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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
    License: IOP Copyright Policies
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: I. J. Alexander Dyck; Paulo Manoel; Adair Morse;

    Abstract Public pension boards fear inciting stakeholder outrage if they compensate internal investment managers with market-level salaries. We derive theoretical implications in an agency-portfolio-choice model motivated by inequality aversion. In a global sample, relaxing the effect of outrage on contracting leads to an average annual incremental value-added of $49 million generated through 11 bps in higher excess returns from risky assets, at the cost of $302,429 in additional compensation. Governance reforms that address outrage by reducing political appointees or requiring independent skills-based boards can increase the annual value-added. These findings are orthogonal to costly political distortions from underfunding and pay-to-play schemes. Authors have furnished an Internet Appendix, which is available on the Oxford University Press Web site next to the link to the final published paper online.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Review of Financial ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Review of Financial Studies
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Review of Financial ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Review of Financial Studies
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019 . 2018
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sebastian Krogh;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hess.coperni...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hess.coperni...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Joshua Friell; Chase M. Straw;

    AbstractSpatiotemporal data and analyses are gaining traction in the turfgrass industry as valuable tools to enable data‐driven management practices, but to date there has been minimal research in practical settings. The objective of this work was to quantify relationships between soil volumetric water content (VWC), proximal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and several aerial measurements (visible, NDVI, and thermal infrared) collected in a real‐world application at field scale during a dry down. Data collection surveys were conducted in 2020 the morning of 25 Feb, afternoon of 25 Feb, and morning of 27 February on three golf course fairways in CA, USA. The first survey was initiated following an irrigation event, and then no additional irrigation or rainfall occurred prior to the second and third surveys. Ground‐based data were collected using the Precision Sense 6000™ (The Toro Company, Bloomington, MN) and aerial data were collected using an unmanned aerial vehicle (GreenSight Inc., Boston, MA). Data were appropriately georeferenced and analyzed to determine correlation between VWC and proximal NDVI, proximal and aerial NDVI, and VWC and aerial measurements. A significant, weak correlation (r = –0.21, p < .05) was found between VWC and proximal NDVI measurements, but only for the first survey immediately following the irrigation event. Significant, moderate to strong correlations were found between proximal and aerial NDVI during all three surveys (r = 0.63, p < .001; r = 0.64, p < .001; r = 0.85, p < .001), respectively]. Volumetric water content was significantly correlated with aerial NDVI measurements (r = –0.26, p < .001) but the relationship was weak and only existed for the first survey following the irrigation event. This study demonstrates the complexity of scaling remote sensing technologies from small plots to real‐world applications and identifies several barriers to providing quantitatively predictive and actionable data to turfgrass managers.

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    Article . 2021
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  • Authors: James M. Watkins; Lars G. Rudstam; Michael J. Connerton; Ted Schaner; +2 Authors

    Mysids are an important component of Great Lakes foodwebs, both as a prey for fish and as a predator on zooplankton. We monitored mysid abundance in Lake Ontario using lake-wide hydroacoustics data and vertical net hauls collected 1–5 August 2008 during the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and New York State Department of Conservation forage fish survey. Acoustic volume backscattering strength was highly correlated with both density and biomass of mysids although the correlation with biomass was stronger. The slopes of these relationships were not significantly different from theory (0.10) indicating a linear relationship between abundance and backscattering strength. Size structure significantly affected the relationship between backscattering strength and density but not between backscattering strength and biomass. Average target strength for areas with small mysids was −91.9 dB per mysid, and in areas with both small and large mysids it was −88.2 dB per animal. Acoustic estimates for Lake Ontario calculated with these regressions provided a lake-wide estimate weighted by lake area within depth intervals, of 228 mysids m−2 (CV 17.6%) and 0.93 g dw m−2 (CV 12.9%). Density and biomass in 14 net hauls averaged 316 mysids m−2 (range 0 to 1113) and 1.35 g dw m−2 (range 0 to 3.89). Mysid biomass was 33% of the biomass of other crustacean zooplankton in the summer of 2008. As in 2005, areas of low mysid abundance were detected in the middle of the transects and along the north shore. Lakewide mysid abundance in the summer of 2008 was higher than in a similar acoustic survey in the summer of 2005 and in whole-lake autumn 2000–2007 net surveys, suggesting that mysids are persisting in Lake Ontario and abundant relative to other Great Lakes.

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  • Authors: Gary Sands; Laura A. Reese; Chade Saghir; Pierre Filion;
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  • Authors: Joel D. Grice; Roy Kristiansen; Henrik Friis; Ralph Rowe; +4 Authors

    Abstract Hydroxylgugiaite, ideally (Ca 3 □ 1 ) Σ4 (Si 3.5 Be 2.5 ) Σ6 O 11 (OH) 3 , is a new mineral species from two localities in the Larvik plutonic complex in Porsgrunn, Telemark, Norway, and one locality in Ilimaussaq, Greenland. Hydroxylgugiaite crystals occur as squat dipyramids {111} (30 × 50 μm) or as elongate tetragonal prisms. The crystals are translucent, white to pale grey in color, with a white streak and vitreous luster. It is brittle, with no apparent cleavage. Hydroxylgugiaite is uniaxial positive with ω = 1.622 ± 0.002 and ϵ = 1.632 ± 0.002. There is no pleochroism and birefringence is low. The average of eight analyses of a single grain of type material (oxide wt.%) gave Na 2 O 2.04, CaO 32.90, FeO 0.22, MnO 0.74, BeO 13.47 (LA-ICP-MS), Al 2 O 3 0.74, SiO 2 44.06, F 1.74, H 2 O (assuming 3 OH + F) 4.93, Total (–0.73 O = F) 100.10. Potassium, strontium, and magnesium were measured but not detected. The calculated density is 2.79 g cm –3 . The empirical formula on the basis of 14 anions including 3 OH – + F – is: (Ca 2.76 Na 0.31 Mn 0.05 Fe 0.01 ) Σ3.13 (Si 3.45 Be 2.53 Al 0.07 ) Σ6.05 O 11 [(OH) 2.57 F 0.43 ] Σ3 . The formula from crystal-structure analysis of the Saga specimen is: (Ca 3.02 □ 0.98 ) Σ4 (Si 1.79 Be 0.21 ) Σ2 (Be 2.29 Si 1.71 ) Σ4 O 11 (OH) 3 . Combined structural and chemical data gives the following formula for the Nakkaalaaq specimen: (Ca 2.88 □ 0.98 Na 0.12 Mn 0.02 ) Σ4 (Si 1.80 Be 0.17 Al 0.03 ) Σ2 (Be 2.32 Si 1.68 ) Σ4 O 11 [(OH) 2.70 F 0.30 ] Σ3 ; with simplified formula (Ca,□) 4 (Si,Be) 2 (Be,Si) 4 O 11 (OH) 3 . The crystal structure of hydroxylgugiaite is tetragonal in acentric space group P 2 1 / m , with a 7.4151(2), b 7.4151, c 4.9652(1) A, V 272.9(1) A 3 , and Z = 1. It has been refined to an R index of 0.028 on the basis of 342 observed reflections and a correction for the {110} twin law. It is an H-bearing member of the melilite group. The structure has two distinct layers. The one crystallographically distinct Ca site with eight-fold coordination is a square antiprism polyhedron. The Ca polyhedra are in a layer with the H atoms. A second layer consists of corner-sharing Si/Be atoms in tetrahedral coordination with O. One H atom is bonded to an apical O atom that is not shared by two tetrahedra. This H atom is present only when there is a Ca -site vacancy. The other H atom is loosely bonded to the same O atom but at a different site. The IR spectrum supports this H-bonding scheme. Additional hydroxylgugiaite data is given for the other localities.

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    Authors: Donald C. Vinh; Jean-Philippe Gouin; Diana Cruz-Santiago; Michelle Canac-Marquis; +18 Authors

    BackgroundThe Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has prompted accelerated vaccines development. Their use was prioritized to protect the most vulnerable, notably, the elderly. Because of fluctuations in vaccine availability, strategies such as delayed second dose and heterologous prime-boost have been employed. The effectiveness of these strategies in the frail elderly are unknown.MethodsIn this real-world vaccination study, under a government-decreed rationing strategy, elderly adults residing in long-term care facilities, with or without previously-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, were administered homologous or heterologous mRNA vaccines, with an extended 16-week interval between doses. Clinical data and blood were serially collected during and after this interval period. Sera were tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies (to trimeric S; RBD; nucleocapsid) by automated chemiluminescent ELISA.FindingsAfter a significant increase 4 weeks post-prime dose, there was a significant decline in anti-RBD and anti-S IgG levels until the boost dose, followed by an increase 4 weeks later. Previously uninfected individuals exhibited lower antibody responses up to 16 weeks post-prime dose, but achieved comparable levels to previously infected counterparts by 4 weeks post-second dose. Individuals primed with BNT162b2 exhibited larger decrease in anti-RBD and anti-S IgG levels with 16-week interval between doses, compared to those who received mRNA-1273. No differences in antibody levels 4 weeks after the second dose were noted between the two vaccines, in either homologous or heterologous combinations.InterpretationsThese interim results of this ongoing longitudinal study show that, among frail elderly, neither age, sex, nor comorbidity affect antigenicity of mRNA-based COVID vaccines, but previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and type of mRNA vaccine influenced antibody responses when used with a 16-week interval between doses. Homologous/heterologous use of mRNA vaccines was not associated with significant differences in antibody responses 4 weeks following second dose, supporting their interchangeability.FundingThis project was supported by funding from the Public Health Agency of Canada, through the Vaccine Surveillance Reference group and the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force (CITF).

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    Authors: Michael, Gaies; Sarah, Tabbutt; Steven M, Schwartz; Geoffrey L, Bird; +11 Authors

    OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical epidemiology of extubation failure in a multicenter cohort of patients treated in pediatric cardiac ICUs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. SETTING Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. PATIENTS All patients admitted to the CICU at Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium hospitals. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Analysis of all mechanical ventilation episodes in the registry from October 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary outcome of extubation failure was reintubation less than 48 hours after planned extubation. Repeated-measures analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for within patient and center correlation was performed to identify risk factors for extubation failure. Adjusted extubation failure rates for each hospital were calculated using logistic regression controlling for patient factors. Of 1,734 mechanical ventilation episodes (1,478 patients at eight hospitals) ending in a planned extubation, there were 100 extubation failures (5.8%). In multivariable analysis, only longer duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with extubation failure (p = 0.01); the failure rate was 4% when ventilated less than 24 hours, 9% after 24 hours, and 13% after 7 days. For 503 patients intubated and extubated in the cardiac operating room, 15 patients (3%) failed extubation within 48 hours (12 within 24 hr). Case-mix-adjusted extubation failure rates ranged from 1.1% to 9.8% across hospitals. Patients failing extubation had greater median cardiac ICU length of stay (15 vs 3 d; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (7.9 vs 1.2%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Though extubation failure is uncommon overall, there may be opportunities to improve extubation readiness assessment in patients ventilated more than 24 hours. These data suggest that extubation in the operating room after cardiac surgery can be done with a low failure rate. We observed variation in extubation failure rates across hospitals, and future investigation must elucidate the optimal strategies of high-performing centers to reduce ventilation time while limiting extubation failures.

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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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    Authors: I. J. Alexander Dyck; Paulo Manoel; Adair Morse;

    Abstract Public pension boards fear inciting stakeholder outrage if they compensate internal investment managers with market-level salaries. We derive theoretical implications in an agency-portfolio-choice model motivated by inequality aversion. In a global sample, relaxing the effect of outrage on contracting leads to an average annual incremental value-added of $49 million generated through 11 bps in higher excess returns from risky assets, at the cost of $302,429 in additional compensation. Governance reforms that address outrage by reducing political appointees or requiring independent skills-based boards can increase the annual value-added. These findings are orthogonal to costly political distortions from underfunding and pay-to-play schemes. Authors have furnished an Internet Appendix, which is available on the Oxford University Press Web site next to the link to the final published paper online.

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    Review of Financial Studies
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    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

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      Article . 2018
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019 . 2018
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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      Data sources: Radboud Repository
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      Article
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2018
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Article . 2018
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