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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
    License: IOP Copyright Policies
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: I. J. Alexander Dyck; Paulo Manoel; Adair Morse;

    Abstract Public pension boards fear inciting stakeholder outrage if they compensate internal investment managers with market-level salaries. We derive theoretical implications in an agency-portfolio-choice model motivated by inequality aversion. In a global sample, relaxing the effect of outrage on contracting leads to an average annual incremental value-added of $49 million generated through 11 bps in higher excess returns from risky assets, at the cost of $302,429 in additional compensation. Governance reforms that address outrage by reducing political appointees or requiring independent skills-based boards can increase the annual value-added. These findings are orthogonal to costly political distortions from underfunding and pay-to-play schemes. Authors have furnished an Internet Appendix, which is available on the Oxford University Press Web site next to the link to the final published paper online.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Review of Financial ...arrow_drop_down
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    Review of Financial Studies
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Review of Financial ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Review of Financial Studies
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2019 . 2018
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019 . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sebastian Krogh;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hess.coperni...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hess.coperni...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Joshua Friell; Chase M. Straw;

    AbstractSpatiotemporal data and analyses are gaining traction in the turfgrass industry as valuable tools to enable data‐driven management practices, but to date there has been minimal research in practical settings. The objective of this work was to quantify relationships between soil volumetric water content (VWC), proximal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and several aerial measurements (visible, NDVI, and thermal infrared) collected in a real‐world application at field scale during a dry down. Data collection surveys were conducted in 2020 the morning of 25 Feb, afternoon of 25 Feb, and morning of 27 February on three golf course fairways in CA, USA. The first survey was initiated following an irrigation event, and then no additional irrigation or rainfall occurred prior to the second and third surveys. Ground‐based data were collected using the Precision Sense 6000™ (The Toro Company, Bloomington, MN) and aerial data were collected using an unmanned aerial vehicle (GreenSight Inc., Boston, MA). Data were appropriately georeferenced and analyzed to determine correlation between VWC and proximal NDVI, proximal and aerial NDVI, and VWC and aerial measurements. A significant, weak correlation (r = –0.21, p < .05) was found between VWC and proximal NDVI measurements, but only for the first survey immediately following the irrigation event. Significant, moderate to strong correlations were found between proximal and aerial NDVI during all three surveys (r = 0.63, p < .001; r = 0.64, p < .001; r = 0.85, p < .001), respectively]. Volumetric water content was significantly correlated with aerial NDVI measurements (r = –0.26, p < .001) but the relationship was weak and only existed for the first survey following the irrigation event. This study demonstrates the complexity of scaling remote sensing technologies from small plots to real‐world applications and identifies several barriers to providing quantitatively predictive and actionable data to turfgrass managers.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ itsrjarrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Donald C. Vinh; Jean-Philippe Gouin; Diana Cruz-Santiago; Michelle Canac-Marquis; +18 Authors

    BackgroundThe Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has prompted accelerated vaccines development. Their use was prioritized to protect the most vulnerable, notably, the elderly. Because of fluctuations in vaccine availability, strategies such as delayed second dose and heterologous prime-boost have been employed. The effectiveness of these strategies in the frail elderly are unknown.MethodsIn this real-world vaccination study, under a government-decreed rationing strategy, elderly adults residing in long-term care facilities, with or without previously-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, were administered homologous or heterologous mRNA vaccines, with an extended 16-week interval between doses. Clinical data and blood were serially collected during and after this interval period. Sera were tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies (to trimeric S; RBD; nucleocapsid) by automated chemiluminescent ELISA.FindingsAfter a significant increase 4 weeks post-prime dose, there was a significant decline in anti-RBD and anti-S IgG levels until the boost dose, followed by an increase 4 weeks later. Previously uninfected individuals exhibited lower antibody responses up to 16 weeks post-prime dose, but achieved comparable levels to previously infected counterparts by 4 weeks post-second dose. Individuals primed with BNT162b2 exhibited larger decrease in anti-RBD and anti-S IgG levels with 16-week interval between doses, compared to those who received mRNA-1273. No differences in antibody levels 4 weeks after the second dose were noted between the two vaccines, in either homologous or heterologous combinations.InterpretationsThese interim results of this ongoing longitudinal study show that, among frail elderly, neither age, sex, nor comorbidity affect antigenicity of mRNA-based COVID vaccines, but previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and type of mRNA vaccine influenced antibody responses when used with a 16-week interval between doses. Homologous/heterologous use of mRNA vaccines was not associated with significant differences in antibody responses 4 weeks following second dose, supporting their interchangeability.FundingThis project was supported by funding from the Public Health Agency of Canada, through the Vaccine Surveillance Reference group and the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force (CITF).

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    Authors: Michael, Gaies; Sarah, Tabbutt; Steven M, Schwartz; Geoffrey L, Bird; +11 Authors

    OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical epidemiology of extubation failure in a multicenter cohort of patients treated in pediatric cardiac ICUs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. SETTING Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. PATIENTS All patients admitted to the CICU at Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium hospitals. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Analysis of all mechanical ventilation episodes in the registry from October 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary outcome of extubation failure was reintubation less than 48 hours after planned extubation. Repeated-measures analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for within patient and center correlation was performed to identify risk factors for extubation failure. Adjusted extubation failure rates for each hospital were calculated using logistic regression controlling for patient factors. Of 1,734 mechanical ventilation episodes (1,478 patients at eight hospitals) ending in a planned extubation, there were 100 extubation failures (5.8%). In multivariable analysis, only longer duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with extubation failure (p = 0.01); the failure rate was 4% when ventilated less than 24 hours, 9% after 24 hours, and 13% after 7 days. For 503 patients intubated and extubated in the cardiac operating room, 15 patients (3%) failed extubation within 48 hours (12 within 24 hr). Case-mix-adjusted extubation failure rates ranged from 1.1% to 9.8% across hospitals. Patients failing extubation had greater median cardiac ICU length of stay (15 vs 3 d; p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (7.9 vs 1.2%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Though extubation failure is uncommon overall, there may be opportunities to improve extubation readiness assessment in patients ventilated more than 24 hours. These data suggest that extubation in the operating room after cardiac surgery can be done with a low failure rate. We observed variation in extubation failure rates across hospitals, and future investigation must elucidate the optimal strategies of high-performing centers to reduce ventilation time while limiting extubation failures.

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    Authors: Villaverde, Tamara; Global Carex Group;

    Carex (Cyperaceae), with an estimated 2000 species, nearly cosmopolitan distribution and broad range of habitats, is one of the largest angiosperm genera and the largest in the temperate zone. In this article, we provide argument and evidence for a broader circumscription of Carex to add all species currently classified in Cymophyllus (monotypic), Kobresia (c. 60 species), Schoenoxiphium (c. 15 species) and Uncinia (c. 70 species) to those currently classified as Carex. Carex and these genera comprise tribe Cariceae (subfamily Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae) and form a wellsupported monophyletic group in all molecular phylogenetic studies to date. Carex as defined here in the broad sense currently comprises at least four clades. Three are strongly supported (Siderostictae, core Vignea and core Carex), whereas the caricoid clade, which includes all the segregate genera, receives only weak to moderate support. The caricoid clade is most commonly split into two clades, one including a monophyletic Schoenoxiphium and two small clades of species of Carex s.s., and the other comprising Kobresia, Uncinia and mostly unispicate species of Carex s.s. Morphological variation is high in all but the Vignea clade, making it extremely difficult to define consistent synapomorphies for most clades. However, Carex s.l. as newly circumscribed here is clearly differentiated from the sister groups in tribe Scirpeae by the transition from bisexual flowers with a bristle perianth in the sister group to unisexual flowers without a perianth in Carex. The naked female flowers of Carex s.l. are at least partially enclosed in a flask-shaped prophyll, termed a perigynium. Carex s.s. is not only by far the largest genus in the group, but also the earliest published name. As a result, only 72 new combinations and 58 replacement names are required to treat all of tribe Cariceae as a single genus Carex. We present the required transfers here, with synonymy, and we argue that this broader monophyletic circumscription of Carex reflects the close evolutionary relationships in the group and serves the goal of nomenclatural stability better than other possible treatments. We are grateful to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for funding of the Biodiversity Synthesis Group of the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) project, which funded our BioSynC Synthesis meeting at the Field Museum in Chicago in September 2011, when the Global Carex Group was formed. We also thank the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for funding our continuing international collaborative work on the phylogeny and classification of Carex under grants DEB 1255901 to ALH and MJW, and DEB 1256033 to EHR. We also acknowledge with thanks funding for nomenclatural research and for attendance at our second meeting during the Monocots V conference in New York in July, 2013, from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada (NSERC) to MJW and JRS; University of Mainz to BG; JSPS KAKENHI Grant no. 25840136 to OY; Korea National Arboretum to SK; CGL2012- 38744 project from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness to ML; project 30870178 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to SRZ, and a University of Wisconsin-Madison Raper Travel Grant to DS. The figures were prepared with invaluable technical advice from H. C. Rimmer. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Lars Olof Karlsson; Hanna Erixon; Hanna Erixon; Tino Ebbers; +6 Authors

    BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cause of cardiovascular morbidity, including thromboembolism and heart failure. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) detected in AF patients may be either precursor or consequence of the arrythmia. Successful cardioversion of chronic AF is often followed by a transient period of left atrial (LA) stunning, where depressed mechanical atrial contraction persists despite reinstitution of sinus rhythm. To determine if AF-associated LVD would improve with resolution of LA dysfunction, AF patients were examined immediately and 4 weeks after cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses ventricular function according to the volumes and energetics of functional components of the LV volume. Previously, described 4D CMR markers of LVD include decreased volume and end-diastolic kinetic energy (KE) of the Direct flow, which is the portion of LV volume that passes directly from inflow to outflow in a single cycle. We hypothesize that impaired LV flow patterns and energetics will be found immediately after cardioversion during atrial stunning, and that those parameters will improve as atrial function returns.MethodsTen patients with a history of AF underwent CMR 2–3 h (Time-1) and 4 weeks (Time-2), following electrical cardioversion to sinus rhythm. 4D phase-contrast velocity data and morphological images were acquired at a 3T CMR system. Using a previously evaluated method, pathlines were emitted from the LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and traced forward and backward in time until end-systole. The LVEDV was automatically separated into four functional flow components whose volume and KE were calculated.ResultsLeft atrial fractional area change increased over the follow-up period (P = 0.001), indicating recovery of LA mechanical function. LVEF increased between Time-1 and Time-2 (P = 0.003); LVEDVI did not change (P = 0.319). Over that interval, the ratios of Direct flow/LVEDV volume and KE increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), while the ratios of Residual volume/LVEDV volume and KE decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively).ConclusionPost-cardioversion recovery of LA function was associated with improvements in conventional and 4D CMR markers of LV function. Flow-specific measures demonstrate the negative but potentially reversible impact of LA dysfunction on volume and energetic aspects of LV function.

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    Authors: Bari, Ausaf A; Sparks, Hiro; Levinson, Simon; Wilson, Bayard; +3 Authors

    Introduction: The amygdala is known to play a role in mediating emotion and possibly addiction. We used probabilistic tractography (PT) to evaluate whether structural connectivity of the amygdala to the brain reward network is associated with impulsive choice and tobacco smoking. Methods: Diffusion and structural MRI scans were obtained from 197 healthy subjects (45 with a history of tobacco smoking) randomly sampled from the Human Connectome database. PT was performed to assess amygdala connectivity with several brain regions. Seed masks were generated, and statistical maps of amygdala connectivity were derived. Connectivity results were correlated with a subject performance both on a delayed discounting task and whether they met specified criteria for difficulty quitting smoking. Results: Amygdala connectivity was spatially segregated, with the strongest connectivity to the hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and brainstem. Connectivity with the hippocampus was associated with preference for larger delayed rewards, whereas connectivity with the OFC, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and insula were associated with preference for smaller immediate rewards. Greater nicotine dependence with difficulty quitting was associated with less hippocampal and greater brainstem connectivity. Scores on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) correlated with rACC connectivity. Discussion: These findings highlight the importance of the amygdala-hippocampal-ACC network in the valuation of future rewards and substance dependence. These results will help to identify potential targets for neuromodulatory therapies for addiction and related disorders.

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    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: I. J. Alexander Dyck; Paulo Manoel; Adair Morse;

    Abstract Public pension boards fear inciting stakeholder outrage if they compensate internal investment managers with market-level salaries. We derive theoretical implications in an agency-portfolio-choice model motivated by inequality aversion. In a global sample, relaxing the effect of outrage on contracting leads to an average annual incremental value-added of $49 million generated through 11 bps in higher excess returns from risky assets, at the cost of $302,429 in additional compensation. Governance reforms that address outrage by reducing political appointees or requiring independent skills-based boards can increase the annual value-added. These findings are orthogonal to costly political distortions from underfunding and pay-to-play schemes. Authors have furnished an Internet Appendix, which is available on the Oxford University Press Web site next to the link to the final published paper online.

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    Review of Financial Studies
    Article . 2021
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      Review of Financial Studies
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Daniel S. Shaw; Melvin N. Wilson; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgrounds and aimsDespite the link between stress and addictive behavior in adulthood, little is known about how early life stress in families predicts the early emergence of substance use in adolescence. This study tested a developmental cascade model, proposing that early stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction covary, and both disrupt the refinement of inhibitory control, which evolves into problem behavior in middle/late childhood and subsequent substance use exploration in early adolescence.MethodsData came from the Early Steps Multisite study, a community sample of at‐risk families in the metropolitan US areas of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Eugene (Oregon) and Charlottesville (Virginia) with children aged 2 years at the start of the study and 14 years at the last measurement (n = 364). Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.ResultsEarly stressful life events and negative parent–child interaction assessed at ages 2–5 were negatively related to inhibitory control at ages 7 and 8. Low levels of inhibitory control were prognostic of childhood problem behavior at ages 9 and 10. Finally, late childhood problem behavior was associated with substance use at age 14. Parental drug use was directly related to substance use at age 14.ConclusionsEarly life stress may disrupt child inhibitory control, which can cascade into behavioral and peer problem behavior in childhood and, in turn, heighten the risk for early adolescent substance use.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019 . 2018
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2019
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