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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Halpin, Peter Francis;

    The problem of model selection is addressed from a general perspective and solutions are considered within the domain of item response theory (IRT). Selection is conceptualized as including both the evaluation of individual models and the simultaneous comparison of multiple candidates. Traditional tests of goodness of fit can often be regarded as dealing with the former situation, while information criteria can only be applied to the latter. The significance of this last point is pursued in some detail. In terms of optimization, it is shown that information criteria do not provide a means of determining how well their various objective functions are satisfied. This implies that some further criterion is required in order to establish whether the candidates recommended by any information criterion are indeed satisfactory. The need for such a criterion motivates the present work. This approach begins by conceptualizing parametric stochastic models as sets of probability distributions. In any given application the purpose of such a model is to predict the relative frequencies with which an outcome variable takes on its values. This notion of prediction is described in terms of the inclusion of the distribution of the outcome variable in the set of distributions implied by the model: If this is not the case, the model is said to be inaccurate. The concept of accuracy then serves as a basis for selection in IRT. In particular, any IRT model can be represented as a manifold embedded in Euclidean space, and the proximity of any observed distribution to a point on this manifold can be interpreted in terms of the norm of their difference. Describing the geometric properties of sets of candidates provides a means of selection that is not tied to any particular set of observations; this is an important area of further investigation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Berggren, Tasoula Michael;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • Authors: Abedi, Fatemeh;

    Access to clean water is one of the world's greatest concerns. Because 97% of global water resources are seawater, desalination via reverse osmosis (RO) membrane process has become a vital technology to obtain drinkable water. At the same time, the discharge of industrial waste effluents containing heavy metal ions to the available water resources (seawater and brackish water) without adequate pre-treatment is a major cause of water pollution. Heavy metal rejection using nanofiltration (NF) membrane process is a recognized water treatment methodology. Thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes have shown vast performance enhancement using both RO and NF processes. However, TFN membrane fabrication has been limited due to poor dispersion of the nanoparticles in the polyamide (PA) layer of the membrane, and the leaching of the often-hazardous nanoparticles from the TFN membranes. For various reasons such as their dispersibility in aqueous media, safety, high aspect ratio, and functionality, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an ideal nanoparticle for inclusion in TFN membranes. Because of their hydrophilicity, CNCs have more commonly been dispersed in the aqueous monomer solution during PA interfacial polymerization. In this thesis, we investigated two different CNC modification routes to improve CNC dispersion within the trimesoyl chloride (TMC)/n-hexane (non-aqueous) monomer solution. In one case, we acetylated the CNCs (ACNCs) using a straightforward, efficient, solvent-free method to achieve a more uniform CNC dispersion in the PA layer. The resulting ACNCs were less hydrophilic, which allowed increased nanoparticle loading and improved dispersion in the PA layer. In an RO desalination process, compared to unmodified CNC-TFN membranes, the NaCl rejection of the ACNC-TFN membranes remained stable (at 98-99%) up to a 0.4 wt% loading, while water permeability increased by up to 40%. For the second case, we synthesized L-cysteine functionalized CNCs (CysCNCs) and incorporated them into the PA layer for testing in an NF wastewater treatment process. The amine functional groups of L-cysteine covalently bonded with the acyl chloride groups of the TMC monomer. This resulted in improved nanoparticle dispersion but could also have prevented nanoparticle leaching. Moreover, because L-cysteine contains strong chelating groups, their inclusion in the PA layer led to improved heavy metal rejection. A loading of 0.1 wt% CysCNCs in the TFN membranes provided high rejection of both copper and lead ions, 98.1 and 95.2%, respectively. The CysCNCs were also evaluated in an NF desalination process resulting in a 40% increase in water permeability with almost no decline in Na₂SO₄ (97-98%), MgCl₂ and NaCl rejection. The modified CNCs enabled us to overcome the water permeability/selectivity trade-off in CNC-TFN membranes for both RO and NF membrane desalination. Finally, we developed an experimental protocol to investigate the effect of the adsorption of heavy metal ions (if any) on the performance of thin film composite (TFC) and TFN membranes in NF. We confirmed that adsorption occurred, and the equilibrium capacity of the membranes was reached after 8 - 12 h of the experiment. Despite reaching the equilibrium capacity, the water permeability and heavy metal rejection remained at their highest values. This led to the conclusion that the adsorbed heavy metals altered the membrane surface, thereby improving the performance of both TFC and TFN membranes. The ability to modify CNCs enables one to achieve a controlled range of hydrophilicity/ hydrophobicity. This allows one to fine-tune CNC compatibility with the TMC/n-hexane non-aqueous monomer solution and enable improved dispersion in the PA layer, eventually leading to improved TFN membrane performance for both RO and NF processes.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alexander, Nicolle;

    More than two decades after its introduction, neoliberal ideology has increasingly created a class and race-based gap in relation to student achievement in Ontario’s education system. Due to market-based rhetoric shaping policies and legislation, schools are increasingly encouraging students to adhere to the demands of a newly globalized world with a focus on the economy, regardless of their background. This study aims to analyze the presence of neoliberal reforms in Ontario’s education system through decisions made in government from Mike Harris’ in 1995 to the present Doug Ford administration. Specifically, I investigate how the so-called knowledge economy has produced a system that enables students deemed marketable, often from middle- and upper-class white backgrounds, and disables non-marketable students, most often the working poor and the working class, and racial and ethnic minorities, through funding cuts, heightened accountability, and standardized testing. By evaluating Ministry of Education policy documents and documents for both Conservative Premier campaigns, I analyzed the rhetoric used to introduce, consolidate and solidify neoliberal discourse throughout the past twenty years. The results showed that by simplifying education to quantifiable measures, the education system now measures concepts such as equity and inclusion in schools through standardized testing and monthly reports. Further, the rhetoric used to solidify equity and inclusion within the system focuses more on the presentation of both rather than materializing its action in schools. In order to minimize the current student achievement gap in our education system, funding needs to be focalized in social services cut by our government level to properly re“instate” the intended actions of these policies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship at UWind...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cong, Binghao;

    The primary objective of this thesis is to improve optical setups of a constant volume combustion chamber to better understand the vaporization and spray characteristics of various fuels. The schlieren imaging technique is utilized to visualize phenomena that are challenging to observe directly. In this thesis, the schlieren imaging is used to observe the spray and ignition characteristics of DME and diesel fuels under high injection pressure. First, various optical techniques are discussed and compared under the same test condition including schlieren, shadowgraph, and direct imaging. The advantages for these techniques are presented and the most appropriate technique for different testing scenarios is proposed. Second, the spray and ignition characteristics of DME and diesel are compared. The inert spray for both fuels are observed and compared using schlieren imaging technique. The reactive spray for both fuels are observed and compared using direct imaging and shadowgraph imaging system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship at UWind...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scholarship at UWindsor
    Thesis . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship at UWind...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scholarship at UWindsor
      Thesis . 2023
      License: CC BY
  • Authors: Raymond, Carla A.;

    Due to a history of malpractice in archaeology, minimally and non-destructive investigative techniques are necessary to protect precious artefacts and mummified remains for the future. Using a combination of established and novel techniques, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and neutron CT, allowed for non-destructive study of IA.2402, an unusual Egyptian votive mummy of unknown age and provenance. These imaging methods revealed a partial skeleton of a small, juvenile cat. Use of both techniques allows for dual contrast and complementary study of bones, soft tissue, and textile components. Neutron CT, never before applied to archaeometric studies of mummified remains, provided valuable insight into wrapping techniques used in the mummification process. Pigment analysis was performed for coloured markings on the wrappings, using a scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, to determine their composition and authenticity. Protein extraction and analysis was attempted, however was inconclusive of species due to the decayed state of remains. Radiocarbon dates were acquired, and provided quantitative results to compare with morphological observations and conclusions based on partiality of the contents. All techniques were employed to better define and profile the specimen, within its historical context, while causing as little physical disruption as possible.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Grabham, Elizabeth Anne;

    This report explores how Arsenal Pulp Press participated in a bibliographic data exchange network with its online retail and data aggregation partners in Canada from May 2005 to May 2006. Looking specifically at the data requirements of Amazon.ca, BookManager, Bowker’s Books In Print, and Indigo Books & Music, this report observes the challenges faced by this midsize, independent publisher when it used a bibliographic database management system to store and distribute industry-standard marketing data (cover images and book descriptions). The conclusion of the report proposes recommendations to Canadian and international book industry institutions—BookNet Canada and EDItEUR—supply chain partners, database system developers, and Arsenal Pulp Press itself for improving the standards and procedures for exchanging comprehensive and accurate marketing data while reducing the managerial workload for the publisher.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ayman Mahmoud Bayomy Mahmoud;

    Rapid developments in the design of chips and electronic devices for high-performance computers have led to a need for new and more effective methods of chip cooling. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal development and heat transfer characteristics of aluminum foam heat sinks for the heater which simulated Intel core i7 processor. Three main features were then added to the aluminum foam heat sink: 1) introducing pulsating water flow through the aluminum foam in order to achieve a uniform surface temperature, 2) the addition of channels in the aluminum foam in order to increase the surface area to volume ratio and 3) using γ-Al2O3-water nanofluid as a coolant instead of water. The experimental results revealed that the thermal entry length of the flow through the aluminum foam increases along with increases in the Reynolds number. The results also revealed a convex profile for the local temperature distribution of the pulsating water flow through the aluminum foam due to the reversing flow and development of a boundary layers. The pulsating flow also enhanced the average Nusselt number by 14% and the temperature uniformity by 73% compared to the steady flow. The introduction of channels in the aluminum foam reduced the average Nusselt number by 10% (for two channels) and 25% (for three channels). The results revealed that the aluminum foam with two channels achieved a higher thermal efficiency compared to the block and three channel designs. The results also revealed that the foam filled channel enhanced the average Nusselt number by 20% compared with the empty channel. The maximum heat transfer rate enhancement was achieved at 0.2vol% and there was a sudden drop in the positive effect at 0.3vol% (compared with pure water). The positive effect then showed a slight increase along with increases in nanoparticle concentration up to 0.6vol%. The average enhancement percentages of the Nusselt number at a 0.2vol% nanofluid concentration were 37% and 28% at Reynolds numbers of 601.3 and 210, respectively. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data with a maximum relative error of 3% in all studies.

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    Authors: Edrisy, Mohamed;

    The emergence of commercial FEA solvers was a significant breakthrough that boosted the accuracy and complexity of engineering design. While composite materials are special materials, their mechanical properties can be custom made by considering the needs and requirements of the design problem. Given the rapidly expanding global consumption of composite materials, access to FEA solvers capable of assigning these materials is an absolute requirement.The CATIA software is a platform for designing, analyzing, and manufacturing of parts. However, there is no meaningful documentation in the public domain exploring the finite element functionalities of CATIA software for composite materials. Isotropic materials are used in numerous references investigating the CATIA FEA solver; however, the extension to composite materials has been lacking. The present study investigates two phenomena: (1) the procedure to import composite material properties into the Generative Structural Analysis workbench, and (2) the pre-processing and the post-processing toolbars and functionalities pertaining to this matter. The thesis does not address the CAD modelling aspects of the composites per se since there are many references available concentrating on such issues in the CATIA public literature.The composite models are selected from different scenarios labeled as benchmark problems. The results generated by CATIA’s native FEA solver for the static, dynamic, and buckling cases are compared with other tools available to the engineering community. These tools encompass the Classical Lamination Theory and two commercial CAE codes, known as ABAQUS and ANSYS.

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    Authors: Aaron O'Quinn;
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1,038 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Halpin, Peter Francis;

    The problem of model selection is addressed from a general perspective and solutions are considered within the domain of item response theory (IRT). Selection is conceptualized as including both the evaluation of individual models and the simultaneous comparison of multiple candidates. Traditional tests of goodness of fit can often be regarded as dealing with the former situation, while information criteria can only be applied to the latter. The significance of this last point is pursued in some detail. In terms of optimization, it is shown that information criteria do not provide a means of determining how well their various objective functions are satisfied. This implies that some further criterion is required in order to establish whether the candidates recommended by any information criterion are indeed satisfactory. The need for such a criterion motivates the present work. This approach begins by conceptualizing parametric stochastic models as sets of probability distributions. In any given application the purpose of such a model is to predict the relative frequencies with which an outcome variable takes on its values. This notion of prediction is described in terms of the inclusion of the distribution of the outcome variable in the set of distributions implied by the model: If this is not the case, the model is said to be inaccurate. The concept of accuracy then serves as a basis for selection in IRT. In particular, any IRT model can be represented as a manifold embedded in Euclidean space, and the proximity of any observed distribution to a point on this manifold can be interpreted in terms of the norm of their difference. Describing the geometric properties of sets of candidates provides a means of selection that is not tied to any particular set of observations; this is an important area of further investigation.

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    Authors: Berggren, Tasoula Michael;
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  • Authors: Abedi, Fatemeh;

    Access to clean water is one of the world's greatest concerns. Because 97% of global water resources are seawater, desalination via reverse osmosis (RO) membrane process has become a vital technology to obtain drinkable water. At the same time, the discharge of industrial waste effluents containing heavy metal ions to the available water resources (seawater and brackish water) without adequate pre-treatment is a major cause of water pollution. Heavy metal rejection using nanofiltration (NF) membrane process is a recognized water treatment methodology. Thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes have shown vast performance enhancement using both RO and NF processes. However, TFN membrane fabrication has been limited due to poor dispersion of the nanoparticles in the polyamide (PA) layer of the membrane, and the leaching of the often-hazardous nanoparticles from the TFN membranes. For various reasons such as their dispersibility in aqueous media, safety, high aspect ratio, and functionality, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an ideal nanoparticle for inclusion in TFN membranes. Because of their hydrophilicity, CNCs have more commonly been dispersed in the aqueous monomer solution during PA interfacial polymerization. In this thesis, we investigated two different CNC modification routes to improve CNC dispersion within the trimesoyl chloride (TMC)/n-hexane (non-aqueous) monomer solution. In one case, we acetylated the CNCs (ACNCs) using a straightforward, efficient, solvent-free method to achieve a more uniform CNC dispersion in the PA layer. The resulting ACNCs were less hydrophilic, which allowed increased nanoparticle loading and improved dispersion in the PA layer. In an RO desalination process, compared to unmodified CNC-TFN membranes, the NaCl rejection of the ACNC-TFN membranes remained stable (at 98-99%) up to a 0.4 wt% loading, while water permeability increased by up to 40%. For the second case, we synthesized L-cysteine functionalized CNCs (CysCNCs) and incorporated them into the PA layer for testing in an NF wastewater treatment process. The amine functional groups of L-cysteine covalently bonded with the acyl chloride groups of the TMC monomer. This resulted in improved nanoparticle dispersion but could also have prevented nanoparticle leaching. Moreover, because L-cysteine contains strong chelating groups, their inclusion in the PA layer led to improved heavy metal rejection. A loading of 0.1 wt% CysCNCs in the TFN membranes provided high rejection of both copper and lead ions, 98.1 and 95.2%, respectively. The CysCNCs were also evaluated in an NF desalination process resulting in a 40% increase in water permeability with almost no decline in Na₂SO₄ (97-98%), MgCl₂ and NaCl rejection. The modified CNCs enabled us to overcome the water permeability/selectivity trade-off in CNC-TFN membranes for both RO and NF membrane desalination. Finally, we developed an experimental protocol to investigate the effect of the adsorption of heavy metal ions (if any) on the performance of thin film composite (TFC) and TFN membranes in NF. We confirmed that adsorption occurred, and the equilibrium capacity of the membranes was reached after 8 - 12 h of the experiment. Despite reaching the equilibrium capacity, the water permeability and heavy metal rejection remained at their highest values. This led to the conclusion that the adsorbed heavy metals altered the membrane surface, thereby improving the performance of both TFC and TFN membranes. The ability to modify CNCs enables one to achieve a controlled range of hydrophilicity/ hydrophobicity. This allows one to fine-tune CNC compatibility with the TMC/n-hexane non-aqueous monomer solution and enable improved dispersion in the PA layer, eventually leading to improved TFN membrane performance for both RO and NF processes.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alexander, Nicolle;

    More than two decades after its introduction, neoliberal ideology has increasingly created a class and race-based gap in relation to student achievement in Ontario’s education system. Due to market-based rhetoric shaping policies and legislation, schools are increasingly encouraging students to adhere to the demands of a newly globalized world with a focus on the economy, regardless of their background. This study aims to analyze the presence of neoliberal reforms in Ontario’s education system through decisions made in government from Mike Harris’ in 1995 to the present Doug Ford administration. Specifically, I investigate how the so-called knowledge economy has produced a system that enables students deemed marketable, often from middle- and upper-class white backgrounds, and disables non-marketable students, most often the working poor and the working class, and racial and ethnic minorities, through funding cuts, heightened accountability, and standardized testing. By evaluating Ministry of Education policy documents and documents for both Conservative Premier campaigns, I analyzed the rhetoric used to introduce, consolidate and solidify neoliberal discourse throughout the past twenty years. The results showed that by simplifying education to quantifiable measures, the education system now measures concepts such as equity and inclusion in schools through standardized testing and monthly reports. Further, the rhetoric used to solidify equity and inclusion within the system focuses more on the presentation of both rather than materializing its action in schools. In order to minimize the current student achievement gap in our education system, funding needs to be focalized in social services cut by our government level to properly re“instate” the intended actions of these policies.

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    Authors: Cong, Binghao;

    The primary objective of this thesis is to improve optical setups of a constant volume combustion chamber to better understand the vaporization and spray characteristics of various fuels. The schlieren imaging technique is utilized to visualize phenomena that are challenging to observe directly. In this thesis, the schlieren imaging is used to observe the spray and ignition characteristics of DME and diesel fuels under high injection pressure. First, various optical techniques are discussed and compared under the same test condition including schlieren, shadowgraph, and direct imaging. The advantages for these techniques are presented and the most appropriate technique for different testing scenarios is proposed. Second, the spray and ignition characteristics of DME and diesel are compared. The inert spray for both fuels are observed and compared using schlieren imaging technique. The reactive spray for both fuels are observed and compared using direct imaging and shadowgraph imaging system.

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    Scholarship at UWindsor
    Thesis . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      Thesis . 2023
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  • Authors: Raymond, Carla A.;

    Due to a history of malpractice in archaeology, minimally and non-destructive investigative techniques are necessary to protect precious artefacts and mummified remains for the future. Using a combination of established and novel techniques, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and neutron CT, allowed for non-destructive study of IA.2402, an unusual Egyptian votive mummy of unknown age and provenance. These imaging methods revealed a partial skeleton of a small, juvenile cat. Use of both techniques allows for dual contrast and complementary study of bones, soft tissue, and textile components. Neutron CT, never before applied to archaeometric studies of mummified remains, provided valuable insight into wrapping techniques used in the mummification process. Pigment analysis was performed for coloured markings on the wrappings, using a scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, to determine their composition and authenticity. Protein extraction and analysis was attempted, however was inconclusive of species due to the decayed state of remains. Radiocarbon dates were acquired, and provided quantitative results to compare with morphological observations and conclusions based on partiality of the contents. All techniques were employed to better define and profile the specimen, within its historical context, while causing as little physical disruption as possible.

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    Authors: Grabham, Elizabeth Anne;

    This report explores how Arsenal Pulp Press participated in a bibliographic data exchange network with its online retail and data aggregation partners in Canada from May 2005 to May 2006. Looking specifically at the data requirements of Amazon.ca, BookManager, Bowker’s Books In Print, and Indigo Books & Music, this report observes the challenges faced by this midsize, independent publisher when it used a bibliographic database management system to store and distribute industry-standard marketing data (cover images and book descriptions). The conclusion of the report proposes recommendations to Canadian and international book industry institutions—BookNet Canada and EDItEUR—supply chain partners, database system developers, and Arsenal Pulp Press itself for improving the standards and procedures for exchanging comprehensive and accurate marketing data while reducing the managerial workload for the publisher.

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    Authors: Ayman Mahmoud Bayomy Mahmoud;

    Rapid developments in the design of chips and electronic devices for high-performance computers have led to a need for new and more effective methods of chip cooling. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal development and heat transfer characteristics of aluminum foam heat sinks for the heater which simulated Intel core i7 processor. Three main features were then added to the aluminum foam heat sink: 1) introducing pulsating water flow through the aluminum foam in order to achieve a uniform surface temperature, 2) the addition of channels in the aluminum foam in order to increase the surface area to volume ratio and 3) using γ-Al2O3-water nanofluid as a coolant instead of water. The experimental results revealed that the thermal entry length of the flow through the aluminum foam increases along with increases in the Reynolds number. The results also revealed a convex profile for the local temperature distribution of the pulsating water flow through the aluminum foam due to the reversing flow and development of a boundary layers. The pulsating flow also enhanced the average Nusselt number by 14% and the temperature uniformity by 73% compared to the steady flow. The introduction of channels in the aluminum foam reduced the average Nusselt number by 10% (for two channels) and 25% (for three channels). The results revealed that the aluminum foam with two channels achieved a higher thermal efficiency compared to the block and three channel designs. The results also revealed that the foam filled channel enhanced the average Nusselt number by 20% compared with the empty channel. The maximum heat transfer rate enhancement was achieved at 0.2vol% and there was a sudden drop in the positive effect at 0.3vol% (compared with pure water). The positive effect then showed a slight increase along with increases in nanoparticle concentration up to 0.6vol%. The average enhancement percentages of the Nusselt number at a 0.2vol% nanofluid concentration were 37% and 28% at Reynolds numbers of 601.3 and 210, respectively. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data with a maximum relative error of 3% in all studies.

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    Authors: Edrisy, Mohamed;