learning architectures for computer vision and neural translation tasks since they enhance networks' ability to capture spatial and channel-wise relationships. We offer an attention-based image segmentation model that outlines the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans if present. In the paper, we mainly focus on integrating Squeeze-and-Excitation Block and CBAM into the commonly used segmentation model, U-Net, to resolve the problem of concatenating unnecessary information into the decoder blocks and attempt to locate the tumor boundaries. Our research clearly shows the application of the attention mechanism in U-Net, incorporates the Squeeze-and-Excitation with CBAM, and improves the performance in the brain tumor segmentation task. The model is delivered on an app with additional text to speech and chatbot features provided.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jake Cosme; Irina Tchernyshyov; Anthony O. Gramolini;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has provided some paradigm-shifting technology to the field of cardiac biology. Recent advances in MS have made protein identification into a high throughput analytic tool and improved accuracy and sensitivity of protein quantitation. Many of the tools available to scientists trying to answer fundamental questions of basic heart function and mechanisms of disease are quite robust and versatile. MS-based cardiac proteomic approaches have developed to such an extent that a researcher can design experiments to answer clear hypotheses, but also studies can also be ‘hypothesis-generating’, ultimately leading to deeper analyses and considerations. Here, we will outline the basic concepts of MS in an effort to explain the potential of this technology in investigating cardiac based research questions. Principles of how current instrumentation functions and how data is acquired will be introduced. Protein quantitation in MS is available in many varieties and applications; this chapter will outline current available technologies in protein quantitation such as isotope-labeled and label-free approaches. With the introductory knowledge of MS and protein quantitation, we will examine some key cardiac proteomics studies and discuss how these principles have been applied to answer specific research questions.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Stephan Ramon Garcia; Javad Mashreghi; William T. Ross;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Although finite Blaschke products are a remarkable and exclusive class of functions, they appear in many important approximation problems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Graeme C. Hays; Luciana C. Ferreira; Ana M. M. Sequeira; Mark G. Meekan; Carlos M. Duarte; Helen Bailey; Fred Bailleul; W. Don Bowen; M. Julian Caley; Daniel P. Costa; +30 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Germany, United States, France, United Kingdom, Spain

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Workshop funding was granted to M.T., A.M.M.S., and C.M.D. by the UWA Oceans Institute, the Australian Institute of Marine Science, and the Office of Sponsored Research at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Hays, Graeme C. et al. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Younas Dadmohammadi; Apostolos Kantzas; Xiaoli Yu; Ashim K. Datta;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract During the processing of water containing food materials, water transport can be driven by pressure from gas, capillarity, swelling, or gravity. To describe these various modes of pressure-driven transport using Darcy's law, permeability is a critical parameter for which few data are available, primarily as a result of measurement difficulties. Permeability in the flow of liquid water through potato tissue was estimated by approximating the plant cellular structure, measured directly using flow-through and indirectly using nuclear magnetic resonance. The data from the three approaches show the same order of magnitude 10−18 m2, and thus are in agreement with each other and results reported in the literature. The dynamics of porosity and permeability changes in fresh, water-saturated, and cooked samples were described using cellular structure changes as observed in microscopy images. Simple mechanistic equations for predicting permeability and porosity, which can include swelling and shrinkage, are proposed based on approximating the geometry of the cellular tissue. Data corroborated in three ways will provide permeability values with confidence, while the simple prediction equation will make a reasonable estimation of permeability possible for a large class of food products.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cha, Byungchul; Fiorilli, Daniel; Jouve, Florent;
    Project: NSF | Basic Research in Mathema... (0635607), NSERC

    We study the prime number race for elliptic curves over the function field of a proper, smooth and geometrically connected curve over a finite field. This constitutes a function field analogue of prior work by Mazur, Sarnak and the second author. In this geometric setting we can prove unconditional results whose counterparts in the number field case are conditional on a Riemann Hypothesis and a linear independence hypothesis on the zeros of the implied L-functions. Notably we show that in certain natural families of elliptic curves, the bias generically dissipates as the conductor grows. This is achieved by proving a central limit theorem and combining it with generic linear independence results that will appear in a separate paper. Also we study in detail a particular family of elliptic curves that have been considered by Ulmer. In contrast to the generic case we show that the race exhibits very diverse outcomes, some of which are believed to be impossible in the number field setting. Such behaviors are possible in the function field case because the zeros of Hasse-Weil L-functions for those elliptic curves can be proven to be highly dependent among themselves, which is a very non generic situation.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Nikolaos Papakonstantinou; Ahmed Z. Bashir; Bryan M. O’Halloran; Douglas L. Van Bossuyt;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Finland

    Advancements in the domain of artificial intelligence, safety management, and on-board fault tolerance have led to autonomous devices to be considered as a key element for future remote defence and peaceful missions. Drones-Also known as autonomous or unmanned vehicles-with different capabilities and features-can be organized in a fleet and the fleet can be organized in a way that will increase the survivability of the drones and improve mission success. This can be accomplished by balancing system effectiveness design parameters such as endurance, communications, sensor fusion, domain awareness, area coverage rates and human operator interaction against mission costs.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joseph Rozario; Ankit Vora; Sanjay Debnath; M. Pathak; Joshua M. Pearce;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Canada
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; The effects of dispatch strategy on electrical performance of amorphous silicon-based solar photovoltaic-thermal systems, Renewable Energy 68, pp. 459-465 (2014). http://dx. Abstract: Previous work has shown that high-temperature short-term spike thermal annealing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems results in higher electrical energy output. The relationship between temperature and performance of a-Si:H PVT is not simple as high temperatures during thermal annealing improves the immediate electrical performance following an anneal, but during the anneal it creates a marked drop in electrical performance. In addition, the power generation of a-Si:H PVT depends on both the environmental conditions and the Staebler-Wronski Effect kinetics. In order to improve the performance of a-Si:H PVT systems further, this paper reports on the effect of various dispatch strategies on system electrical performance. Utilizing experimental results from thermal annealing, an annealing model simulation for a-Si:H-based PVT was developed and applied to different cities in the U. S. to investigate potential geographic effects on the dispatch optimization of the overall electrical PVT systems performance and annual electrical yield. The results showed that spike thermal annealing once per day maximized the improved electrical energy generation.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
304,635 Research products, page 1 of 30,464
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Sgro; Douglas M Campbell; Kaitlyn Luisa Mellor; Kathleen Hollamby; Jaya Bodani; Prakesh S. Shah;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate trends in organisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Congruent with recent reports, we hypothesized there would be an increase in EONS caused by Escherichia coli.Study DesignNational data on infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units from 2009 to 2014 were compared to previously reported data from 2003 to 2008. We report 430 cases of EONS from 2009 to 2014. Bivariate analyses were used to analyze the distribution of causative organisms over time and differences by gestational age. Linear regression was used to estimate trends in causative organisms.ResultsSince 2003, there has been a trend of increasing numbers of cases caused by E coli (P<0.01). The predominant organism was E coli in preterm infants and Group B Streptococcus in term infants.ConclusionsWith the majority of EONS cases now caused by E coli, our findings emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of causative organism patterns and developing approaches to reduce cases caused by E coli.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Colak; Felipe Kitamura; Stephen B Hobbs; Carol C Wu; Matthew P. Lungren; Luciano M. Prevedello; Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer; Robyn L Ball; George Shih; Anouk Stein; +20 more
    Publisher: Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)

    This dataset is composed of CT pulmonary angiograms and annotations related to pulmonary embolism. It is available at https://www.rsna.org/education/ai-resources-and-training/ai-image-challenge/rsn...

  • Publication . Conference object . 2021
    Authors: 
    Tuofu Li; Javin Jia Liu; Yintao Tai; Yuxuan Tian;
    Publisher: SPIE

    Brain tumors are a hazardous type of tumor, and they build pressure inside the skull when they grow, which can potentially cause brain damage or even death. Attention mechanisms are widely adopted in state-of-the-art deep learning architectures for computer vision and neural translation tasks since they enhance networks' ability to capture spatial and channel-wise relationships. We offer an attention-based image segmentation model that outlines the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans if present. In the paper, we mainly focus on integrating Squeeze-and-Excitation Block and CBAM into the commonly used segmentation model, U-Net, to resolve the problem of concatenating unnecessary information into the decoder blocks and attempt to locate the tumor boundaries. Our research clearly shows the application of the attention mechanism in U-Net, incorporates the Squeeze-and-Excitation with CBAM, and improves the performance in the brain tumor segmentation task. The model is delivered on an app with additional text to speech and chatbot features provided.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jake Cosme; Irina Tchernyshyov; Anthony O. Gramolini;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has provided some paradigm-shifting technology to the field of cardiac biology. Recent advances in MS have made protein identification into a high throughput analytic tool and improved accuracy and sensitivity of protein quantitation. Many of the tools available to scientists trying to answer fundamental questions of basic heart function and mechanisms of disease are quite robust and versatile. MS-based cardiac proteomic approaches have developed to such an extent that a researcher can design experiments to answer clear hypotheses, but also studies can also be ‘hypothesis-generating’, ultimately leading to deeper analyses and considerations. Here, we will outline the basic concepts of MS in an effort to explain the potential of this technology in investigating cardiac based research questions. Principles of how current instrumentation functions and how data is acquired will be introduced. Protein quantitation in MS is available in many varieties and applications; this chapter will outline current available technologies in protein quantitation such as isotope-labeled and label-free approaches. With the introductory knowledge of MS and protein quantitation, we will examine some key cardiac proteomics studies and discuss how these principles have been applied to answer specific research questions.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Stephan Ramon Garcia; Javad Mashreghi; William T. Ross;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Although finite Blaschke products are a remarkable and exclusive class of functions, they appear in many important approximation problems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Graeme C. Hays; Luciana C. Ferreira; Ana M. M. Sequeira; Mark G. Meekan; Carlos M. Duarte; Helen Bailey; Fred Bailleul; W. Don Bowen; M. Julian Caley; Daniel P. Costa; +30 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Germany, United States, France, United Kingdom, Spain

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Workshop funding was granted to M.T., A.M.M.S., and C.M.D. by the UWA Oceans Institute, the Australian Institute of Marine Science, and the Office of Sponsored Research at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Hays, Graeme C. et al. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Younas Dadmohammadi; Apostolos Kantzas; Xiaoli Yu; Ashim K. Datta;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract During the processing of water containing food materials, water transport can be driven by pressure from gas, capillarity, swelling, or gravity. To describe these various modes of pressure-driven transport using Darcy's law, permeability is a critical parameter for which few data are available, primarily as a result of measurement difficulties. Permeability in the flow of liquid water through potato tissue was estimated by approximating the plant cellular structure, measured directly using flow-through and indirectly using nuclear magnetic resonance. The data from the three approaches show the same order of magnitude 10−18 m2, and thus are in agreement with each other and results reported in the literature. The dynamics of porosity and permeability changes in fresh, water-saturated, and cooked samples were described using cellular structure changes as observed in microscopy images. Simple mechanistic equations for predicting permeability and porosity, which can include swelling and shrinkage, are proposed based on approximating the geometry of the cellular tissue. Data corroborated in three ways will provide permeability values with confidence, while the simple prediction equation will make a reasonable estimation of permeability possible for a large class of food products.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cha, Byungchul; Fiorilli, Daniel; Jouve, Florent;
    Project: NSF | Basic Research in Mathema... (0635607), NSERC

    We study the prime number race for elliptic curves over the function field of a proper, smooth and geometrically connected curve over a finite field. This constitutes a function field analogue of prior work by Mazur, Sarnak and the second author. In this geometric setting we can prove unconditional results whose counterparts in the number field case are conditional on a Riemann Hypothesis and a linear independence hypothesis on the zeros of the implied L-functions. Notably we show that in certain natural families of elliptic curves, the bias generically dissipates as the conductor grows. This is achieved by proving a central limit theorem and combining it with generic linear independence results that will appear in a separate paper. Also we study in detail a particular family of elliptic curves that have been considered by Ulmer. In contrast to the generic case we show that the race exhibits very diverse outcomes, some of which are believed to be impossible in the number field setting. Such behaviors are possible in the function field case because the zeros of Hasse-Weil L-functions for those elliptic curves can be proven to be highly dependent among themselves, which is a very non generic situation.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Nikolaos Papakonstantinou; Ahmed Z. Bashir; Bryan M. O’Halloran; Douglas L. Van Bossuyt;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Finland

    Advancements in the domain of artificial intelligence, safety management, and on-board fault tolerance have led to autonomous devices to be considered as a key element for future remote defence and peaceful missions. Drones-Also known as autonomous or unmanned vehicles-with different capabilities and features-can be organized in a fleet and the fleet can be organized in a way that will increase the survivability of the drones and improve mission success. This can be accomplished by balancing system effectiveness design parameters such as endurance, communications, sensor fusion, domain awareness, area coverage rates and human operator interaction against mission costs.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joseph Rozario; Ankit Vora; Sanjay Debnath; M. Pathak; Joshua M. Pearce;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Canada
    Project: NSERC

    International audience; The effects of dispatch strategy on electrical performance of amorphous silicon-based solar photovoltaic-thermal systems, Renewable Energy 68, pp. 459-465 (2014). http://dx. Abstract: Previous work has shown that high-temperature short-term spike thermal annealing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems results in higher electrical energy output. The relationship between temperature and performance of a-Si:H PVT is not simple as high temperatures during thermal annealing improves the immediate electrical performance following an anneal, but during the anneal it creates a marked drop in electrical performance. In addition, the power generation of a-Si:H PVT depends on both the environmental conditions and the Staebler-Wronski Effect kinetics. In order to improve the performance of a-Si:H PVT systems further, this paper reports on the effect of various dispatch strategies on system electrical performance. Utilizing experimental results from thermal annealing, an annealing model simulation for a-Si:H-based PVT was developed and applied to different cities in the U. S. to investigate potential geographic effects on the dispatch optimization of the overall electrical PVT systems performance and annual electrical yield. The results showed that spike thermal annealing once per day maximized the improved electrical energy generation.