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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Dany Laveault; Linda Allal;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Switzerland

    This chapter provides a general introduction to the topic of this book: namely, the conceptualization of assessment for learning (AfL) and the challenges of its implementation. It addresses theoretical issues, including the definition of assessment for learning and its relations with other concepts—in particular, the formative and summative functions of assessment. It discusses the characteristics of student learning to be considered in designing AfL, as well as the external constraints and other practical considerations that influence the implementation of AfL. In conclusion, it presents the structure of the book in three parts dealing with three interrelated aspects of AfL implementation: policy, professional development, and classroom practice.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Maurice Beghetti; Kevin Morris; Patrick George Winston Cox; Desmond Bohn; Ian Adatia;
    Country: Switzerland

    Objective: To evaluate whether a trial of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) differentiates reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction from fixed anatomic obstruction to pulmonary blood flow after surgery for congenital heart disease in patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension.¶Design: Prospective cohort study.¶Setting: Tertiary care children's hospital.¶Patients: 15 neonate and infants with elevated pulmonary artery or right ventricular pressure or with clinical signs suggestive of high pulmonary vascular resistance in the early postoperative period following repair of congenital heart disease.¶Intervention: 30-min trial of 40 ppm inhaled NO.¶Results: 5 patients responded to inhaled NO, 2 patients were weaned from extracorporeal support with NO. Four were maintained on continuous inhaled NO for 3 to 5 days. All the responders survived. Ten patients did not respond to NO. An important anatomic obstruction was found with echocardiography or angiography in all 10 patients. Reintervention was performed in 6/10 (4 stent placement, 1 balloon angioplasty of pulmonary arteries and 1 revision of systemic to pulmonary shunt). Six of the nonresponders died.¶Conclusion: A trial of inhaled NO after cardiac surgery in neonates and infants may be useful to differentiate reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction from fixed anatomic obstruction and may provide useful information if temporary support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered. Failure to respond to inhaled NO should prompt further investigations to rule out a residual obstruction.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    B.M. Steels; F.A.M Leermakers; Charles A. Haynes;
    Country: Netherlands

    A number of new technologies, including new-generation biomaterials and chromatography resins, are based on passivation and modification of surfaces by terminally attaching polymer chains to the surface. However, little is known about these systems at the molecular level. In this work the compression of a single end-grafted polymer chain (or mushroom) by a disc of finite radius was investigated using a self-consistent field (SCF) lattice model. In accordance with results predicted using scaling theory [Subramanian et al., Europhys. Lett. 29 (1995) 285 and Macromolecules 29 (1996) 4045], the compressed chain undergoes a smooth escape transition. However, under the assumption of angular symmetry, a first-order escape transition of the end-grafted chain is not observed, suggesting that the formation of a tether is required for the predicted phase transition. Segment density distributions and compression energies are calculated in a cylindrical lattice. The energy required to compress a chain increases monotonically as the disc is moved closer to the surface and becomes independent of chain length at strong compressions where the work of compression involves only confinement of the tether joining the escaped chain fraction to the grafting point.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2011
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Paul A. Johnson; Libero J. Bartolotti; Paul W. Ayers; Tim Fievez; Paul Geerlings;
    Publisher: Springer Netherlands
    Country: Belgium

    Conceptual density-functional theory (DFT) provides a mathematical framework for using changes of the electron density to understand chemical reactions and chemical reactivity. The key idea is that by studying the response of a molecule or materials to perturbations, one can decipher its reactivity preferences. If a system reacts favorably to a perturbation, then this indicates that the system will react favorably with a certain class of reagents. Differentials of the energy may thus be interpreted as reactivity indicators. Because of the key role of energy differentials, the mathematical framework of conceptual DFT is similar to classical thermodynamics, with state functions, variational principles, and Legendre transforms. In this chapter we use this thermodynamic simile to present the mathematical underpinnings of conceptual DFT. Applications to systems of interest to organic, inorganic, and biological chemists are used to demonstrate how these abstract concepts may be applied to concrete chemical problems.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Kuo-Ting Chen; Jim Nieuwenhuizen; Maryana Handula; Yann Seimbille;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Country: Netherlands

    We herein describe the development of a novel dual-modality optical/radio-imaging agent for general and site-specific labeling of biovectors through a 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT)/1,2-aminothiol click reaction. The CBT-based multifunctional single-attachment-point (MSAP) agent enables a single-step synthesis of various dual-modality probes characterized by rapid conjugation, high labeling yields, metabolically stable products and applicability to orthogonal two-step labeling of sensitive biomolecules. In addition, the two-step radiolabeling protocol and click reaction were optimized by using CBT scavengers to improve the reaction rate and molar activity of the imaging probes. Our methodology allows for a simple and efficient synthetic route to produce a variety of dual-modality imaging agents for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Niladri Basu; Anton M. Scheuhammer; Christian Sonne; Robert J. Letcher; Erik W. Born; Rune Dietz;

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high concentrations of mercury because they are apex predators in the Arctic ecosystem. Although mercury is a potent neurotoxic heavy metal, it is not known whether current exposures are of neurotoxicological concern to polar bears. We tested the hypotheses that polar bears accumulate levels of mercury in their brains that exceed the estimated lowest observable adverse effect level (20 microg/g dry wt) for mammalian wildlife and that such exposures are associated with subtle neurological damage, as determined by measuring neurochemical biomarkers previously shown to be disrupted by mercury in other high-trophic wildlife. Brain stem (medulla oblongata) tissues from 82 polar bears subsistence hunted in East Greenland were studied. Despite surprisingly low levels of mercury in the brain stem region (total mercury = 0.36 +/- 0.12 microg/g dry wt), a significant negative correlation was measured between N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor levels and both total mercury (r = -0.34, p < 0.01) and methylmercury (r = -0.89, p < 0.05). No relationships were observed among mercury, selenium, and several other neurochemical biomarkers (dopamine-2, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, muscarinic cholinergic, and nicotinic cholinergic receptors; cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase enzymes). These data show that East Greenland polar bears do not accumulate high levels of mercury in their brain stems. However, decreased levels of NMDA receptors could be one of the most sensitive indicators of mercury's subclinical and early effects.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2005
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Dong-Sheng Jeng; Brian R. Seymour; David Andrew Barry; J.-Y. Parlange; David Lockington; Ling Li;
    Country: Switzerland

    Free surface flow of groundwater in aquifers has been studied since the early 1960s. Previous investigations have been based on the Boussinesq equation, derived from the non- linear kinematic boundary condition. In fact, the Boussinesq equation is the zeroth-order equation in the shallow-water expansion. A key assumption in this expansion is that the mean thickness of the aquifer is small compared with a reference length, normally taken to be the linear decay length. In this study, we re-examine the expansion scheme for free surface groundwater flows, and propose a new expansion wherein the shallow-water assumption is replaced by a steepness assumption. A comparison with experimental data shows that the new model provides a better prediction of water table levels than the conventional shallow-water expansion. The applicable ranges of the two expansions are exhibited.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    A. Mederos; David F. Kelton; Andrew S. Peregrine; John A. VanLeeuwen; S. Fernández; A. LeBoeuf; Paula I. Menzies; Ralph C. Martin;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Argentina
    Project: NSERC

    A study was conducted in sheep on Canadian farms to describe the relationship between packed cell volume (PCV) or fecal egg counts (FEC) and subjective clinical parameters that may indicate the severity of parasitic gastroenteritis. Twenty-one farms in Ontario (ON) and 8 farms in Quebec (QC) were purposively selected and visited during April–May (spring) and August (summer) 2007. At each farm visit, blood and fecal samples were collected from 10 ewes and 10 female lambs; body condition score (BCS), dag score (DS), fecal consistency score (FCS) and FAMACHA score were recorded for all sampled sheep. Packed cell volume was determined for all blood samples, and FEC were performed for all fecal samples. Summary statistics and simple correlations were performed for the parameters recorded. Two mixed models with random effects at the farm level were developed; one using PCV as the response variable and another using the natural log of eggs per gram of feces (lnEPG). Finally, the residuals from both models were correlated to the covariates in the models. The mean PCV values during the spring were 29.7% and 36.7% for lambs, and 28.8% and 31.1% for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. During the summer, the mean PCV was 32.0% and 32.8% for lambs, and 30.1% and 29.9% for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. The arithmetic mean FEC per gram of feces (EPG) during the spring was 3 and 2 for lambs, and 1266 and 789 for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively, whereas during summer the arithmetic mean EPG was 907 and 237 for lambs, and 458 and 246 for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. Results from simple correlations indicated that PCV was negatively correlated with lnEPG (r = −0.255; r2 = 6.5%) and FAMACHA (r = −0.312; r2 = 9.7%), and positively correlated with BCS (r = 0.317; r2 = 10%). LnEPG was negatively correlated with BCS (r = −0.232; r2 = 5.4%) and PCV (r = −0.255; r2 = 6.5%), but positively correlated with FAMACHA (r = 0.178; r2 = 3.2%) and DS (r = 0.086; r2 = 0.7%). Results from the models indicated that PCV and lnEPG residuals were negatively correlated with FAMACHA, FCS and almost all categories of BCS and DS, although the correlations were very low. The main results from this study suggested that none of the subjective clinical parameters evaluated were highly correlated with PCV or lnEPG and therefore were not good predictors of lnEPG or PCV on the studied farms in Ontario and Quebec. Fil: Mederos, A.. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria; Uruguay Fil: Kelton, D.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: Peregrine, A. S.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: VanLeeuwen, J.. University Of Prince Edward Island; Canadá Fil: Fernández, Alicia Silvina. University of Guelph; Canadá. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: LeBoeuf, A.. Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec; Canadá Fil: Menzies, P.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: Martin, R.. Nova Scotia Agricultural College; Canadá

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Mark S. Ackerman; Marlene Huysman; John M. Carroll; Barry Wellman; Giorgio DeMichelis; Volker Wulf;
    Country: Netherlands

    Communities are social entities whose actors share common needs, interests, or practices: they constitute the basic units of social experience. With regard to communities, social capital captures the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of the relationships among their members. Social capital is defined as a set of properties of a social entity (e.g. norms, level of trust, and intensive social networking) which enables joint activities and cooperation for mutual benefit. It can be understood as the glue which holds communities together. On this panel we will discuss whether and how information technology can strengthen communities by fostering social capital.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
14,762 Research products, page 1 of 1,477
  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Dany Laveault; Linda Allal;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Switzerland

    This chapter provides a general introduction to the topic of this book: namely, the conceptualization of assessment for learning (AfL) and the challenges of its implementation. It addresses theoretical issues, including the definition of assessment for learning and its relations with other concepts—in particular, the formative and summative functions of assessment. It discusses the characteristics of student learning to be considered in designing AfL, as well as the external constraints and other practical considerations that influence the implementation of AfL. In conclusion, it presents the structure of the book in three parts dealing with three interrelated aspects of AfL implementation: policy, professional development, and classroom practice.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Maurice Beghetti; Kevin Morris; Patrick George Winston Cox; Desmond Bohn; Ian Adatia;
    Country: Switzerland

    Objective: To evaluate whether a trial of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) differentiates reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction from fixed anatomic obstruction to pulmonary blood flow after surgery for congenital heart disease in patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension.¶Design: Prospective cohort study.¶Setting: Tertiary care children's hospital.¶Patients: 15 neonate and infants with elevated pulmonary artery or right ventricular pressure or with clinical signs suggestive of high pulmonary vascular resistance in the early postoperative period following repair of congenital heart disease.¶Intervention: 30-min trial of 40 ppm inhaled NO.¶Results: 5 patients responded to inhaled NO, 2 patients were weaned from extracorporeal support with NO. Four were maintained on continuous inhaled NO for 3 to 5 days. All the responders survived. Ten patients did not respond to NO. An important anatomic obstruction was found with echocardiography or angiography in all 10 patients. Reintervention was performed in 6/10 (4 stent placement, 1 balloon angioplasty of pulmonary arteries and 1 revision of systemic to pulmonary shunt). Six of the nonresponders died.¶Conclusion: A trial of inhaled NO after cardiac surgery in neonates and infants may be useful to differentiate reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction from fixed anatomic obstruction and may provide useful information if temporary support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered. Failure to respond to inhaled NO should prompt further investigations to rule out a residual obstruction.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    B.M. Steels; F.A.M Leermakers; Charles A. Haynes;
    Country: Netherlands

    A number of new technologies, including new-generation biomaterials and chromatography resins, are based on passivation and modification of surfaces by terminally attaching polymer chains to the surface. However, little is known about these systems at the molecular level. In this work the compression of a single end-grafted polymer chain (or mushroom) by a disc of finite radius was investigated using a self-consistent field (SCF) lattice model. In accordance with results predicted using scaling theory [Subramanian et al., Europhys. Lett. 29 (1995) 285 and Macromolecules 29 (1996) 4045], the compressed chain undergoes a smooth escape transition. However, under the assumption of angular symmetry, a first-order escape transition of the end-grafted chain is not observed, suggesting that the formation of a tether is required for the predicted phase transition. Segment density distributions and compression energies are calculated in a cylindrical lattice. The energy required to compress a chain increases monotonically as the disc is moved closer to the surface and becomes independent of chain length at strong compressions where the work of compression involves only confinement of the tether joining the escaped chain fraction to the grafting point.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2011
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Paul A. Johnson; Libero J. Bartolotti; Paul W. Ayers; Tim Fievez; Paul Geerlings;
    Publisher: Springer Netherlands
    Country: Belgium

    Conceptual density-functional theory (DFT) provides a mathematical framework for using changes of the electron density to understand chemical reactions and chemical reactivity. The key idea is that by studying the response of a molecule or materials to perturbations, one can decipher its reactivity preferences. If a system reacts favorably to a perturbation, then this indicates that the system will react favorably with a certain class of reagents. Differentials of the energy may thus be interpreted as reactivity indicators. Because of the key role of energy differentials, the mathematical framework of conceptual DFT is similar to classical thermodynamics, with state functions, variational principles, and Legendre transforms. In this chapter we use this thermodynamic simile to present the mathematical underpinnings of conceptual DFT. Applications to systems of interest to organic, inorganic, and biological chemists are used to demonstrate how these abstract concepts may be applied to concrete chemical problems.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Kuo-Ting Chen; Jim Nieuwenhuizen; Maryana Handula; Yann Seimbille;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Country: Netherlands

    We herein describe the development of a novel dual-modality optical/radio-imaging agent for general and site-specific labeling of biovectors through a 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT)/1,2-aminothiol click reaction. The CBT-based multifunctional single-attachment-point (MSAP) agent enables a single-step synthesis of various dual-modality probes characterized by rapid conjugation, high labeling yields, metabolically stable products and applicability to orthogonal two-step labeling of sensitive biomolecules. In addition, the two-step radiolabeling protocol and click reaction were optimized by using CBT scavengers to improve the reaction rate and molar activity of the imaging probes. Our methodology allows for a simple and efficient synthetic route to produce a variety of dual-modality imaging agents for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Niladri Basu; Anton M. Scheuhammer; Christian Sonne; Robert J. Letcher; Erik W. Born; Rune Dietz;

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high concentrations of mercury because they are apex predators in the Arctic ecosystem. Although mercury is a potent neurotoxic heavy metal, it is not known whether current exposures are of neurotoxicological concern to polar bears. We tested the hypotheses that polar bears accumulate levels of mercury in their brains that exceed the estimated lowest observable adverse effect level (20 microg/g dry wt) for mammalian wildlife and that such exposures are associated with subtle neurological damage, as determined by measuring neurochemical biomarkers previously shown to be disrupted by mercury in other high-trophic wildlife. Brain stem (medulla oblongata) tissues from 82 polar bears subsistence hunted in East Greenland were studied. Despite surprisingly low levels of mercury in the brain stem region (total mercury = 0.36 +/- 0.12 microg/g dry wt), a significant negative correlation was measured between N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor levels and both total mercury (r = -0.34, p < 0.01) and methylmercury (r = -0.89, p < 0.05). No relationships were observed among mercury, selenium, and several other neurochemical biomarkers (dopamine-2, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, muscarinic cholinergic, and nicotinic cholinergic receptors; cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase enzymes). These data show that East Greenland polar bears do not accumulate high levels of mercury in their brain stems. However, decreased levels of NMDA receptors could be one of the most sensitive indicators of mercury's subclinical and early effects.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2005
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Dong-Sheng Jeng; Brian R. Seymour; David Andrew Barry; J.-Y. Parlange; David Lockington; Ling Li;
    Country: Switzerland

    Free surface flow of groundwater in aquifers has been studied since the early 1960s. Previous investigations have been based on the Boussinesq equation, derived from the non- linear kinematic boundary condition. In fact, the Boussinesq equation is the zeroth-order equation in the shallow-water expansion. A key assumption in this expansion is that the mean thickness of the aquifer is small compared with a reference length, normally taken to be the linear decay length. In this study, we re-examine the expansion scheme for free surface groundwater flows, and propose a new expansion wherein the shallow-water assumption is replaced by a steepness assumption. A comparison with experimental data shows that the new model provides a better prediction of water table levels than the conventional shallow-water expansion. The applicable ranges of the two expansions are exhibited.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    A. Mederos; David F. Kelton; Andrew S. Peregrine; John A. VanLeeuwen; S. Fernández; A. LeBoeuf; Paula I. Menzies; Ralph C. Martin;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Argentina
    Project: NSERC

    A study was conducted in sheep on Canadian farms to describe the relationship between packed cell volume (PCV) or fecal egg counts (FEC) and subjective clinical parameters that may indicate the severity of parasitic gastroenteritis. Twenty-one farms in Ontario (ON) and 8 farms in Quebec (QC) were purposively selected and visited during April–May (spring) and August (summer) 2007. At each farm visit, blood and fecal samples were collected from 10 ewes and 10 female lambs; body condition score (BCS), dag score (DS), fecal consistency score (FCS) and FAMACHA score were recorded for all sampled sheep. Packed cell volume was determined for all blood samples, and FEC were performed for all fecal samples. Summary statistics and simple correlations were performed for the parameters recorded. Two mixed models with random effects at the farm level were developed; one using PCV as the response variable and another using the natural log of eggs per gram of feces (lnEPG). Finally, the residuals from both models were correlated to the covariates in the models. The mean PCV values during the spring were 29.7% and 36.7% for lambs, and 28.8% and 31.1% for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. During the summer, the mean PCV was 32.0% and 32.8% for lambs, and 30.1% and 29.9% for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. The arithmetic mean FEC per gram of feces (EPG) during the spring was 3 and 2 for lambs, and 1266 and 789 for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively, whereas during summer the arithmetic mean EPG was 907 and 237 for lambs, and 458 and 246 for ewes, in ON and QC, respectively. Results from simple correlations indicated that PCV was negatively correlated with lnEPG (r = −0.255; r2 = 6.5%) and FAMACHA (r = −0.312; r2 = 9.7%), and positively correlated with BCS (r = 0.317; r2 = 10%). LnEPG was negatively correlated with BCS (r = −0.232; r2 = 5.4%) and PCV (r = −0.255; r2 = 6.5%), but positively correlated with FAMACHA (r = 0.178; r2 = 3.2%) and DS (r = 0.086; r2 = 0.7%). Results from the models indicated that PCV and lnEPG residuals were negatively correlated with FAMACHA, FCS and almost all categories of BCS and DS, although the correlations were very low. The main results from this study suggested that none of the subjective clinical parameters evaluated were highly correlated with PCV or lnEPG and therefore were not good predictors of lnEPG or PCV on the studied farms in Ontario and Quebec. Fil: Mederos, A.. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria; Uruguay Fil: Kelton, D.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: Peregrine, A. S.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: VanLeeuwen, J.. University Of Prince Edward Island; Canadá Fil: Fernández, Alicia Silvina. University of Guelph; Canadá. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: LeBoeuf, A.. Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec; Canadá Fil: Menzies, P.. University of Guelph; Canadá Fil: Martin, R.. Nova Scotia Agricultural College; Canadá

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Mark S. Ackerman; Marlene Huysman; John M. Carroll; Barry Wellman; Giorgio DeMichelis; Volker Wulf;
    Country: Netherlands

    Communities are social entities whose actors share common needs, interests, or practices: they constitute the basic units of social experience. With regard to communities, social capital captures the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of the relationships among their members. Social capital is defined as a set of properties of a social entity (e.g. norms, level of trust, and intensive social networking) which enables joint activities and cooperation for mutual benefit. It can be understood as the glue which holds communities together. On this panel we will discuss whether and how information technology can strengthen communities by fostering social capital.