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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wu, Yue; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Biaobiao; Du, K.-L.;

    The radial basis function (RBF) network has its foundation in the conventional approximation theory. It has the capability of universal approximation. The RBF network is a popular alternative to the well-known multilayer perceptron (MLP), since it has a simpler structure and a much faster training process. In this paper, we give a comprehensive survey on the RBF network and its learning. Many aspects associated with the RBF network, such as network structure, universal approimation capability, radial basis functions, RBF network learning, structure optimization, normalized RBF networks, application to dynamic system modeling, and nonlinear complex-valued signal processing, are described. We also compare the features and capability of the two models.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jiménez-Juan, Laura; Leen, Jessica; Wald, Rachel M.; Nguyen, Elsie T.; +4 Authors

    Up to one third of the population will die as a direct result of cancer. Accurate and timely diagnosis of disease often requires multiple different approaches including the use of modern imaging techniques. Prompt recognition of adverse consequences of some anti-cancer therapies also requires a knowledge of the optimum imaging strategy for the problem at hand. The purpose of this article is to review not only some of the commoner cardiovascular manifestations of malignancy but also to discuss the strengths, weaknesses and appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging modalities.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yang, Lixia;

    It has been well documented that aging is associated with declines in a variety of cognitive functions. A growing body of research shows that the age-related cognitive declines are reversible through cognitive training programs, suggesting maintained cognitive plasticity of the aging brain. Retest learning represents a basic form of cognitive plasticity. It has been consistently demonstrated for adults in young-old and old-old ages. Accumulated research indicates that retest learning is effective, robust, endurable and could occur at a more conceptual level beyond item-specific memorization. Recent studies also demonstrate promisingly broader transfer effects from retest practice of activities involving complex executive functioning to other untrained tasks. The results shed light on the development of self-guided mental exercise programs to improve cognitive performance and efficiency of the aging brain. The relevant studies were reviewed, and the findings were discussed in light of their limitations, implications, and future directions.

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    Authors: Zhao, Chun; Zhao, C. Z.; Werner, M.; Taylor, S.; +1 Authors

    The decreasing sizes in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor technology require the replacement of SiO2 with gate dielectrics that have a high dielectric constant (high-k). When the SiO2 gate thickness is reduced below 1.4 nm, electron tunneling effects and high leakage currents occur which present serious obstacles for device reliability. In recent years, various alternative gate dielectrics have been researched. Following the introduction of HfO2 into the 45 nm process by Intel in 2007, the screening and selection of high-k gate stacks, understanding their properties, and their integration into CMOS technology have been a very active research area. This paper reviews the progress and efforts made in the recent years for high-k dielectrics, which can be potentially integrated into 22 nm (and beyond) technology nodes. Our work includes deposition techniques, physical characterization methods at the atomic scale, and device reliability as the focus. For most of the materials discussed here, structural and physical properties, dielectric relaxation issues, and projections towards future applications are also discussed.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Philips, Neena; Gonzalez, Salvador;

    There is loss of the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with intrinsic aging as well as photoaging, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The structural ECM proteins include the microfibrils that are composed of fibrillin. The structural ECM proteins are primarily degraded by the matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase enzymes. The MMPs are inhibited by the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). A primary regulator of the ECM proteins is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and the chaperone proteins important for its formation are the heat shock proteins (HSP). P. leucotomos extract beneficially regulates of MMPs, TIMPs, and TGF-β in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts and melanoma cells. The hypothesis of this research was that the antioxidant activity or chemistry of P. leucotomos extract would also directly inhibit elastase activity, stimulate the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF-β, and regulate HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. P. leucotomos directly inhibited elastase activity, stimulated the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF-β, and differentially regulated HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. We infer that the P. leucotomos extract strengthens the ECM and is effective in the prevention or treatment of intrinsic and photoaging of skin.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Kuo, Renesmee; Fung, K. L. Barry; Saayujya, Chinmoy; +10 Authors

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tracer-based imaging modality that is useful in diagnosing various pathophysiology related to the vascular system and for sensitive tracking of cytotherapies. MPI uses nonradioactive and easily assimilated nanometer-sized iron oxide particles as tracers. MPI images the nonlinear Langevin behavior of the iron oxide particles and has allowed for the sensitive detection of iron oxide-labeled therapeutic cells in the body. This review will provide an overview of MPI technology, the tracer, and its use in vascular imaging and cytotherapies using molecular targets.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Chauhan, Krati; Sontineni, Siva P.; Alla, Venkata M.; Holmberg, Mark J.;

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a unique cardiomyopathy characterized by chest pain, ECG, and regional wall motion abnormalities closely mimicking acute myocardial infarction, in the absence of significant coronary artery disease. Classic ECG changes of TCM include ST elevation or T wave inversion. However, ECG abnormalities of TCM in patients with paced ventricular rhythms have not been well characterized. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old pacemaker dependant female who was diagnosed with TCM four weeks following the demise of her husband. Abnormal negative T wave concordance in precordial leads and QT interval prolongation were the only new ECG findings and these reverted back to baseline on followup.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Offiah, S. U.; Ezugwu, S. C.; Ezema, F. I.;

    The effects of thermal treatment on the optical and structural properties of cobalt oxide CoxOy thin films synthesized in the pores of PVP by chemical bath deposition technique were investigated. Films deposited were crystalline. The optical properties of the films were got from absorbance, transmittance reflectance, refractive index, absorption coefficient, and extinction coefficient measurements. The synthesized CoxOy films turned out to be cobalt oxyhydroxide , CoO(OH), nanocrystals. The crystals obtained were of size 41.84 nm; however, as annealing temperature increased, the size decreased to 16.28 nm. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, and extinction coefficient were found to increase with increase in annealing temperature though not sequentially. For the same energy ranges of the incident photons, the absorption coefficient and refractive index ranged from 0.2 to 1.8 and from 1.4 to 2.3, respectively. The energy band-gap of the films ranged from 1.96 eV to 2.22 eV.

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    Authors: Namusoke, Fatuma; Rasti, Niloofar; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E.;

    According to the ideal free distribution hypothesis, the density of organisms is expected to remain constant across a range of habitat availability, provided that organisms are ideal, selecting habitat patches that maximize resource access, and free, implying no constraints associated with patch choice. The influence of the amount of habitat on moose (Alces alces) pellet group density as an index of moose occurrence was assessed within the Foothills Natural Region, Alberta, Canada, using a binary patch-matrix approach. Fecal pellet density was compared across 45 sites representing a gradient in habitat amount. Pellet density in moose habitat increased in a linear or quadratic relationship with mean moose habitat patch size. Moose pellet density decreased faster thanwhatwould be expected from a decrease in habitat amount alone. This change in pellet group density with habitat amount may be because one or both of the assumptions of the ideal free distribution hypothesis were violated.

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11 Research products
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    Authors: Wu, Yue; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Biaobiao; Du, K.-L.;

    The radial basis function (RBF) network has its foundation in the conventional approximation theory. It has the capability of universal approximation. The RBF network is a popular alternative to the well-known multilayer perceptron (MLP), since it has a simpler structure and a much faster training process. In this paper, we give a comprehensive survey on the RBF network and its learning. Many aspects associated with the RBF network, such as network structure, universal approimation capability, radial basis functions, RBF network learning, structure optimization, normalized RBF networks, application to dynamic system modeling, and nonlinear complex-valued signal processing, are described. We also compare the features and capability of the two models.

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    Authors: Jiménez-Juan, Laura; Leen, Jessica; Wald, Rachel M.; Nguyen, Elsie T.; +4 Authors

    Up to one third of the population will die as a direct result of cancer. Accurate and timely diagnosis of disease often requires multiple different approaches including the use of modern imaging techniques. Prompt recognition of adverse consequences of some anti-cancer therapies also requires a knowledge of the optimum imaging strategy for the problem at hand. The purpose of this article is to review not only some of the commoner cardiovascular manifestations of malignancy but also to discuss the strengths, weaknesses and appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging modalities.

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    Authors: Yang, Lixia;

    It has been well documented that aging is associated with declines in a variety of cognitive functions. A growing body of research shows that the age-related cognitive declines are reversible through cognitive training programs, suggesting maintained cognitive plasticity of the aging brain. Retest learning represents a basic form of cognitive plasticity. It has been consistently demonstrated for adults in young-old and old-old ages. Accumulated research indicates that retest learning is effective, robust, endurable and could occur at a more conceptual level beyond item-specific memorization. Recent studies also demonstrate promisingly broader transfer effects from retest practice of activities involving complex executive functioning to other untrained tasks. The results shed light on the development of self-guided mental exercise programs to improve cognitive performance and efficiency of the aging brain. The relevant studies were reviewed, and the findings were discussed in light of their limitations, implications, and future directions.

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    Authors: Zhao, Chun; Zhao, C. Z.; Werner, M.; Taylor, S.; +1 Authors

    The decreasing sizes in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor technology require the replacement of SiO2 with gate dielectrics that have a high dielectric constant (high-k). When the SiO2 gate thickness is reduced below 1.4 nm, electron tunneling effects and high leakage currents occur which present serious obstacles for device reliability. In recent years, various alternative gate dielectrics have been researched. Following the introduction of HfO2 into the 45 nm process by Intel in 2007, the screening and selection of high-k gate stacks, understanding their properties, and their integration into CMOS technology have been a very active research area. This paper reviews the progress and efforts made in the recent years for high-k dielectrics, which can be potentially integrated into 22 nm (and beyond) technology nodes. Our work includes deposition techniques, physical characterization methods at the atomic scale, and device reliability as the focus. For most of the materials discussed here, structural and physical properties, dielectric relaxation issues, and projections towards future applications are also discussed.

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    Authors: Philips, Neena; Gonzalez, Salvador;

    There is loss of the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with intrinsic aging as well as photoaging, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The structural ECM proteins include the microfibrils that are composed of fibrillin. The structural ECM proteins are primarily degraded by the matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase enzymes. The MMPs are inhibited by the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). A primary regulator of the ECM proteins is transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and the chaperone proteins important for its formation are the heat shock proteins (HSP). P. leucotomos extract beneficially regulates of MMPs, TIMPs, and TGF-β in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts and melanoma cells. The hypothesis of this research was that the antioxidant activity or chemistry of P. leucotomos extract would also directly inhibit elastase activity, stimulate the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF-β, and regulate HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. P. leucotomos directly inhibited elastase activity, stimulated the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF-β, and differentially regulated HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. We infer that the P. leucotomos extract strengthens the ECM and is effective in the prevention or treatment of intrinsic and photoaging of skin.

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    Authors: Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Kuo, Renesmee; Fung, K. L. Barry; Saayujya, Chinmoy; +10 Authors

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tracer-based imaging modality that is useful in diagnosing various pathophysiology related to the vascular system and for sensitive tracking of cytotherapies. MPI uses nonradioactive and easily assimilated nanometer-sized iron oxide particles as tracers. MPI images the nonlinear Langevin behavior of the iron oxide particles and has allowed for the sensitive detection of iron oxide-labeled therapeutic cells in the body. This review will provide an overview of MPI technology, the tracer, and its use in vascular imaging and cytotherapies using molecular targets.

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    Authors: Chauhan, Krati; Sontineni, Siva P.; Alla, Venkata M.; Holmberg, Mark J.;

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a unique cardiomyopathy characterized by chest pain, ECG, and regional wall motion abnormalities closely mimicking acute myocardial infarction, in the absence of significant coronary artery disease. Classic ECG changes of TCM include ST elevation or T wave inversion. However, ECG abnormalities of TCM in patients with paced ventricular rhythms have not been well characterized. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old pacemaker dependant female who was diagnosed with TCM four weeks following the demise of her husband. Abnormal negative T wave concordance in precordial leads and QT interval prolongation were the only new ECG findings and these reverted back to baseline on followup.

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    Authors: Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Offiah, S. U.; Ezugwu, S. C.; Ezema, F. I.;

    The effects of thermal treatment on the optical and structural properties of cobalt oxide CoxOy thin films synthesized in the pores of PVP by chemical bath deposition technique were investigated. Films deposited were crystalline. The optical properties of the films were got from absorbance, transmittance reflectance, refractive index, absorption coefficient, and extinction coefficient measurements. The synthesized CoxOy films turned out to be cobalt oxyhydroxide , CoO(OH), nanocrystals. The crystals obtained were of size 41.84 nm; however, as annealing temperature increased, the size decreased to 16.28 nm. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, and extinction coefficient were found to increase with increase in annealing temperature though not sequentially. For the same energy ranges of the incident photons, the absorption coefficient and refractive index ranged from 0.2 to 1.8 and from 1.4 to 2.3, respectively. The energy band-gap of the films ranged from 1.96 eV to 2.22 eV.

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    Authors: Namusoke, Fatuma; Rasti, Niloofar; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E.;

    According to the ideal free distribution hypothesis, the density of organisms is expected to remain constant across a range of habitat availability, provided that organisms are ideal, selecting habitat patches that maximize resource access, and free, implying no constraints associated with patch choice. The influence of the amount of habitat on moose (Alces alces) pellet group density as an index of moose occurrence was assessed within the Foothills Natural Region, Alberta, Canada, using a binary patch-matrix approach. Fecal pellet density was compared across 45 sites representing a gradient in habitat amount. Pellet density in moose habitat increased in a linear or quadratic relationship with mean moose habitat patch size. Moose pellet density decreased faster thanwhatwould be expected from a decrease in habitat amount alone. This change in pellet group density with habitat amount may be because one or both of the assumptions of the ideal free distribution hypothesis were violated.

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