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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christopher G. Majka; Jan Klimaszewski;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    Since 1970, 203 species of Aleocharinae have been recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, 174 of which have been reported in the past decade. This rapid growth of knowledge of this hitherto neglected subfamily of rove beetles occasions the present compilation of species recorded in the region together with the chronology of their discovery. Sixteen new provincial records are reported, twelve from Nova Scotia, one from New Brunswick, and three from Prince Edward Island. Seven species, including Oxypoda chantali Klimaszewski, Oxypoda perexilis Casey, Myllaena cuneata Notman, Placusa canadensis Klimaszewski, Geostiba (Sibiota) appalachigena Gusarov, Lypoglossa angularis obtusa (LeConte), and Trichiusa postica Casey [tentative identification] are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces, one of which, Myllaena cuneata, is newly recorded in Canada. A preliminary analysis of the composition of the fauna indicates that the percentage of adventive species (18.2%) is consistent with that of other groups of Coleoptera. Both Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island are comparatively faunistically under-represented, in all probability as a result of insufficient collecting effort in these areas. A species accumulation curve indicates that it is probable that further species of aleocharines remain to be documented in the region.

  • Publication . Article . 1905
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ernest Rutherford;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    IN a recent number of the Philosophical Magazine (November, 1904), I have shown that radium, after passing through four rapid changes, finally gives rise to two slow transformation products, which, on the scheme of changes there outlined, were called radium D and radium E.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539), EC | LUMINOUS (686764)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    William O'Grady; Patrick Parnaby; Justin Schikschneit;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress)

    Al'aide de donnees recueillies lors de la couverture d'evenements par la presse locale, on examine comment a etepresentele meurtre d'un jeune de 15 ans, Jordan Manners, commis dans une ecole secondaire de Toronto. En particulier, on cherche acomprendre pourquoi, apres avoir d'abord tentede contextualiser l'evenement en fonction d'autres cas de tireurs dans des ecoles, les medias ont ensuite adopteun cadre d'interpretation basesur des presup- positions ideologiques liees aux classes marginales de Toronto. Quand les medias veulent absolument couvrir un evenement malgrel'absence de renseignements essentiels, on note qu'ils on tendance areprendre des cadres conformistes. Dans la conclusion, on etudie la signification sociopolitique de ces cadres essentialises pour les crimes commis dans les collectivites pauvres, habitees principalement par des personnes de couleur. Mots cles : constructionnisme, media, crime, tireur dans les ecoles, classes marginales Using data gathered from local press coverage, this article examines how the shooting death of 15-year-old Jordan Manners at a Toronto high school was framed. In particular, we seek to explain why the media's initial attempt to contextualize the event vis-a`-vis the tragedy of past school shootings eventually gave way to an interpretive frame rooted in ideological presuppositions about Toronto's underclass. We argue that when the media are confronted with a ''must cover'' event but lack essential informa- tion, the tendency is to adopt pre-existing, consonant frameworks. We con- clude by exploring the socio-political significance of such essentializing frames vis-a`-vis crime in poor communities inhabited mainly by people of colour.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam Brunke; Alexey Solodovnikov;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: NSERC

    The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini) are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz), stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson) and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrea Firrincieli; Alessandro Presentato; Giusi Favoino; Rosita Marabottini; Enrica Allevato; Silvia Rita Stazi; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza; Antoine Harfouche; Maurizio Petruccioli; Raymond J. Turner; +2 more
    Country: Italy

    This is the accepted manuscript of the paper "Identification of Resistance Genes and Response to Arsenic in Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1", published as final paper in "Frontiers in Microbiology Volume 10, 07 May 2019, Pages 888 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00888”. Arsenic (As) ranks among the priority metal(loid)s that are of public health concern. In the environment, arsenic is present in different forms, organic or inorganic, featured by various toxicity levels. Bacteria have developed different strategies to deal with this toxicity involving different resistance genetic determinants. Bacterial strains of Rhodococcus genus, and more in general Actinobacteria phylum, have the ability to cope with high concentrations of toxic metalloids, although little is known on the molecular and genetic bases of these metabolic features. Here we show that Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1, an extremophilic actinobacterial strain able to tolerate high concentrations of organic solvents and toxic metalloids, can grow in the presence of high concentrations of As(V) (up to 240 mM) under aerobic growth conditions using glucose as sole carbon and energy source. Notably, BCP1 cells improved their growth performance as well as their capacity of reducing As(V) into As(III) when the concentration of As(V) is within 30–100 mM As(V). Genomic analysis of BCP1 compared to other actinobacterial strains revealed the presence of three gene clusters responsible for organic and inorganic arsenic resistance. In particular, two adjacent and divergently oriented ars gene clusters include three arsenate reductase genes (arsC1/2/3) involved in resistance mechanisms against As(V). A sequence similarity network (SSN) and phylogenetic analysis of these arsenate reductase genes indicated that two of them (ArsC2/3) are functionally related to thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)-dependent class and one of them (ArsC1) to the mycothiol (MSH)/mycoredoxin (Mrx)-dependent class. A targeted transcriptomic analysis performed by RT-qPCR indicated that the arsenate reductase genes as well as other genes included in the ars gene cluster (possible regulator gene, arsR, and arsenite extrusion genes, arsA, acr3, and arsD) are transcriptionally induced when BCP1 cells were exposed to As(V) supplied at two different sub-lethal concentrations. This work provides for the first time insights into the arsenic resistance mechanisms of a Rhodococcus strain, revealing some of the unique metabolic requirements for the environmental persistence of this bacterial genus and its possible use in bioremediation procedures of toxic metal contaminated sites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meixiu Yu; Daqing Yang; Xiaolong Liu; Qiongfang Li; Guoqing Wang;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Netherlands

    Dam building and reservoir operations alter the downstream hydrological regime, and as a result, affect the health of the river aquatic ecosystem, particularly for large-scale cascade reservoirs. This study investigated the impact of the Gezhouba Reservoir (GR) and the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the spawning conditions of two critical taxa, i.e., the endemic four major carps and the endangered Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze River. We analyzed the flow, sediment, and thermal regime in these two taxa spawning seasons and compared their features between the predam and postdam periods. Our results revealed that the GR and the TGR had altered the frequency distributions of flow, sediment, and water temperature to different degrees, with the impact by the GR on the carps and Chinese sturgeon ranked as water temperature > water temperature. For the GR, the satisfying degree of the suitable flow and water temperature of the carps increased, whilst the suitable flow, sediment, and water temperature for the Chinese sturgeon decreased. These changes in TGR showed a significant ascending (descending) trend in the suitable flow (water temperature) for the carps, and a clear decreasing trend in the flow, sediment, and temperature for Chinese sturgeon. Both the TGR and the GR had negative impacts on the spawning of these two taxa in terms of the rising/falling flow characteristics. flow, and the effect of the TGR on these two taxa were ordered as flow > water temperature, sediment > water temperature > flow, sediment > flow >

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    J. T. Troubridge;
    Publisher: Magnolia Press

    The former genera Oncocnemis Lederer, Apharetra Grote, Hemistilbia Barnes and Benjamin, Adita Grote, Lepipolys Guenée, Homoncocnemis Hampson, and Homohadena Grote are synonymized under Sympistis Hübner. The following are transferred from Oxycnemis Grote to Sympistis: Sympistis franclemonti (Blanchard), comb. n. [Oxycnemis franclemonti Blanchard] and Sympistis subsimplex (Dyar) comb. n. [Oxycnemis subsimplex Dyar]. Two species are transferred to Unciella gen. n. as Unciella primula (Barnes and McDunnough) comb. n. [Oncocnemis primula Barnes and McDunnough] and Unciella flagrantis (Smith) comb. n. [Oncocnemis flagrantis Smith], which along with Leucocnemis Hampson are transferred to tribe Triocnemidini in the Psaphidinae. Supralathosea Barnes and Benjamin is transferred to Psaphidinae: Psaphidini and Catabena pronuba Barnes and McDunnough is transferred to Supralathosea comb. n.. In addition, Cerapoda Smith syn. n. and Prochloridea Barnes and McDunnough syn. n. (Prochloridea is presently in Hodges “unassociated genera”) are synonymized under Rhizagrotis Smith in the Xyleninae. Copanarta sexpunctata Barnes and McDunnough rev. comb. is transferred from Stylopoda to Copanarta. Oncocnemis simplicia Smith syn. n. is synonymized under Homohadena deserta Smith, Oncocnemis mus Troubridge and Crabo syn. n. under Oncocnemis tenuifascia Smith, and Oncocnemis sala Mustelin syn. n. under Oncocnemis aqualis Grote. The following are elevated to species rank: Sympistis deserticola (McDunnough) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis riparia deserticola McDunnough], Sympistis pallidior (Barnes) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis figurata pallidior Barnes] and Sympistis pallida (Barnes) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis homogena pallida Barnes]. The following 50 species are described as new: Sympistis acheron Troubridge, Sympistis amenthes Troubridge, Sympistis amun Troubridge, Sympistis anubis Troubridge, Sympistis anweileri Troubridge and Lafontaine, Sympistis apep Troubridge, Sympistis apis Troubridge, Sympistis babi Troubridge, Sympistis baloghi Troubridge, Sympistis bes Troubridge, Sympistis buchis Troubridge, Sympistis buto Troubridge, Sympistis cherti Troubridge, Sympistis chons Troubridge, Sympistis cleopatra Troubridge, Sympistis cocytus Troubridge, Sympistis collaris Troubridge, Sympistis dischorda Troubridge, Sympistis disfigurata Troubridge, Sympistis doris Dimock and Troubridge, Sympistis hapi Troubridge, Sympistis hathor Troubridge, Sympistis horus Troubridge, Sympistis incubus Troubridge, Sympistis insanina Troubridge, Sympistis isis Troubridge, Sympistis jenniferae Troubridge, Sympistis jocelynae Troubridge, Sympistis khem Troubridge, Sympistis khepri Troubridge, Sympistis knudsoni Troubridge, Sympistis lachrymosa Troubridge, Sympistis min Troubridge, Sympistis mut Troubridge, Sympistis nenun Troubridge, Sympistis opleri Troubridge, Sympistis osiris Troubridge, Sympistis pachet Troubridge, Sympistis ptah Troubridge, Sympistis ra Troubridge, Sympistis richersi Troubridge, Sympistis sakhmet Troubridge, Sympistis septu Troubridge, Sympistis sesmu Troubridge, Sympistis seth Troubridge, Sympistis shait Troubridge, Sympistis shirleyae Troubridge, Sympistis sobek Troubridge, Sympistis sokar Troubridge, and Sympistis serapis Troubridge. Color illustrations are provided for adults of all nearctic Sympistis species. Alphabetical and phylogenetic checklists of North American Oncocnemidinae are also provided, including species formerly placed there, but here transferred to other subfamilies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gary A. P. Gibson;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of P. rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ben Vandermeer; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Marijke C. Jansen-van der Weide; Stephanie S. Weinreich; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Dirk Bassler; Ricardo M. Fernandes; Lisa M. Askie; Haroon Saloojee; Paola Baiardi; +2 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands
    Project: EC | GRIP (261060), NWO | Blue Action (32188)

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former.Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic-Reviews, with at least one pediatric-RCT and at least one adult-RCT. Within each meta-analysis of binary efficacy-outcomes, we calculated the pooled-control-group event-rate (CER) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials, using random-effect models and subsequently calculated the control-group event-rate risk-ratio (CER-RR) of the pooled-pediatric-CERs vs. adult-CERs. Within each meta-analysis with continuous outcomes we calculated the pooled-control-group effect standard deviation (CE-SD) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials and subsequently calculated the CE-SD-ratio of the pooled-pediatric-CE-SDs vs. adult-CE-SDs. We then calculated across all meta-analyses the pooled-CER-RRs and pooled-CE-SD-ratios (primary endpoints) and the pooled-magnitude of effect-sizes of CER-RRs and CE-SD-ratios using REMs. A ratio < 1 indicates that pediatric trials have smaller nuisance parameters than adult trials.Results: We analyzed 208 meta-analyses (135 for binary-outcomes, 73 for continuous-outcomes). For binary outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 10% smaller CERs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98). For mortality outcomes the summary-CE-RR was 0.48 (95% CIs: 0.31, 0.74). For continuous outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 26% smaller CE-SDs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-SD-ratio: 0.74).Conclusions: Clinically relevant differences in nuisance parameters between pediatric and adult trials were detected. These differences have implications for design of future studies. Extrapolation of nuisance parameters for sample-sizes calculations from adult-trials to pediatric-trials should be cautiously done.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,593 Research products, page 1 of 260
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christopher G. Majka; Jan Klimaszewski;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    Since 1970, 203 species of Aleocharinae have been recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, 174 of which have been reported in the past decade. This rapid growth of knowledge of this hitherto neglected subfamily of rove beetles occasions the present compilation of species recorded in the region together with the chronology of their discovery. Sixteen new provincial records are reported, twelve from Nova Scotia, one from New Brunswick, and three from Prince Edward Island. Seven species, including Oxypoda chantali Klimaszewski, Oxypoda perexilis Casey, Myllaena cuneata Notman, Placusa canadensis Klimaszewski, Geostiba (Sibiota) appalachigena Gusarov, Lypoglossa angularis obtusa (LeConte), and Trichiusa postica Casey [tentative identification] are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces, one of which, Myllaena cuneata, is newly recorded in Canada. A preliminary analysis of the composition of the fauna indicates that the percentage of adventive species (18.2%) is consistent with that of other groups of Coleoptera. Both Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island are comparatively faunistically under-represented, in all probability as a result of insufficient collecting effort in these areas. A species accumulation curve indicates that it is probable that further species of aleocharines remain to be documented in the region.

  • Publication . Article . 1905
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ernest Rutherford;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    IN a recent number of the Philosophical Magazine (November, 1904), I have shown that radium, after passing through four rapid changes, finally gives rise to two slow transformation products, which, on the scheme of changes there outlined, were called radium D and radium E.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539), EC | LUMINOUS (686764)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    William O'Grady; Patrick Parnaby; Justin Schikschneit;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress)

    Al'aide de donnees recueillies lors de la couverture d'evenements par la presse locale, on examine comment a etepresentele meurtre d'un jeune de 15 ans, Jordan Manners, commis dans une ecole secondaire de Toronto. En particulier, on cherche acomprendre pourquoi, apres avoir d'abord tentede contextualiser l'evenement en fonction d'autres cas de tireurs dans des ecoles, les medias ont ensuite adopteun cadre d'interpretation basesur des presup- positions ideologiques liees aux classes marginales de Toronto. Quand les medias veulent absolument couvrir un evenement malgrel'absence de renseignements essentiels, on note qu'ils on tendance areprendre des cadres conformistes. Dans la conclusion, on etudie la signification sociopolitique de ces cadres essentialises pour les crimes commis dans les collectivites pauvres, habitees principalement par des personnes de couleur. Mots cles : constructionnisme, media, crime, tireur dans les ecoles, classes marginales Using data gathered from local press coverage, this article examines how the shooting death of 15-year-old Jordan Manners at a Toronto high school was framed. In particular, we seek to explain why the media's initial attempt to contextualize the event vis-a`-vis the tragedy of past school shootings eventually gave way to an interpretive frame rooted in ideological presuppositions about Toronto's underclass. We argue that when the media are confronted with a ''must cover'' event but lack essential informa- tion, the tendency is to adopt pre-existing, consonant frameworks. We con- clude by exploring the socio-political significance of such essentializing frames vis-a`-vis crime in poor communities inhabited mainly by people of colour.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam Brunke; Alexey Solodovnikov;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: NSERC

    The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini) are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz), stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson) and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrea Firrincieli; Alessandro Presentato; Giusi Favoino; Rosita Marabottini; Enrica Allevato; Silvia Rita Stazi; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza; Antoine Harfouche; Maurizio Petruccioli; Raymond J. Turner; +2 more
    Country: Italy

    This is the accepted manuscript of the paper "Identification of Resistance Genes and Response to Arsenic in Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1", published as final paper in "Frontiers in Microbiology Volume 10, 07 May 2019, Pages 888 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00888”. Arsenic (As) ranks among the priority metal(loid)s that are of public health concern. In the environment, arsenic is present in different forms, organic or inorganic, featured by various toxicity levels. Bacteria have developed different strategies to deal with this toxicity involving different resistance genetic determinants. Bacterial strains of Rhodococcus genus, and more in general Actinobacteria phylum, have the ability to cope with high concentrations of toxic metalloids, although little is known on the molecular and genetic bases of these metabolic features. Here we show that Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1, an extremophilic actinobacterial strain able to tolerate high concentrations of organic solvents and toxic metalloids, can grow in the presence of high concentrations of As(V) (up to 240 mM) under aerobic growth conditions using glucose as sole carbon and energy source. Notably, BCP1 cells improved their growth performance as well as their capacity of reducing As(V) into As(III) when the concentration of As(V) is within 30–100 mM As(V). Genomic analysis of BCP1 compared to other actinobacterial strains revealed the presence of three gene clusters responsible for organic and inorganic arsenic resistance. In particular, two adjacent and divergently oriented ars gene clusters include three arsenate reductase genes (arsC1/2/3) involved in resistance mechanisms against As(V). A sequence similarity network (SSN) and phylogenetic analysis of these arsenate reductase genes indicated that two of them (ArsC2/3) are functionally related to thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)-dependent class and one of them (ArsC1) to the mycothiol (MSH)/mycoredoxin (Mrx)-dependent class. A targeted transcriptomic analysis performed by RT-qPCR indicated that the arsenate reductase genes as well as other genes included in the ars gene cluster (possible regulator gene, arsR, and arsenite extrusion genes, arsA, acr3, and arsD) are transcriptionally induced when BCP1 cells were exposed to As(V) supplied at two different sub-lethal concentrations. This work provides for the first time insights into the arsenic resistance mechanisms of a Rhodococcus strain, revealing some of the unique metabolic requirements for the environmental persistence of this bacterial genus and its possible use in bioremediation procedures of toxic metal contaminated sites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meixiu Yu; Daqing Yang; Xiaolong Liu; Qiongfang Li; Guoqing Wang;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Netherlands

    Dam building and reservoir operations alter the downstream hydrological regime, and as a result, affect the health of the river aquatic ecosystem, particularly for large-scale cascade reservoirs. This study investigated the impact of the Gezhouba Reservoir (GR) and the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the spawning conditions of two critical taxa, i.e., the endemic four major carps and the endangered Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze River. We analyzed the flow, sediment, and thermal regime in these two taxa spawning seasons and compared their features between the predam and postdam periods. Our results revealed that the GR and the TGR had altered the frequency distributions of flow, sediment, and water temperature to different degrees, with the impact by the GR on the carps and Chinese sturgeon ranked as water temperature > water temperature. For the GR, the satisfying degree of the suitable flow and water temperature of the carps increased, whilst the suitable flow, sediment, and water temperature for the Chinese sturgeon decreased. These changes in TGR showed a significant ascending (descending) trend in the suitable flow (water temperature) for the carps, and a clear decreasing trend in the flow, sediment, and temperature for Chinese sturgeon. Both the TGR and the GR had negative impacts on the spawning of these two taxa in terms of the rising/falling flow characteristics. flow, and the effect of the TGR on these two taxa were ordered as flow > water temperature, sediment > water temperature > flow, sediment > flow >

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    J. T. Troubridge;
    Publisher: Magnolia Press

    The former genera Oncocnemis Lederer, Apharetra Grote, Hemistilbia Barnes and Benjamin, Adita Grote, Lepipolys Guenée, Homoncocnemis Hampson, and Homohadena Grote are synonymized under Sympistis Hübner. The following are transferred from Oxycnemis Grote to Sympistis: Sympistis franclemonti (Blanchard), comb. n. [Oxycnemis franclemonti Blanchard] and Sympistis subsimplex (Dyar) comb. n. [Oxycnemis subsimplex Dyar]. Two species are transferred to Unciella gen. n. as Unciella primula (Barnes and McDunnough) comb. n. [Oncocnemis primula Barnes and McDunnough] and Unciella flagrantis (Smith) comb. n. [Oncocnemis flagrantis Smith], which along with Leucocnemis Hampson are transferred to tribe Triocnemidini in the Psaphidinae. Supralathosea Barnes and Benjamin is transferred to Psaphidinae: Psaphidini and Catabena pronuba Barnes and McDunnough is transferred to Supralathosea comb. n.. In addition, Cerapoda Smith syn. n. and Prochloridea Barnes and McDunnough syn. n. (Prochloridea is presently in Hodges “unassociated genera”) are synonymized under Rhizagrotis Smith in the Xyleninae. Copanarta sexpunctata Barnes and McDunnough rev. comb. is transferred from Stylopoda to Copanarta. Oncocnemis simplicia Smith syn. n. is synonymized under Homohadena deserta Smith, Oncocnemis mus Troubridge and Crabo syn. n. under Oncocnemis tenuifascia Smith, and Oncocnemis sala Mustelin syn. n. under Oncocnemis aqualis Grote. The following are elevated to species rank: Sympistis deserticola (McDunnough) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis riparia deserticola McDunnough], Sympistis pallidior (Barnes) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis figurata pallidior Barnes] and Sympistis pallida (Barnes) stat. n., comb. n. [Oncocnemis homogena pallida Barnes]. The following 50 species are described as new: Sympistis acheron Troubridge, Sympistis amenthes Troubridge, Sympistis amun Troubridge, Sympistis anubis Troubridge, Sympistis anweileri Troubridge and Lafontaine, Sympistis apep Troubridge, Sympistis apis Troubridge, Sympistis babi Troubridge, Sympistis baloghi Troubridge, Sympistis bes Troubridge, Sympistis buchis Troubridge, Sympistis buto Troubridge, Sympistis cherti Troubridge, Sympistis chons Troubridge, Sympistis cleopatra Troubridge, Sympistis cocytus Troubridge, Sympistis collaris Troubridge, Sympistis dischorda Troubridge, Sympistis disfigurata Troubridge, Sympistis doris Dimock and Troubridge, Sympistis hapi Troubridge, Sympistis hathor Troubridge, Sympistis horus Troubridge, Sympistis incubus Troubridge, Sympistis insanina Troubridge, Sympistis isis Troubridge, Sympistis jenniferae Troubridge, Sympistis jocelynae Troubridge, Sympistis khem Troubridge, Sympistis khepri Troubridge, Sympistis knudsoni Troubridge, Sympistis lachrymosa Troubridge, Sympistis min Troubridge, Sympistis mut Troubridge, Sympistis nenun Troubridge, Sympistis opleri Troubridge, Sympistis osiris Troubridge, Sympistis pachet Troubridge, Sympistis ptah Troubridge, Sympistis ra Troubridge, Sympistis richersi Troubridge, Sympistis sakhmet Troubridge, Sympistis septu Troubridge, Sympistis sesmu Troubridge, Sympistis seth Troubridge, Sympistis shait Troubridge, Sympistis shirleyae Troubridge, Sympistis sobek Troubridge, Sympistis sokar Troubridge, and Sympistis serapis Troubridge. Color illustrations are provided for adults of all nearctic Sympistis species. Alphabetical and phylogenetic checklists of North American Oncocnemidinae are also provided, including species formerly placed there, but here transferred to other subfamilies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gary A. P. Gibson;
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    The extinct Eocene Baltic amber genus Propelma Trjapitzin 1963 is removed from synonymy under Eupelmus Dalman 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) and treated as a valid genus within Neanastatinae Kalina 1984 based on examination of the holotype female of P. rohdendorfi Trjapitzin. Propelma rohdendorfi is redescribed, illustrated by photomacrographs, and compared to other described extant and extinct genera of Neanastatinae. Taxonomic, morphological and geological diversity of Neanastatinae relative to Eupelminae and Calosotinae is also discussed relative to potential age of the subfamily.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ben Vandermeer; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Marijke C. Jansen-van der Weide; Stephanie S. Weinreich; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis; Dirk Bassler; Ricardo M. Fernandes; Lisa M. Askie; Haroon Saloojee; Paola Baiardi; +2 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands
    Project: EC | GRIP (261060), NWO | Blue Action (32188)

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former.Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic-Reviews, with at least one pediatric-RCT and at least one adult-RCT. Within each meta-analysis of binary efficacy-outcomes, we calculated the pooled-control-group event-rate (CER) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials, using random-effect models and subsequently calculated the control-group event-rate risk-ratio (CER-RR) of the pooled-pediatric-CERs vs. adult-CERs. Within each meta-analysis with continuous outcomes we calculated the pooled-control-group effect standard deviation (CE-SD) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials and subsequently calculated the CE-SD-ratio of the pooled-pediatric-CE-SDs vs. adult-CE-SDs. We then calculated across all meta-analyses the pooled-CER-RRs and pooled-CE-SD-ratios (primary endpoints) and the pooled-magnitude of effect-sizes of CER-RRs and CE-SD-ratios using REMs. A ratio < 1 indicates that pediatric trials have smaller nuisance parameters than adult trials.Results: We analyzed 208 meta-analyses (135 for binary-outcomes, 73 for continuous-outcomes). For binary outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 10% smaller CERs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98). For mortality outcomes the summary-CE-RR was 0.48 (95% CIs: 0.31, 0.74). For continuous outcomes, pediatric-RCTs had on average 26% smaller CE-SDs than adult-RCTs (summary-CE-SD-ratio: 0.74).Conclusions: Clinically relevant differences in nuisance parameters between pediatric and adult trials were detected. These differences have implications for design of future studies. Extrapolation of nuisance parameters for sample-sizes calculations from adult-trials to pediatric-trials should be cautiously done.