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  • Authors: Marius CHEVALLIER;

    En 2021, l’Université de Limoges a fait partie des 53 premières universités et écoles signataires de l’Accord de Grenoble « Pour accélérer la transition socio-écologique de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche ». Cet accord comprend notamment l’article 2.5 « Augmenter la participation de la recherche dans l’effort de transition ». Le bilan gaz à effets de serre réalisé dans notre laboratoire à partir de la méthodologie du Labos 1point 5 nous ayant montré que les déplacements professionnels sont de loin la première source de gaz à effets de serre, nous montrons en quoi la recherche locale est une voie déterminante à soutenir pour aller dans le sens de l’Accord de Grenoble. L’argument est à la fois quantitatif (gaz émis) et qualitatif (degré d’appropriation par les acteurs et actrices des résultats de recherche).

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    Authors: Boro Saikia, S.; Lüftinger, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Antonova, A.; +14 Authors

    A detailed investigation of the magnetic properties of young Sun-like stars can provide valuable information on our Sun's magnetic past and its impact on the early Earth. We determine the properties of the moderately rotating young Sun-like star kappa Ceti's magnetic and activity cycles using 50 years of chromospheric activity data and six epochs of spectropolarimetric observations. The chromospheric activity was determined by measuring the flux in the Ca II H and K lines. A generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram and a wavelet decomposition were used on the chromospheric activity data to establish the associated periodicities. The vector magnetic field of the star was reconstructed using the technique of Zeeman Doppler imaging on the spectropolarimetric observations. Our period analysis algorithms detect a 3.1 year chromospheric cycle in addition to the star's well-known ~6 year cycle period. Although the two cycle periods have an approximate 1:2 ratio, they exhibit an unusual temporal evolution. Additionally, the spectropolarimetric data analysis shows polarity reversals of the star's large-scale magnetic field, suggesting a ~10 year magnetic or Hale cycle. The unusual evolution of the star's chromospheric cycles and their lack of a direct correlation with the magnetic cycle establishes kappa Ceti as a curious young Sun. Such complex evolution of magnetic activity could be synonymous with moderately active young Suns, which is an evolutionary path that our own Sun could have taken. Comment: 15 pages including appendices, accepted for publication in A&A

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2022
    License: EDP Sciences Copyright and Publication Licensing Policy
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Article . 2022
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2022
      License: EDP Sciences Copyright and Publication Licensing Policy
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Savary, E.; Rojas, K.; Maus, M.; Clement, B.; +15 Authors

    We present a search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in the initial 2 500 square degrees of the Canada-France Imaging Survey (CFIS). We designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) committee that we applied to a selection of 2 344 002 exquisite-seeing $r$-band images of color-selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Our classification uses a realistic training set where the lensing galaxies and the lensed sources are both taken from real data, namely the CFIS $r$-band images themselves and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 9 460 candidates obtain a score above 0.5 with the CNN committee. After a visual inspection of the candidates, we find a total of 133 lens candidates, of which 104 are completely new. The set of false positives mainly contains ring, spiral, and merger galaxies, and to a lesser extent galaxies with nearby companions. We classify 32 of the lens candidates as secure lenses and 101 as maybe lenses. For the 32 highest quality lenses, we also fit a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile with external shear along with an elliptical Sersic profile for the lens and source light. This automated modeling step provides distributions of properties for both sources and lenses that have Einstein radii in the range $0.5\arcsec<θ_E<2.5\arcsec$. Finally, we introduce a new lens and/or source single-band deblending algorithm based on auto-encoder representation of our candidates. This is the first time an end-to-end lens-finding and modeling pipeline is assembled together, in view of future lens searches in a single band, as will be possible with Euclid. 29 pages, 21 figures, accepted by A&A, in press

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      Other literature type . 2021
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Authors: R T Duffy; C H A Logan; B J Maughan; D Eckert; +10 Authors

    We use deep follow-up XMM-Newton observations of 6 clusters discovered in the XXL Survey at $z>1$ to gain robust measurements of their X-ray properties and to investigate the extent to which scaling relations at low redshift are valid at $z>1$. This sample is unique as it has been investigated for AGN contamination, which ensures measurements are not undermined by systematic uncertainties, and pushes to lower mass at higher redshift than is usually possible, for example with Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) selected clusters. We determine the flux contribution of point sources to the XXL cluster flux in order to test for the presence of AGN in other high-redshift cluster candidates, and find 3XLSS J231626.8-533822 to be a point source misclassified as a cluster and 3XLSS J232737.3-541618 to be a genuine cluster. We present the first attempt to measure the hydrostatic masses in a bright subsample of $z>1$ X-ray selected galaxy clusters with a known selection function. Periods of high particle background significantly reduced the effective exposure times of observations (losing >50% in some cases) limiting the power of this study. When combined with complementary SZ selected cluster samples at higher masses, the data appear broadly consistent with the self-similar evolution of the low redshift scaling relations between ICM properties and cluster mass, suggesting that properties such as the X-ray temperature, gas mass and SZ signal remain reliable mass proxies even at high redshift. Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, published in MNRAS

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    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
    Article . 2022
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Explore Bristol Rese...arrow_drop_down
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      Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
      Article . 2022
      License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Cindy, Adapen; Louis, Réot; Elisabeth, Menu;

    The human vaginal microbiota has a central role in the regulation of the female reproductive tract (FRT) inflammation. Indeed, on one hand an optimal environment leading to a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) is associated with a high proportion of Lactobacillus spp. (eubiosis). On the other hand, a more diverse microbiota with a high amount of non-Lactobacillus spp. (dysbiosis) is linked to a higher local inflammation and an increased STI susceptibility. The composition of the vaginal microbiota is influenced by numerous factors that may lead to a dysbiotic environment. In this review, we first discuss how the vaginal microbiota composition affects the local inflammation with a focus on the cytokine profiles, the immune cell recruitment/phenotype and a large part devoted on the interactions between the vaginal microbiota and the neutrophils. Secondly, we analyze the interplay between STI and the vaginal microbiota and describe several mechanisms of action of the vaginal microbiota. Finally, the input of the NHP model in research focusing on the FRT health including vaginal microbiota or STI acquisition/control and treatment is discussed.

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    Frontiers in Reproductive Health
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Frontiers in Reproductive Health
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Maya H Buch; Peter Nash; Arthur Kavanaugh; Bernard Combe; +6 Authors

    Abstract Background/Aims A greater proportion of patients with RA and inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) receiving upadacitinib (UPA), achieved REM/LDA compared with adalimumab (ADA), both with background MTX, through 26 weeks in the phase 3, SELECT-COMPARE trial. Here we assessed sustainability of response over 3 years. Methods SELECT-COMPARE included a 26-week, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled period, a 48-week, double-blind active comparator-controlled period, and an ongoing long-term extension for up to 10 years. Patients on background MTX received UPA 15 mg once daily, PBO, or ADA 40 mg every other week. Patients not achieving at least 20% improvements in tender/swollen joint counts (Weeks 14-22) or LDA (CDAI ≤10 at Week 26) were rescued from UPA to ADA or PBO/ADA to UPA. This post hoc analysis evaluated clinical REM (CDAI ≤2.8; SDAI ≤3.3), LDA (CDAI ≤10; SDAI ≤11), and DAS28(CRP) &lt;2.6/≤3.2 at first occurrence (prior to treatment switch [rescue]), and over 3 years following initial response in patients randomized to UPA or ADA. For those patients who achieved REM/LDA, Kaplan-Meier was used to define time from when the response was first achieved to the earliest date at which the response was lost at two consecutive visits, discontinuation of study drug, or losing response at the time of rescue. Predictive ability of time to CDAI REM/LDA was assessed using Harrell’s concordance (c)-index (range: 0 [all predictions wrong] to 1.0 [perfect predictive ability]). Non-responder imputation was used for missing data. Results Through 3 years, a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving UPA + MTX vs ADA + MTX achieved CDAI REM (47% vs 35%, P = 0.001) as well as CDAI LDA (70% vs 60%, P = 0.001). At 30 months after first occurrence of response, CDAI REM/LDA was sustained in 19%/42% of patients randomized to UPA and 10%/30% of patients randomized to ADA. Time to initial clinical response did not appear to be predictive of sustained disease control. C-index for CDAI REM/LDA was 0.50/0.60 on UPA vs 0.49/0.56 on ADA. Through last follow-up visit, 37%/58% of patients receiving UPA and 27%/48% on ADA remained in CDAI REM/LDA, respectively. Of patients who lost CDAI REM, 68% on UPA and 55% on ADA remained in LDA. Roughly similar proportions on UPA and ADA recaptured CDAI REM/LDA (UPA, 40%/17%; ADA, 48%/19%). Similar results were observed for REM/LDA based on SDAI and for DAS28(CRP) &lt;2.6/≤3.2. Conclusion Among patients with inadequate response to MTX, a higher proportion receiving UPA + MTX achieved remission or LDA across disease activity measures vs ADA + MTX. UPA-treated patients demonstrated a consistently higher sustained response rate over 3 years compared to those receiving ADA. Furthermore, significant proportions of patients who lost response on either UPA or ADA were able to recapture remission or LDA. Disclosure M.H. Buch: Consultancies; M.H.B. has received consulting fees/meeting support from AbbVie, Boehringer Ingleheim, Eli Lilly, Merck-Serono, and Sanofi. Grants/research support; M.H.B. has received research grants from Pfizer, Gilead, and UCB. P. Nash: Honoraria; P.N. has received honoraria for lectures and advice from AbbVie, BMS, Pfizer, Gilead/Galapagos, Sanofi, Celgene, Novartis, Lilly, Janssen, UCB, Samsung, MSD, Roche. Grants/research support; P.N. has received research funding for clinical trials. A. Kavanaugh: Consultancies; A.K. has provided expert advice to AbbVie Inc., Amgen, Astra-Zeneca, BMS, Celgene, Centocor-Janssen, Pfizer, Roche, and UCB. Grants/research support; A.K. has has received grants/research support. B. Combe: Consultancies; B.C. has received consulting fees from AbbVie, BMS, Celltrion, Gilead, Galapagos, Janssen, Eli Lilly, MSD, Pfizer, Roche Chugai. L. Bessette: Consultancies; L.B. has received consulting fees from Amgen, BMS, Janssen, Roche, UCB, AbbVie, Pfizer, Merck, Celgene, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Novartis. Sandoz, Gilead, Fresenius Kabi, and Teva. Member of speakers’ bureau; L.B. has served as a speaker for Amgen, BMS, Janssen, Roche, UCB, AbbVie, Pfizer, Merck, Celgene, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Novartis. Sandoz, Gilead, Fresenius Kabi, and Teva. Grants/research support; L.B. has received grants/research support from Amgen, BMS, Janssen, Roche, UCB, AbbVie, Pfizer, Merck, Celgene, Sanofi, Eli Lilly, Novartis. Sandoz, Gilead, Fresenius Kabi, and Teva. I. Song: Shareholder/stock ownership; IH.S. is an employee of AbbVie and may hold stock or options. T. Shaw: Shareholder/stock ownership; T.S. is an employee of AbbVie and may hold stock or options. Y. Song: Shareholder/stock ownership; Y.S. is an employee of AbbVie and may hold stock or options. J.L. Suboticki: Shareholder/stock ownership; J.L.S is an employee of AbbVie and may hold stock or options. R. Fleischmann: Consultancies; R.F. is a consultant for AbbVie, Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer Inc, Sanofi-Aventis, and UCB. Grants/research support; R.F. has received grant/research support from AbbVie, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Genentech, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, UCB, Regeneron, Roche,Sanofi-Aventis.

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    Rheumatology
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      Rheumatology
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    Authors: Elena Piersanti; Claudio Righetti; David Ribeaucourt; A. Jalila Simaan; +5 Authors

    International audience; 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy has been widely used to monitor enzymatic activity by recording the evolution of the spectra of substrates and/or products thanks to the linear response of NMR. For complex systems involving the coexistence of multiple compounds (substrate, final product and various intermediates), the identification and quantification can be a more arduous task. Here, we present a simple analytical method for a rapid characterization of reaction mixtures involving enzymatic complexes using Maximum Quantum (MaxQ) NMR, accelerated with the Non-Uniform Sampling (NUS) acquisition procedure. Specifically, this approach enables, in a first analytical step, to count the molecules present in the samples. We also show, using two different enzymatic systems, that the implementation of these pulse sequences implies precautions related to the short relaxation times due to the presence of metallo-enzymes or paramagnetic catalysts. Finally, the combination of MaxQ and diffusion experiments, which leads to a 3D chart, greatly improves the resolution and offers an extreme simplification of the spectra while giving valuable indications on the affinity of the enzymes to the different compounds present in the reaction mixture.

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    The Analyst
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      The Analyst
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    Authors: Lizotte, Martine; Juhls, Bennet; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Massicotte, Philippe; +43 Authors

    Climate warming and related drivers of soil thermal change in the Arctic are expected to modify the distribution and dynamics of carbon contained in perennially frozen grounds. Thawing of permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta region of northwestern Canada, coupled with increases in river discharge and coastal erosion, trigger the release of terrestrial organic matter (OMt) from the largest Arctic drainage basin in North America into the Arctic Ocean. While this process is ongoing, well-established, and its rate is accelerating, the fate of the newly-mobilized organic matter, as it transits from the watershed through the delta and into the marine system, remains poorly understood. In the framework of the European Horizon 2020 Nunataryuk programme, and as part of the Work Package 4 (WP4) Coastal Waters theme, four field expeditions were conducted in the Mackenzie Delta region and southern Beaufort Sea from April to September 2019. The temporal sampling design allowed the survey of ambient conditions in the coastal waters under full ice cover prior to the spring freshet, during ice break-up in summer, as well as anterior to the freeze-up period in fall. To capture the fluvial-marine transition zone, and with distinct challenges related to shallow waters and changing seasonal and meteorological conditions, the field sampling was conducted in close partnership with members of the communities of Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, using several platforms: helicopters, snowmobiles and small boats. Water column profiles of physical and optical variables were measured in situ, while surface water, groundwater and sediment samples were collected and preserved for the determination of the composition and sources of OMt, including particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as a suite of physical, chemical and biological variables. Here we present an overview of the standardized datasets, including hydrographic profiles, remote sensing reflectance, temperature and salinity, particle absorption, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, colored dissolved organic matter absorption, fluorescent dissolved organic matter intensity, suspended particulate matter, total particulate carbon, total particulate nitrogen, stable water isotopes, radon in water, bacterial abundance, and a string of phytoplankton pigments including total chlorophyll. Datasets and related metadata can be found in Juhls et al. 2021. https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.937587.

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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    ZENODO; Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2...
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      ZENODO; Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
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    Authors: Hayet Bouzid; Feryel Soualmia; Katerina Oikonomopoulou; Antoninus Soosaipillai; +7 Authors

    International audience; Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are implicated in many cancer-related processes. KLK6, one of the 15 KLK family members, is a promising biomarker for diagnosis of many cancers and has been associated with poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Herein, we evaluated the expression and cellular functions of KLK6 in colon cancer-derived cell lines and in clinical samples from CRC patients. We showed that, although many KLKs transcripts are upregulated in colon cancer-derived cell lines, KLK6, KLK10, and KLK11 are the most highly secreted proteins. KLK6 induced calcium flux in HT29 cells by activation and internalization of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). Furthermore, KLK6 induced extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. KLK6 suppression in HCT-116 colon cancer cells decreased the colony formation, increased cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, and reduced spheroid formation and compaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis demonstrated ectopic expression of KLK6 in human colon adenocarcinomas but not in normal epithelia. Importantly, high levels of KLK6 protein were detected in the ascites of CRC patients with peritoneal metastasis, but not in benign ascites. These data indicate that KLK6 overexpression is associated with aggressive CRC, and may be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant ascites.

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    Biomolecules
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    Biomolecules
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      Biomolecules
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    Authors: Boelens, Rutgerd; Escobar, Arturo; Bakker, Karen; Hommes, Lena; +26 Authors

    [EN] Mega-damming, pollution and depletion endanger rivers worldwide. Meanwhile, modernist imaginaries of ordering `unruly waters and humans' have become cornerstones of hydraulic-bureaucratic and capitalist development. They separate hydro/social worlds, sideline river-commons cultures, and deepen socio-environmental injustices. But myriad new water justice movements (NWJMs) proliferate: rooted, disruptive, transdisciplinary, multi-scalar coalitions that deploy alternative river-society ontologies, bridge South-North divides, and translate river-enlivening practices from local to global and vice-versa. This paper's framework conceptualizes `riverhood' to engage with NWJMs and river commoning initiatives. We suggest four interrelated ontologies, situating river socionatures as arenas of material, social and symbolic co-production: `river-as-ecosociety', `river-as-territory', `river-as-subject', and `river-as-movement'. global This work was supported by the ERC European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [Riverhood, Grant Number 101002921]; see also www.movingrivers.org.

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  • Authors: Marius CHEVALLIER;

    En 2021, l’Université de Limoges a fait partie des 53 premières universités et écoles signataires de l’Accord de Grenoble « Pour accélérer la transition socio-écologique de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche ». Cet accord comprend notamment l’article 2.5 « Augmenter la participation de la recherche dans l’effort de transition ». Le bilan gaz à effets de serre réalisé dans notre laboratoire à partir de la méthodologie du Labos 1point 5 nous ayant montré que les déplacements professionnels sont de loin la première source de gaz à effets de serre, nous montrons en quoi la recherche locale est une voie déterminante à soutenir pour aller dans le sens de l’Accord de Grenoble. L’argument est à la fois quantitatif (gaz émis) et qualitatif (degré d’appropriation par les acteurs et actrices des résultats de recherche).

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    Authors: Boro Saikia, S.; Lüftinger, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Antonova, A.; +14 Authors

    A detailed investigation of the magnetic properties of young Sun-like stars can provide valuable information on our Sun's magnetic past and its impact on the early Earth. We determine the properties of the moderately rotating young Sun-like star kappa Ceti's magnetic and activity cycles using 50 years of chromospheric activity data and six epochs of spectropolarimetric observations. The chromospheric activity was determined by measuring the flux in the Ca II H and K lines. A generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram and a wavelet decomposition were used on the chromospheric activity data to establish the associated periodicities. The vector magnetic field of the star was reconstructed using the technique of Zeeman Doppler imaging on the spectropolarimetric observations. Our period analysis algorithms detect a 3.1 year chromospheric cycle in addition to the star's well-known ~6 year cycle period. Although the two cycle periods have an approximate 1:2 ratio, they exhibit an unusual temporal evolution. Additionally, the spectropolarimetric data analysis shows polarity reversals of the star's large-scale magnetic field, suggesting a ~10 year magnetic or Hale cycle. The unusual evolution of the star's chromospheric cycles and their lack of a direct correlation with the magnetic cycle establishes kappa Ceti as a curious young Sun. Such complex evolution of magnetic activity could be synonymous with moderately active young Suns, which is an evolutionary path that our own Sun could have taken. Comment: 15 pages including appendices, accepted for publication in A&A

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