search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,143,500 Research products, page 1 of 114,350

  • Canada
  • Publications
  • Research data
  • 2012-2021

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Quesnel-Vallières; Manuel Irimia; Sabine P. Cordes; Benjamin J. Blencowe;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Project: CIHR

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic complexity in the vertebrate nervous system. However, the extent to which trans-acting splicing regulators and their target AS regulatory networks contribute to nervous system development is not well understood. To address these questions, we generated mice lacking the vertebrate- and neural-specific Ser/Arg repeat-related protein of 100 kDa (nSR100/SRRM4). Loss of nSR100 impairs development of the central and peripheral nervous systems in part by disrupting neurite outgrowth, cortical layering in the forebrain, and axon guidance in the corpus callosum. Accompanying these developmental defects are widespread changes in AS that primarily result in shifts to nonneural patterns for different classes of splicing events. The main component of the altered AS program comprises 3- to 27-nucleotide (nt) neural microexons, an emerging class of highly conserved AS events associated with the regulation of protein interaction networks in developing neurons and neurological disorders. Remarkably, inclusion of a 6-nt, nSR100-activated microexon in Unc13b transcripts is sufficient to rescue a neuritogenesis defect in nSR100 mutant primary neurons. These results thus reveal critical in vivo neurodevelopmental functions of nSR100 and further link these functions to a conserved program of neuronal microexon splicing.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ollivier Dyens;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic), hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dheva Setiaputra; James D. Ross; Shan Lu; Derrick Th Cheng; Meng Qiu Dong; Calvin K. Yip;
    Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muck Crops Research Program, University of Guelph;
    Country: Canada

    Forecasting, weather and soil information for the Holland Marsh as of June 5, 2015.

  • Publication . Article . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Weiss; Solange Sari; Nadia Saad Noori;
    Publisher: Carleton University

    Mashups enable end-users to "mix and match" data and services available on the web to create applications. Their creation is supported by a complex ecosystem of i) data providers who offer open APIs to users, ii) users who combine APIs into mashups, and iii) platforms, such as the ProgrammableWeb or Mashape, that facilitate the construction and publication of mashups. In this article, we argue that the evolution of the mashup ecosystem can be explained in terms of ecosystem niches anchored around hub or keystone APIs. The members of a niche are focused on an area of specialization (e.g., mapping applications) and contribute their knowledge to the value proposition of the ecosystem as a whole. To demonstrate the formation of niches in the mashup ecosystem, we model groups of related mashups as species, and we reconstruct the evolution of mashup species through phylogenetic analysis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Morissette; Pascal Sirois; Chris C. Wilson; Martin Laporte; Louis Bernatchez;
    Publisher: Ecological Society of America
    Country: Canada

    Worldwide, stocking of fish represents a valuable tool for conservation and maintenance of species exploited by recreational fishing. Releases of hatchery-reared fish are more and more recognized to have numerous demographic, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations. However, consequences on intraspecific trophic relationships have rarely been investigated. In this study, we assessed the impacts of supplementation stocking and resulting introgressive hybridization on the trophic niches occupied by stocked, local, and hybrid lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) within populations of piscivorous and planktivorous ecotypes stocked from a wild piscivorous source population. We compared trophic niches using stable isotope analysis (δ13 C and δ15 N) and trophic position among the three genetic origins. Putative genetic effects were tested with phenotype-genotype association of "life history" ecological traits (body size, growth rate, condition index, and trophic niche) and genotypes (RADseq SNP markers) using redundant discriminant analysis (RDA). Results showed that sympatry resulting from the stocking of contrasting ecotypes is a risk factor for niche partitioning. Planktivorous populations are more susceptible to niche partitioning, by competitive exclusion of the local fish from a littoral niche to an alternative pelagic/profundal niche. Observed niche partitioning is probably a manifestation of competitive interactions between ecotypes. Our results emphasize that ecotypic variation should be considered for more efficient management and conservation practices and in order to mitigate negative impact of supplementation stocking.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Brooke Linden; Heather Stuart;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Background While mental health challenges in the classroom have increased over the past several years, existing research suggests that many educators feel unprepared to broach the topics of mental health and mental illness with their students. This paper outlines the development and gathering of preliminary evidence of validity for two new scales designed to assess teachers’ confidence and worries related to delivering mental health content in the classroom. Methods Content evidence was collected through the use of two methods: a focus group held with members of the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario, and a consensus survey conducted among a sample of educational experts recruited from an Ontario university. Internal structure evidence was derived from the initial intake survey of an evaluation of a new online guide designed to give elementary school teachers the tools and knowledge to develop lesson plans related to mental health. Internal consistency reliability of test scores was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. Results Both scales loaded on a single dimension with all items loading strongly (factor loadings greater than .60). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of .96 for scores on the Teacher Confidence Scale and .93 for scores on the What Worries Me Scale estimated strong internal consistency reliability. Conclusions We identified two unidimensional scales measuring concerns educators may have about discussing the topic of mental health in a classroom setting. The Teacher Confidence Scale for Delivering Mental Health Content contains 12 items measuring educators’ confidence in delivering mental health related materials in the classroom. The What Worries Me Scale contains 11 items. These scales may be useful for evaluating programs, educational workshops, and other initiatives aimed at improving teachers’ abilities to provide mental health content in the classroom.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kamila Romanowski; Kirsten Smillie; Mia L. van der Kop; Victoria J. Cook; James C. Johnston; Daljeet Mahal; Richard T. Lester;
    Publisher: Ubiquity Press
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jodi D. Edwards; Claudia Jacova; Amir A. Sepehry; Brandy Pratt; Oscar R. Benavente;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

    Objective: To quantitatively characterize domain-specific cognition in individuals with symptomatic lacunar stroke in a systematic review. Methods: Systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE were conducted. Inclusion criteria were all articles published prior to December 2011 evaluating domain-specific cognitive status in individuals with a symptomatic lacunar infarct. Data extraction identified cognitive domains with reported impairment and effect size calculations and heterogeneity analyses were completed to assess the magnitude of this impairment for all studies with control group data. Results: Results of the search yielded 12 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal studies that met inclusion criteria. Effect size calculations revealed small to medium effect sizes (ES) estimations for impairment after stroke in the domains of executive function (ES −0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.83, −0.50), memory (ES −0.55, 95% CI −0.96, −0.13), language (ES −0.63, 95% CI −0.92, −0.33), attention (ES −0.37, 95% CI −0.67, −0.07), and visuospatial abilities (ES −0.61, 95% CI −1.03, 0.19), and large effect sizes for global cognition (ES −0.90, 95% CI −1.48, −0.31) and information processing speed (ES −0.93, 95% CI −1.63, −0.23). Heterogeneity analyses revealed that a subset of these domains were heterogeneous and identified moderating factors accounting for this heterogeneity. Conclusions: Results of this systematic review are consistent with previous characterizations of cognitive impairment associated with lacunar strokes. However, impaired cognition in this stroke subtype appears less selective than previously thought, involving all major cognitive domains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Celeste Fasano; Enrico Glerean; Benjamin P. Gold; Dana Sheng; Mikko Sams; Peter Vuust; Josef P. Rauschecker; Elvira Brattico;

    Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists’ brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,143,500 Research products, page 1 of 114,350
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mathieu Quesnel-Vallières; Manuel Irimia; Sabine P. Cordes; Benjamin J. Blencowe;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Project: CIHR

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic complexity in the vertebrate nervous system. However, the extent to which trans-acting splicing regulators and their target AS regulatory networks contribute to nervous system development is not well understood. To address these questions, we generated mice lacking the vertebrate- and neural-specific Ser/Arg repeat-related protein of 100 kDa (nSR100/SRRM4). Loss of nSR100 impairs development of the central and peripheral nervous systems in part by disrupting neurite outgrowth, cortical layering in the forebrain, and axon guidance in the corpus callosum. Accompanying these developmental defects are widespread changes in AS that primarily result in shifts to nonneural patterns for different classes of splicing events. The main component of the altered AS program comprises 3- to 27-nucleotide (nt) neural microexons, an emerging class of highly conserved AS events associated with the regulation of protein interaction networks in developing neurons and neurological disorders. Remarkably, inclusion of a 6-nt, nSR100-activated microexon in Unc13b transcripts is sufficient to rescue a neuritogenesis defect in nSR100 mutant primary neurons. These results thus reveal critical in vivo neurodevelopmental functions of nSR100 and further link these functions to a conserved program of neuronal microexon splicing.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ollivier Dyens;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic), hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dheva Setiaputra; James D. Ross; Shan Lu; Derrick Th Cheng; Meng Qiu Dong; Calvin K. Yip;
    Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muck Crops Research Program, University of Guelph;
    Country: Canada

    Forecasting, weather and soil information for the Holland Marsh as of June 5, 2015.

  • Publication . Article . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Weiss; Solange Sari; Nadia Saad Noori;
    Publisher: Carleton University

    Mashups enable end-users to "mix and match" data and services available on the web to create applications. Their creation is supported by a complex ecosystem of i) data providers who offer open APIs to users, ii) users who combine APIs into mashups, and iii) platforms, such as the ProgrammableWeb or Mashape, that facilitate the construction and publication of mashups. In this article, we argue that the evolution of the mashup ecosystem can be explained in terms of ecosystem niches anchored around hub or keystone APIs. The members of a niche are focused on an area of specialization (e.g., mapping applications) and contribute their knowledge to the value proposition of the ecosystem as a whole. To demonstrate the formation of niches in the mashup ecosystem, we model groups of related mashups as species, and we reconstruct the evolution of mashup species through phylogenetic analysis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Morissette; Pascal Sirois; Chris C. Wilson; Martin Laporte; Louis Bernatchez;
    Publisher: Ecological Society of America
    Country: Canada

    Worldwide, stocking of fish represents a valuable tool for conservation and maintenance of species exploited by recreational fishing. Releases of hatchery-reared fish are more and more recognized to have numerous demographic, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations. However, consequences on intraspecific trophic relationships have rarely been investigated. In this study, we assessed the impacts of supplementation stocking and resulting introgressive hybridization on the trophic niches occupied by stocked, local, and hybrid lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) within populations of piscivorous and planktivorous ecotypes stocked from a wild piscivorous source population. We compared trophic niches using stable isotope analysis (δ13 C and δ15 N) and trophic position among the three genetic origins. Putative genetic effects were tested with phenotype-genotype association of "life history" ecological traits (body size, growth rate, condition index, and trophic niche) and genotypes (RADseq SNP markers) using redundant discriminant analysis (RDA). Results showed that sympatry resulting from the stocking of contrasting ecotypes is a risk factor for niche partitioning. Planktivorous populations are more susceptible to niche partitioning, by competitive exclusion of the local fish from a littoral niche to an alternative pelagic/profundal niche. Observed niche partitioning is probably a manifestation of competitive interactions between ecotypes. Our results emphasize that ecotypic variation should be considered for more efficient management and conservation practices and in order to mitigate negative impact of supplementation stocking.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Brooke Linden; Heather Stuart;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract Background While mental health challenges in the classroom have increased over the past several years, existing research suggests that many educators feel unprepared to broach the topics of mental health and mental illness with their students. This paper outlines the development and gathering of preliminary evidence of validity for two new scales designed to assess teachers’ confidence and worries related to delivering mental health content in the classroom. Methods Content evidence was collected through the use of two methods: a focus group held with members of the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario, and a consensus survey conducted among a sample of educational experts recruited from an Ontario university. Internal structure evidence was derived from the initial intake survey of an evaluation of a new online guide designed to give elementary school teachers the tools and knowledge to develop lesson plans related to mental health. Internal consistency reliability of test scores was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. Results Both scales loaded on a single dimension with all items loading strongly (factor loadings greater than .60). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of .96 for scores on the Teacher Confidence Scale and .93 for scores on the What Worries Me Scale estimated strong internal consistency reliability. Conclusions We identified two unidimensional scales measuring concerns educators may have about discussing the topic of mental health in a classroom setting. The Teacher Confidence Scale for Delivering Mental Health Content contains 12 items measuring educators’ confidence in delivering mental health related materials in the classroom. The What Worries Me Scale contains 11 items. These scales may be useful for evaluating programs, educational workshops, and other initiatives aimed at improving teachers’ abilities to provide mental health content in the classroom.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kamila Romanowski; Kirsten Smillie; Mia L. van der Kop; Victoria J. Cook; James C. Johnston; Daljeet Mahal; Richard T. Lester;
    Publisher: Ubiquity Press
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jodi D. Edwards; Claudia Jacova; Amir A. Sepehry; Brandy Pratt; Oscar R. Benavente;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

    Objective: To quantitatively characterize domain-specific cognition in individuals with symptomatic lacunar stroke in a systematic review. Methods: Systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE were conducted. Inclusion criteria were all articles published prior to December 2011 evaluating domain-specific cognitive status in individuals with a symptomatic lacunar infarct. Data extraction identified cognitive domains with reported impairment and effect size calculations and heterogeneity analyses were completed to assess the magnitude of this impairment for all studies with control group data. Results: Results of the search yielded 12 cross-sectional and 5 longitudinal studies that met inclusion criteria. Effect size calculations revealed small to medium effect sizes (ES) estimations for impairment after stroke in the domains of executive function (ES −0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.83, −0.50), memory (ES −0.55, 95% CI −0.96, −0.13), language (ES −0.63, 95% CI −0.92, −0.33), attention (ES −0.37, 95% CI −0.67, −0.07), and visuospatial abilities (ES −0.61, 95% CI −1.03, 0.19), and large effect sizes for global cognition (ES −0.90, 95% CI −1.48, −0.31) and information processing speed (ES −0.93, 95% CI −1.63, −0.23). Heterogeneity analyses revealed that a subset of these domains were heterogeneous and identified moderating factors accounting for this heterogeneity. Conclusions: Results of this systematic review are consistent with previous characterizations of cognitive impairment associated with lacunar strokes. However, impaired cognition in this stroke subtype appears less selective than previously thought, involving all major cognitive domains.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Celeste Fasano; Enrico Glerean; Benjamin P. Gold; Dana Sheng; Mikko Sams; Peter Vuust; Josef P. Rauschecker; Elvira Brattico;

    Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists’ brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.