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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shengnan Ke; Jun Gong; Songnian Li; Qing Zhu; Xintao Liu; Yeting Zhang;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nan Zhao; Fen Cheng; F. Richard Yu; Jie Tang; Yunfei Chen; Guan Gui; Hikmet Sari;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can help smallcell base stations (SBSs) offload traffic via wireless backhaul to improve coverage and increase rate. However, the capacity of backhaul is limited. In this paper, UAV assisted secure transmission for scalable videos in hyper-dense networks via caching is studied. In the proposed scheme, UAVs can act as SBSs to provide videos to mobile users in some small cells. To reduce the pressure of wireless backhaul, UAVs and SBSs are both equipped with caches to store videos at off-peak time. To facilitate UAVs, a single antenna is equipped at each UAV and thus, only the precoding matrices of SBSs should be cooperatively designed to manage interference by exploiting the principle of interference alignment. On the other hand, the SBSs replaced by UAVs will be idle. Thus, in order to guarantee secure transmission, the idle SBSs can be further exploited to generate jamming signal to disrupt eavesdropping. The jamming signal is zero-forced at the legitimate users through the precoding of the idle SBSs, without affecting the legitimate transmission. The feasibility conditions of the proposed scheme are derived, and the secrecy performance is analyzed. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.\ud

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yong Guo; Yu Liu; Jian-Rong He; Xiaoyan Xia; Wei-Jian Mo; Ping Wang; Qiong Feng; Charles P. Larson; Huimin Xia; Xiu Qiu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

    Background Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. Methods We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28–41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. Results The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, −25 g; 95% CI, −30 to −19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (−6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28–31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Conclusions Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  • Authors: 
    Ling Cen; Feng Chen; Yu Hou; Gordon D. Richardson;
    Publisher: American Accounting Association

    ABSTRACT In the presence of litigation-facing suppliers, the supply chain relationship is at risk. Suppliers with principal customers (dependent suppliers) have a higher concentration of sales to customers, and they are more at risk relative to suppliers without principal customers (non-dependent suppliers). As a result, we predict and find that litigation disclosure patterns differ for the two supplier types: dependent suppliers are more likely to delay bad news and accelerate good news related to litigation outcomes, compared to non-dependent suppliers. Such strategic disclosure patterns in our end-game setting are opposite to those documented in the existing supply chain literature for the repeated-game setting (for example, Hui, Klasa, and Yeung 2012). JEL Classifications: M41; M48; K22.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruilong Sheng; Zhao Wang; Ting Luo; Amin Cao; Jingjing Sun; Joseph M. Kinsella;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Using renewable and biocompatible natural-based resources to construct functional biomaterials has attracted great attention in recent years. In this work, we successfully prepared a series of steroid-based cationic lipids by integrating various steroid skeletons/hydrophobes with (l-)-arginine headgroups via facile and efficient synthetic approach. The plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding affinity of the steroid-based cationic lipids, average particle sizes, surface potentials, morphologies and stability of the steroid-based cationic lipids/pDNA lipoplexes were disclosed to depend largely on the steroid skeletons. Cellular evaluation results revealed that cytotoxicity and gene transfection efficiency of the steroid-based cationic lipids in H1299 and HeLa cells strongly relied on the steroid hydrophobes. Interestingly, the steroid lipids/pDNA lipoplexes inclined to enter H1299 cells mainly through caveolae and lipid-raft mediated endocytosis pathways, and an intracellular trafficking route of "lipid-raft-mediated endocytosis→lysosome→cell nucleic localization" was accordingly proposed. The study provided possible approach for developing high-performance steroid-based lipid gene carriers, in which the cytotoxicity, gene transfection capability, endocytosis pathways, and intracellular trafficking/localization manners could be tuned/controlled by introducing proper steroid skeletons/hydrophobes. Noteworthy, among the lipids, Cho-Arg showed remarkably high gene transfection efficacy, even under high serum concentration (50% fetal bovine serum), making it an efficient gene transfection agent for practical application.

  • Authors: 
    Asatur Zh. Khurshudyan;
    Publisher: World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt

    In this paper, we consider a nonlinear control problem for one-dimensional viscous Burgers’ equation associated with a controlled linear heat equation by means of the Hopf–Cole transformation. The control is carried out by the time-dependent intensity of a distributed heat source influencing the heat equation. The set of admissible controls consists of compactly supported [Formula: see text] functions. Using the Green’s function approach, we analyze the possibilities of exact and approximate establishment of a given terminal state for the associated nonlinear Burgers’ equation within a desired amount of time. It is shown that the exact controllability of the associated Burgers’ equation and the heat equation are equivalent. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability are derived. The set of resolving controls is constructed in both cases. The determination of the resolving controls providing exact controllability is reduced to an infinite-dimensional system of linear algebraic equations. By means of the heuristic method of resolving control determination, parametric hierarchies of solutions providing approximate controllability are constructed. The results of a numerical simulation supporting the theoretical derivations are discussed.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
89,434 Research products, page 1 of 8,944
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shengnan Ke; Jun Gong; Songnian Li; Qing Zhu; Xintao Liu; Yeting Zhang;
    Publisher: Ryerson University Library and Archives

    In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nan Zhao; Fen Cheng; F. Richard Yu; Jie Tang; Yunfei Chen; Guan Gui; Hikmet Sari;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can help smallcell base stations (SBSs) offload traffic via wireless backhaul to improve coverage and increase rate. However, the capacity of backhaul is limited. In this paper, UAV assisted secure transmission for scalable videos in hyper-dense networks via caching is studied. In the proposed scheme, UAVs can act as SBSs to provide videos to mobile users in some small cells. To reduce the pressure of wireless backhaul, UAVs and SBSs are both equipped with caches to store videos at off-peak time. To facilitate UAVs, a single antenna is equipped at each UAV and thus, only the precoding matrices of SBSs should be cooperatively designed to manage interference by exploiting the principle of interference alignment. On the other hand, the SBSs replaced by UAVs will be idle. Thus, in order to guarantee secure transmission, the idle SBSs can be further exploited to generate jamming signal to disrupt eavesdropping. The jamming signal is zero-forced at the legitimate users through the precoding of the idle SBSs, without affecting the legitimate transmission. The feasibility conditions of the proposed scheme are derived, and the secrecy performance is analyzed. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.\ud

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yong Guo; Yu Liu; Jian-Rong He; Xiaoyan Xia; Wei-Jian Mo; Ping Wang; Qiong Feng; Charles P. Larson; Huimin Xia; Xiu Qiu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

    Background Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. Methods We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28–41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. Results The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, −25 g; 95% CI, −30 to −19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (−6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28–31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Conclusions Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  • Authors: 
    Ling Cen; Feng Chen; Yu Hou; Gordon D. Richardson;
    Publisher: American Accounting Association

    ABSTRACT In the presence of litigation-facing suppliers, the supply chain relationship is at risk. Suppliers with principal customers (dependent suppliers) have a higher concentration of sales to customers, and they are more at risk relative to suppliers without principal customers (non-dependent suppliers). As a result, we predict and find that litigation disclosure patterns differ for the two supplier types: dependent suppliers are more likely to delay bad news and accelerate good news related to litigation outcomes, compared to non-dependent suppliers. Such strategic disclosure patterns in our end-game setting are opposite to those documented in the existing supply chain literature for the repeated-game setting (for example, Hui, Klasa, and Yeung 2012). JEL Classifications: M41; M48; K22.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ruilong Sheng; Zhao Wang; Ting Luo; Amin Cao; Jingjing Sun; Joseph M. Kinsella;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Using renewable and biocompatible natural-based resources to construct functional biomaterials has attracted great attention in recent years. In this work, we successfully prepared a series of steroid-based cationic lipids by integrating various steroid skeletons/hydrophobes with (l-)-arginine headgroups via facile and efficient synthetic approach. The plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding affinity of the steroid-based cationic lipids, average particle sizes, surface potentials, morphologies and stability of the steroid-based cationic lipids/pDNA lipoplexes were disclosed to depend largely on the steroid skeletons. Cellular evaluation results revealed that cytotoxicity and gene transfection efficiency of the steroid-based cationic lipids in H1299 and HeLa cells strongly relied on the steroid hydrophobes. Interestingly, the steroid lipids/pDNA lipoplexes inclined to enter H1299 cells mainly through caveolae and lipid-raft mediated endocytosis pathways, and an intracellular trafficking route of "lipid-raft-mediated endocytosis→lysosome→cell nucleic localization" was accordingly proposed. The study provided possible approach for developing high-performance steroid-based lipid gene carriers, in which the cytotoxicity, gene transfection capability, endocytosis pathways, and intracellular trafficking/localization manners could be tuned/controlled by introducing proper steroid skeletons/hydrophobes. Noteworthy, among the lipids, Cho-Arg showed remarkably high gene transfection efficacy, even under high serum concentration (50% fetal bovine serum), making it an efficient gene transfection agent for practical application.

  • Authors: 
    Asatur Zh. Khurshudyan;
    Publisher: World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt

    In this paper, we consider a nonlinear control problem for one-dimensional viscous Burgers’ equation associated with a controlled linear heat equation by means of the Hopf–Cole transformation. The control is carried out by the time-dependent intensity of a distributed heat source influencing the heat equation. The set of admissible controls consists of compactly supported [Formula: see text] functions. Using the Green’s function approach, we analyze the possibilities of exact and approximate establishment of a given terminal state for the associated nonlinear Burgers’ equation within a desired amount of time. It is shown that the exact controllability of the associated Burgers’ equation and the heat equation are equivalent. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability are derived. The set of resolving controls is constructed in both cases. The determination of the resolving controls providing exact controllability is reduced to an infinite-dimensional system of linear algebraic equations. By means of the heuristic method of resolving control determination, parametric hierarchies of solutions providing approximate controllability are constructed. The results of a numerical simulation supporting the theoretical derivations are discussed.