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6 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; Rybczynski, Natalia; Gosse, John C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | PACEMAKER (226600), NSF | Collaborative Research: A... (1418421), NWO | Perturbations of System E... (11030)

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pullinen, Iida; Schmitt, Sebastian; Kang, Sungah; Sarrafzadeh, Mehrnaz; Schlag, Patrick; Andres, Stefanie; Kleist, Einhard; Mentel, Thomas F.; Rohrer, Franz; Springer, Monika; +6 more
    Project: EC | PIMMS (287382)

    The formation of organic nitrates (ONs) in the gas phase and their impact on mass formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated in a laboratory study for α-pinene and β-pinene photooxidation. Focus was the elucidation of those mechanisms that cause the often observed suppression of SOA mass formation by NOx, and therein the role of highly oxygenated multifunctional molecules (HOMs). We observed that with increasing NOx concentration (a) the portion of HOM organic nitrates (HOM-ONs) increased, (b) the fraction of accretion products (HOM-ACCs) decreased, and (c) HOM-ACCs contained on average smaller carbon numbers. Specifically, we investigated HOM organic nitrates (HOM-ONs), arising from the termination reactions of HOM peroxy radicals with NOx, and HOM permutation products (HOM-PPs), such as ketones, alcohols, or hydroperoxides, formed by other termination reactions. Effective uptake coefficients γeff of HOMs on particles were determined. HOMs with more than six O atoms efficiently condensed on particles (γeff>0.5 on average), and for HOMs containing more than eight O atoms, every collision led to loss. There was no systematic difference in γeff for HOM-ONs and HOM-PPs arising from the same HOM peroxy radicals. This similarity is attributed to the multifunctional character of the HOMs: as functional groups in HOMs arising from the same precursor HOM peroxy radical are identical, vapor pressures should not strongly depend on the character of the final termination group. As a consequence, the suppressing effect of NOx on SOA formation cannot be simply explained by replacement of terminal functional groups by organic nitrate groups. According to their γeff all HOM-ONs with more than six O atoms will contribute to organic bound nitrate (OrgNO3) in the particulate phase. However, the fraction of OrgNO3 stored in condensable HOMs with molecular masses > 230 Da appeared to be substantially higher than the fraction of particulate OrgNO3 observed by aerosol mass spectrometry. This result suggests losses of OrgNO3 for organic nitrates in particles, probably due to hydrolysis of OrgNO3 that releases HNO3 into the gas phase but leaves behind the organic rest in the particulate phase. However, the loss of HNO3 alone could not explain the observed suppressing effect of NOx on particle mass formation from α-pinene and β-pinene. Instead we can attribute most of the reduction in SOA mass yields with increasing NOx to the significant suppression of gas phase HOM-ACCs, which have high molecular mass and are potentially important for SOA mass formation at low-NOx conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Frieß, Udo; Hendrick, François; Alberti, Carlos; Allaart, Marc; Apituley, Arnoud; Bais, Alkis; Beirle, Steffen; Berkhout, Stijn; Bognar, Kristof; +55 more
    Project: EC | VERTIGO (607905), NSERC , EC | QA4ECV (607405), EC | ACTRIS-2 (654109)

    The second Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI-2) took place in Cabauw (the Netherlands) in September 2016 with the aim of assessing the consistency of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of tropospheric species (NO2, HCHO, O3, HONO, CHOCHO and O4). This was achieved through the coordinated operation of 36 spectrometers operated by 24 groups from all over the world, together with a wide range of supporting reference observations (in situ analysers, balloon sondes, lidars, long-path DOAS, direct-sun DOAS, Sun photometer and meteorological instruments). In the presented study, the retrieved CINDI-2 MAX-DOAS trace gas (NO2, HCHO) and aerosol vertical profiles of 15 participating groups using different inversion algorithms are compared and validated against the colocated supporting observations, with the focus on aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs), trace gas vertical column densities (VCDs) and trace gas surface concentrations. The algorithms are based on three different techniques: six use the optimal estimation method, two use a parameterized approach and one algorithm relies on simplified radiative transport assumptions and analytical calculations. To assess the agreement among the inversion algorithms independent of inconsistencies in the trace gas slant column density acquisition, participants applied their inversion to a common set of slant columns. Further, important settings like the retrieval grid, profiles of O3, temperature and pressure as well as aerosol optical properties and a priori assumptions (for optimal estimation algorithms) have been prescribed to reduce possible sources of discrepancies. The profiling results were found to be in good qualitative agreement: most participants obtained the same features in the retrieved vertical trace gas and aerosol distributions; however, these are sometimes at different altitudes and of different magnitudes. Under clear-sky conditions, the root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) among the results of individual participants are in the range of 0.01–0.1 for AOTs, (1.5–15) ×1014molec.cm-2 for trace gas (NO2, HCHO) VCDs and (0.3–8)×1010molec.cm-3 for trace gas surface concentrations. These values compare to approximate average optical thicknesses of 0.3, trace gas vertical columns of 90×1014molec.cm-2 and trace gas surface concentrations of 11×1010molec.cm-3 observed over the campaign period. The discrepancies originate from differences in the applied techniques, the exact implementation of the algorithms and the user-defined settings that were not prescribed. For the comparison against supporting observations, the RMSDs increase to a range of 0.02–0.2 against AOTs from the Sun photometer, (11–55)×1014molec.cm-2 against trace gas VCDs from direct-sun DOAS observations and (0.8–9)×1010molec.cm-3 against surface concentrations from the long-path DOAS instrument. This increase in RMSDs is most likely caused by uncertainties in the supporting data, spatiotemporal mismatch among the observations and simplified assumptions particularly on aerosol optical properties made for the MAX-DOAS retrieval. As a side investigation, the comparison was repeated with the participants retrieving profiles from their own differential slant column densities (dSCDs) acquired during the campaign. In this case, the consistency among the participants degrades by about 30 % for AOTs, by 180 % (40 %) for HCHO (NO2) VCDs and by 90 % (20 %) for HCHO (NO2) surface concentrations. In former publications and also during this comparison study, it was found that MAX-DOAS vertically integrated aerosol extinction coefficient profiles systematically underestimate the AOT observed by the Sun photometer. For the first time, it is quantitatively shown that for optimal estimation algorithms this can be largely explained and compensated by considering biases arising from the reduced sensitivity of MAX-DOAS observations to higher altitudes and associated a priori assumptions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheng, Zhengguo; Özpolat, Mumin; Tian, Daxin; Leung, Victor; Nekovee, Maziar;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Doing More with Less Wiri... (EP/P025862/1)

    The increasing complexity of automotive electronics has put considerable pressure on automotive communication networking to accommodate in-vehicle information flows. The use of power lines has been a promising alternative to in-vehicle communications because of elimination of extra data cables. In this paper, we focus on the latest HomePlug Green PHY (HPGP) which has been promoted by major automotive manufacturers for green communications with electric vehicles, and study its worst-case access delay performance in supporting delaycritical in-vehicle applications using both theoretical analysis and the simulation. Specifically, we apply Network Calculus as a deterministic modeling approach to evaluate the worst delay and further verify its performance using the OMNeT++ simulation. Evaluation results are also supplemented to compare with legacy methods and provide useful guidelines for developing HPGP based vehicular power line communication systems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Milenković, Milica R.; Papastavrou, Agyro T.; Radanović, Dušanka D.; Pevec, Andrej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Zlatar, Matija; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Vougioukalakis, Georgios C.; Turel, Iztok; Anđelković, Katarina K.; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Serbia
    Project: MESTD | Interactions of natural p... (172055)

    Related to accepted version: [http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2865] Related to published version: [http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2858] Supplementary material for: [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277538719301664?via%3Dihub]

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
6 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; Rybczynski, Natalia; Gosse, John C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.;
    Project: NSERC , EC | PACEMAKER (226600), NSF | Collaborative Research: A... (1418421), NWO | Perturbations of System E... (11030)

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pullinen, Iida; Schmitt, Sebastian; Kang, Sungah; Sarrafzadeh, Mehrnaz; Schlag, Patrick; Andres, Stefanie; Kleist, Einhard; Mentel, Thomas F.; Rohrer, Franz; Springer, Monika; +6 more
    Project: EC | PIMMS (287382)

    The formation of organic nitrates (ONs) in the gas phase and their impact on mass formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated in a laboratory study for α-pinene and β-pinene photooxidation. Focus was the elucidation of those mechanisms that cause the often observed suppression of SOA mass formation by NOx, and therein the role of highly oxygenated multifunctional molecules (HOMs). We observed that with increasing NOx concentration (a) the portion of HOM organic nitrates (HOM-ONs) increased, (b) the fraction of accretion products (HOM-ACCs) decreased, and (c) HOM-ACCs contained on average smaller carbon numbers. Specifically, we investigated HOM organic nitrates (HOM-ONs), arising from the termination reactions of HOM peroxy radicals with NOx, and HOM permutation products (HOM-PPs), such as ketones, alcohols, or hydroperoxides, formed by other termination reactions. Effective uptake coefficients γeff of HOMs on particles were determined. HOMs with more than six O atoms efficiently condensed on particles (γeff>0.5 on average), and for HOMs containing more than eight O atoms, every collision led to loss. There was no systematic difference in γeff for HOM-ONs and HOM-PPs arising from the same HOM peroxy radicals. This similarity is attributed to the multifunctional character of the HOMs: as functional groups in HOMs arising from the same precursor HOM peroxy radical are identical, vapor pressures should not strongly depend on the character of the final termination group. As a consequence, the suppressing effect of NOx on SOA formation cannot be simply explained by replacement of terminal functional groups by organic nitrate groups. According to their γeff all HOM-ONs with more than six O atoms will contribute to organic bound nitrate (OrgNO3) in the particulate phase. However, the fraction of OrgNO3 stored in condensable HOMs with molecular masses > 230 Da appeared to be substantially higher than the fraction of particulate OrgNO3 observed by aerosol mass spectrometry. This result suggests losses of OrgNO3 for organic nitrates in particles, probably due to hydrolysis of OrgNO3 that releases HNO3 into the gas phase but leaves behind the organic rest in the particulate phase. However, the loss of HNO3 alone could not explain the observed suppressing effect of NOx on particle mass formation from α-pinene and β-pinene. Instead we can attribute most of the reduction in SOA mass yields with increasing NOx to the significant suppression of gas phase HOM-ACCs, which have high molecular mass and are potentially important for SOA mass formation at low-NOx conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Frieß, Udo; Hendrick, François; Alberti, Carlos; Allaart, Marc; Apituley, Arnoud; Bais, Alkis; Beirle, Steffen; Berkhout, Stijn; Bognar, Kristof; +55 more
    Project: EC | VERTIGO (607905), NSERC , EC | QA4ECV (607405), EC | ACTRIS-2 (654109)

    The second Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI-2) took place in Cabauw (the Netherlands) in September 2016 with the aim of assessing the consistency of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of tropospheric species (NO2, HCHO, O3, HONO, CHOCHO and O4). This was achieved through the coordinated operation of 36 spectrometers operated by 24 groups from all over the world, together with a wide range of supporting reference observations (in situ analysers, balloon sondes, lidars, long-path DOAS, direct-sun DOAS, Sun photometer and meteorological instruments). In the presented study, the retrieved CINDI-2 MAX-DOAS trace gas (NO2, HCHO) and aerosol vertical profiles of 15 participating groups using different inversion algorithms are compared and validated against the colocated supporting observations, with the focus on aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs), trace gas vertical column densities (VCDs) and trace gas surface concentrations. The algorithms are based on three different techniques: six use the optimal estimation method, two use a parameterized approach and one algorithm relies on simplified radiative transport assumptions and analytical calculations. To assess the agreement among the inversion algorithms independent of inconsistencies in the trace gas slant column density acquisition, participants applied their inversion to a common set of slant columns. Further, important settings like the retrieval grid, profiles of O3, temperature and pressure as well as aerosol optical properties and a priori assumptions (for optimal estimation algorithms) have been prescribed to reduce possible sources of discrepancies. The profiling results were found to be in good qualitative agreement: most participants obtained the same features in the retrieved vertical trace gas and aerosol distributions; however, these are sometimes at different altitudes and of different magnitudes. Under clear-sky conditions, the root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) among the results of individual participants are in the range of 0.01–0.1 for AOTs, (1.5–15) ×1014molec.cm-2 for trace gas (NO2, HCHO) VCDs and (0.3–8)×1010molec.cm-3 for trace gas surface concentrations. These values compare to approximate average optical thicknesses of 0.3, trace gas vertical columns of 90×1014molec.cm-2 and trace gas surface concentrations of 11×1010molec.cm-3 observed over the campaign period. The discrepancies originate from differences in the applied techniques, the exact implementation of the algorithms and the user-defined settings that were not prescribed. For the comparison against supporting observations, the RMSDs increase to a range of 0.02–0.2 against AOTs from the Sun photometer, (11–55)×1014molec.cm-2 against trace gas VCDs from direct-sun DOAS observations and (0.8–9)×1010molec.cm-3 against surface concentrations from the long-path DOAS instrument. This increase in RMSDs is most likely caused by uncertainties in the supporting data, spatiotemporal mismatch among the observations and simplified assumptions particularly on aerosol optical properties made for the MAX-DOAS retrieval. As a side investigation, the comparison was repeated with the participants retrieving profiles from their own differential slant column densities (dSCDs) acquired during the campaign. In this case, the consistency among the participants degrades by about 30 % for AOTs, by 180 % (40 %) for HCHO (NO2) VCDs and by 90 % (20 %) for HCHO (NO2) surface concentrations. In former publications and also during this comparison study, it was found that MAX-DOAS vertically integrated aerosol extinction coefficient profiles systematically underestimate the AOT observed by the Sun photometer. For the first time, it is quantitatively shown that for optimal estimation algorithms this can be largely explained and compensated by considering biases arising from the reduced sensitivity of MAX-DOAS observations to higher altitudes and associated a priori assumptions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sheng, Zhengguo; Özpolat, Mumin; Tian, Daxin; Leung, Victor; Nekovee, Maziar;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Doing More with Less Wiri... (EP/P025862/1)

    The increasing complexity of automotive electronics has put considerable pressure on automotive communication networking to accommodate in-vehicle information flows. The use of power lines has been a promising alternative to in-vehicle communications because of elimination of extra data cables. In this paper, we focus on the latest HomePlug Green PHY (HPGP) which has been promoted by major automotive manufacturers for green communications with electric vehicles, and study its worst-case access delay performance in supporting delaycritical in-vehicle applications using both theoretical analysis and the simulation. Specifically, we apply Network Calculus as a deterministic modeling approach to evaluate the worst delay and further verify its performance using the OMNeT++ simulation. Evaluation results are also supplemented to compare with legacy methods and provide useful guidelines for developing HPGP based vehicular power line communication systems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Milenković, Milica R.; Papastavrou, Agyro T.; Radanović, Dušanka D.; Pevec, Andrej; Jagličić, Zvonko; Zlatar, Matija; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Vougioukalakis, Georgios C.; Turel, Iztok; Anđelković, Katarina K.; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Serbia
    Project: MESTD | Interactions of natural p... (172055)

    Related to accepted version: [http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2865] Related to published version: [http://cherry.chem.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2858] Supplementary material for: [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277538719301664?via%3Dihub]