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618 Research products, page 1 of 62

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  • 2012-2021
  • Energy Research

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  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Elias, Morgan;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change models for continental regions of North America include reduced growing season precipitation and a “repackaging” of rainfall into fewer but larger events. Water and nutrients (NPK) have individually been proven to be a limiting resource on plant growth and determinants of competition in many grassland systems, however their interacting effects remain relatively unknown. My study will examine the effects of water and nutrient availability alone, and their combined influences on above-ground biomass production and functional group composition which could provide fundamental insight into the functioning of a mesic temperate old field meadow in southeastern Ontario. Total and graminoid above-ground biomass was significantly higher in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to the added and ambient precipitation treatments, whereas legumes and other forbs had the highest above-ground biomass in the added precipitation treatment. Below-ground processes such as microbial activity and root systems may have been enhanced under rainout shelters for graminoids, compared to legumes which were possibly able to fix nitrogen more efficiently in added water plots. Rainout shelters acting as microclimates, such as by reducing wind speed, may have created ideal conditions for the point-frame method, which could explain the highest above-ground biomass in the reduced water treatment. Soil moisture was significantly lower in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to added and ambient precipitation treatments. Nutrient addition, as well as the interacting effects of water and nutrients insignificantly affected plant above-ground biomass production and composition. Therefore, nutrient addition may not be a major limiting factor to plant productivity or composition in this community, and water addition only seems to enhance legume and other forb productivity.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laferriere, Colin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L'utilisation du pentobarbital de sodium (PB), injecté par voie intrapéritonéale (IP), est décrite comme une technique acceptable par les directives d'euthanasie de l'AVMA et du CCPA pour tuer les rongeurs. Cependant, de plus en plus de preuves contestent l'acceptabilité de l'IP PB. Celle-ci a été décrite comme inconsistante et il existe des données suggérant que cette technique pourrait induire de la douleur et du stress. L'objectif de cette thèse était donc de développer et d'évaluer des méthodes alternatives d'euthanasie. Au cours de l'étude pilote, nous avons développé un protocole d'injection pour les injections intrahépatiques (IH) de PB. Ensuite, nous avons testé cette injection sur des souris et des rats. Comme objectif secondaire, nous avons évalué l'utilisation de l'éthanol (ET) comme alternative au PB pour l’euthanasie des souris. Pour les souris, quatre-vingts souris CD1 adultes (mâles et femelles- 26,8 g [23-34 g], moyenne [intervalle]) ont été assignées au hasard à 6 groupes de traitement et ont été tuées par des injections IH ou des injections IP, en utilisant soit ET ou PB. Le taux de mauvaise injection (mauvais placement du contenu de l'injection) pour les essais IH était de 93% (28/30), y compris 14% intrathoracique (4/28), le reste ayant abouti dans la cavité péritonéale telle une injection IP. Ainsi, seulement 7% (2/30) des injections ont donné lieu à une administration hépatique (selon l’évaluation d'autopsie). Les injections IH ayant abouti dans le foie ont entraîné des décès quasi instantanés. Ces données montrent que les injections IH ne sont pas réalisables chez la souris étant donné la difficulté à frapper le foie et le risque d'injections intrathoraciques. D'autre part, l'IP ET a produit des temps significativement (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) plus courts de l'injection à l'arrêt du rythme cardiaque (CHB) (115s [88-185] médian [intervalle]) par rapport à l'IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirmant que l'ET est une alternative viable et potentiellement supérieure à la PB. Pour les rats, 66 injections IH et 14 injections IP ont été tentées sur des rats Sprague-Dawley mâles et femelles adultes (poids médian 371g, plage 170-730g), et ont entraîné un délai significativement plus rapide pour la perte du réflexe de redressement (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) et temps de CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) par rapport aux injections IP. Le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IH était de 4s [1 to 96] et 142.5s [2 to 330] respectivement; alors que le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IP était de 89.5s [73 to 110] et 275s [237 to 423], respectivement. Le taux de mauvaise injection, basé sur les évaluations d’autopsie, était plus élevé avec les injections IH qu'avec les injections IP (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); cependant, 97% des mauvaises injections IH ont tout de même produit une euthanasie réussie et rapide (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. Les injections IH sont donc une alternative efficace aux injections IP pour l'euthanasie chez le rat, et présentent moins de risques d'échec des tentatives d'euthanasie. The use of sodium pentobarbital (PB), injected intraperitoneally (IP), for killing rodents is described as an acceptable technique by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) euthanasia guidelines. However, there is a growing body of evidence challenging the acceptability of IP PB. It has been described as inconsistent and there is evidence that it may induce pain and stress. The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate alternative methods of euthanasia. During the pilot study, an injection protocol for intrahepatic (IH) injections of PB was developed and then tested on both mice and rats. As a secondary objective, the use of ethanol (ET) was evaluated as an alternative to PB for mice. For mice, eighty adult (male and female) CD1 mice (26.8g [23-34g], mean [range]) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups and were killed by IH injections or IP injections, using either ET or PB. the misinjection rate (misplacement of injectate) for IH injections was 93% (28/30), including 14% intrathoracic (4/28), and the remainder were IP delivery. Only 7% (2/30) of IH attempts resulted in successful IH delivery, per necropsy evaluation. These yielded quasi-instantaneous deaths. These data show that IH injections are not feasible in mice given the difficulty in hitting the liver and the risk of intrathoracic injections. On the other hand, IP ET produced significantly (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) shorter time from injection to cessation of heartbeat (CHB) (115s [88-185] median [range]) compared with IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirming that ET is a viable and potentially superior alternative to PB. For rats, 66 IH injections and 14 IP injections were attempted on adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (median weight 371g, range 170-730g), and resulted in significantly faster time to loss of righting reflex (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) and time to CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) compared with IP injections. Time to LORR and CHB following IH injections were: LORR of 4s [1 to 96], CHB of 142.5s [2 to 330]; compared with IP injections: LORR of 89.5s [73 to 110], CHB of 275s [237 to 423). The misinjection rate was higher with IH injections than with IP injections (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); however, 97 % of IH misinjections resulted in fast and successful euthanasia (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. IH injections are thus an efficacious alternative to IP injections for rat euthanasia and pose less risk of failed euthanasia attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robinson, Bryanne;
    Country: Canada

    Due to climate change and rampant urbanization in developing countries, increased attention needs to be paid to environmental sustainability concerns, helping to shape cities for the future. Instead of offering a “blueprint”, the EcoDistrict framework for sustainability recognizes that districts, neighbourhoods, and communities experience a range of differing circumstances and priorities, allowing for flexibility through the application of context specific indicators. East Harbour, a redevelopment east of Toronto’s downtown core, aims to apply this framework. This report seeks to explore the topic of EcoDistricts, determine the current environmentally sustainable programs and tools being used by existing EcoDistricts, and to recommend next steps that Toronto would need to consider when addressing the environmental sustainability of East Harbour. This research explores in detail the programs and tools that current EcoDistricts are using to be environmentally sustainable. In doing so, a qualitative, mixed methods research approach was used. The research methods used include a literature and documents review to provide background on and context for researching the EcoDistrict approach, and a multi-case study design to examine how EcoDistricts have successfully implemented environmental sustainability programs and tools. The case study portion included an analysis of the following EcoDistricts: (1) High Falls EcoDistrict, Rochester, New York; (2) Seaholm EcoDistrict, Austin, Texas, and; (3) Lloyd EcoDistrict, Portland, Oregon. The research suggests that Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict takes caution in terms of its marketing as it does not effectively differentiate between a vague idealism of the EcoDistrict model and the creation of an effective and applicable approach to environmental sustainability at the scale of a neighbourhood. This research has proposed three key considerations to minimize the issue of marketing and has presented ideas of how EcoDistricts can go beyond the idea of marketing sustainability that will hopefully spark a conversation that is necessary to determine how these next steps could benefit Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict. The key considerations outlined by this research are: (1) the application of a comprehensive plan and roadmap; (2) the development of context specific indicators, and (3) the use of indicator monitoring and reporting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choy, Emily Sarah;
    Publisher: Marine Biology
    Country: Canada

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an alarming rate, with the Arctic Ocean predicted to be summer sea ice free within the next few decades. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant Arctic odontocete, exhibiting a circumpolar distribution and a strong association to sea ice, and are thus a sentinel species for the effects of climate change. The vulnerability of belugas to changing environmental conditions will depend on their adaptive capacity and resilience to changes in the prey base. The overall objective of my thesis was to examine the potential effects of prey shifts due to changing environmental conditions on Beaufort Sea beluga whales by examining relationships among body condition, dietary tracers, and physiology. Differences in lipid content and carbonates in the tissues of beluga and their potential prey affected both carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios, which could lead to incorrect ecological interpretations. Inter-annual variation in blubber fatty acid signatures and liver δ13C and δ15N values in beluga whales may be related to annual differences in environmental conditions and abundances of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). To establish an effective approach for identifying prey, I used Bayesian mixing model Fatty Acid Source Tracking Algorithm in R (FASTAR) to reconstruct the known diets of two captive beluga whales using fatty acid signatures. FASTAR was then used to reconstruct the offshore diets of Beaufort Sea belugas. Although diets varied annually, Arctic cod and capelin (Mallotus villosus) were identified as the main prey of belugas. Finally, I examined physiological limits and the relationships between body condition and physiological parameters pertaining to oxygen storage capacity in belugas. Males had higher oxygen stores than females due to larger body size and higher hemoglobin concentrations. Body condition indices positively correlated with myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit, resulting in lower calculated aerobic dive limits in whales with lower body condition. Overall, prey shifts that reduce fitness will lead to lower oxygen stores, a positive feedback mechanism. The interconnectedness of diet, body condition, and physiology should be a conservation priority to monitor the long-term effects of climate change on belugas and other Arctic marine mammals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    External Relations, University of Regina;
    Publisher: External Relations, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    The University of Regina, in partnership with the United Nations Water for Life Decade in Canada and University of Texas in Austin is hosting a major international conference Storm Warning: Water, Energy, and Climate Security in a Changing World October 15-19 in Banff, Alberta. Staff no

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dean, Darrell Christopher;
    Country: Canada

    With continually increasing concern over anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their effect on global climate, the search for alternative fuels, especially for mobile applications such as in vehicles, is of immediate concern. Herein, research towards hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier is discussed; first, with the investigation of “hybrid” hydrogen storage systems that are meant to provide hydrogen for a fully fuel cell powered vehicle via a chemical reaction; and second, that of a thermally regenerative fuel cell system (TRFC) to partially supplant the energy needs of transport trucks by harnessing engine waste heat. Hybrid storage systems are comprised of a heterocyclic carrier that undergoes endothermic hydrogen release (indoline) and an organic hydride that undergoes exothermic release (amine boranes). Different embodiments are considered, varying in the mechanism of exothermic release (thermolysis vs. hydrolysis) and the mode of combination (physical vs. chemical). A thorough investigation into the effect of catalyst, sterics and temperature on the heterogeneously catalyzed dehydrogenation rate of N-heterocycles was executed. A number of trends with respect to the catalyst identity and the level of steric protection around the nitrogen atom were observed. The study towards a TRFC involved an investigation of the heterogeneous hydrogenation of benzylic ketones. Screening of a myriad of different catalysts was performed, including those with various supports, metals and modifications, and the examination of how both the sterics and electronics of the ketone affect the hydrogenation rate. A rapid hydrogenation at relatively low metal loadings and hydrogen pressures with extreme selectivity (>99.9%) is required. To date, however, such a combination has been elusive. The best selectivity was obtained with commercial Pd/SiO2 (99.99%), yet at a low conversion of 6%, after 1 h under 1 atm of H2 at 100 ˚C. In addition to the poor conversion, SiO2 is not electronically conductive and is therefore not fit for this application. The best viable catalyst, then, was a Pd/Vulcan XC-72 (carbon) catalyst made by the author with an observed 14% conversion and 98% selectivity under the same conditions. However, trends in activity and selectivity with respect to the catalyst and ketone have been characterized herein.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Patino Sanchez, Camila;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    En Colombie, la prépondérance de l’hydroélectricité comme principale source d’énergie électrique a normalement été expliquée par la richesse hydrique du pays et justement, par la « rentabilité » de sa production par rapport à d’autres sources d’énergie. Cependant, cette recherche vise à contester ces idées préconçues. Mon argument principal est qu’il est nécessaire d’explorer le caractère politique et relationnel de cette ressource pour comprendre son importance au sein du secteur de l’énergie électrique. Pour ce faire, j’explore les causes et les effets de la crise énergétique de 1992, bien connue comme El gran apagón (la grande panne). Je montre comment cette crise a été instrumentalisée afin de négocier les techno-politiques du secteur ainsi que ses infrastructures. Soit dans l’implémentation des politiques néolibérales qui émergeaient dans les années 1990 et dans la légitimation de nouveaux barrages hydroélectriques. Dans le cas présent, le barrage hydroélectrique Porce II, situé dans le département d’Antioquia. L’objectif est de mettre en évidence comment les discours de crise et de rareté (mais aussi les discours d’abondance) de l’hydroélectricité ont permis sa prolifération, et par conséquent la transformation massive de certains territoires. Tout en discutant comment ces discours ne sont ni neutres ni statiques dans le temps et dans l’espace. À partir des perspectives de l’écologie politique et des études de la Science et des technologies, je m’attarde sur les effets des discours d’experts et des représentations dominantes de l’eau et de l’hydroélectricité afin de voir comment ils jouent un rôle dans la configuration le secteur de l’énergie électrique entre 1940 et 2000. La crise de El gran Apagón s’avère intéressante dans la mesure elle met en lumière comment ces représentations, mais aussi les pratiques, modèles de gestion et la gouvernance du secteur sont mises en dispute dans ce contexte. Dans la trajectoire historique de l’hydroélectricité en Colombie, cette étude voit comment ces infrastructures sont légitimées non seulement des promesses contradictoires de développement et de progrès, mais aussi par les discours crises. In Colombia, the predominance of hydropower over other sources of energy have generally been explained by the notion of water abundance in the territory and therefore because of the rentability of its production. Nevertheless, this research aims to question these given ideas. I argue that it is necessary to explore the political and relational nature of this resource to understand its importance in the national electric sector. To do so, I explore the causes and effects of the 1992 energetic crisis, well-know as El gran apagón (The Great Blackout). I put into evidence how this crisis happened to be instrumentalized to negotiate the techno-politics and infrastructures that shape the electric sector system. More precisely, in the processes of implementation of neoliberal politics and in the legitimization of the construction of new dams. In this case, Porce II dam situated in the department of Antioquia. The main goal of this study is to reveal how crisis and scarcity discourses (as much as abundance discourses) of hydroelectricity allowed its proliferation, and thus, massive transformations of several territories in the country. Discussing at the same time how these discourses aren’t neutral nor static through space and time. From political ecology and Science and technology studies perspectives, I pay attention on the effects of expert discourses and representations of hydropower and water to see how they have shaped the electric sector in the period between 1940 and 2000. The crisis of El grand Apagón proves to be interesting as it allows to put into light how these representations, but also practices and the governance are contested and negotiated in this context. In the historical trajectory of hydropower in Colombia, this research seeks to explore how infrastructures are not only legitimated by contradictory promises of development and progress, but also by crisis discourses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Campbell, Karley;
    Country: Canada

    The spring bloom of microalgae within the bottom of sea ice provides a significant contribution to primary production in the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this research was to improve observations of the ice algae bloom using a transmitted irradiance technique to remotely estimate biomass, and to examine the influence of physical processes on biomass throughout the sea ice melt season. Results indicate that bottom ice temperature is highly influential in controlling biomass variability and bloom termination. Snow depth is also significant as it buffers ice temperature from the atmosphere and largely controls transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The relationship between snow depth and biomass can change over the spring however, limiting biomass accumulation early on while promoting it later. Brine drainage, under-ice current velocity, and surface PAR in the absence of snow cover are also important factors. Overall this research helps to characterize the spring ice algae bloom in the Arctic by improving in situ biomass estimates and identifying primary factors controlling it.

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Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
618 Research products, page 1 of 62
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Elias, Morgan;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change models for continental regions of North America include reduced growing season precipitation and a “repackaging” of rainfall into fewer but larger events. Water and nutrients (NPK) have individually been proven to be a limiting resource on plant growth and determinants of competition in many grassland systems, however their interacting effects remain relatively unknown. My study will examine the effects of water and nutrient availability alone, and their combined influences on above-ground biomass production and functional group composition which could provide fundamental insight into the functioning of a mesic temperate old field meadow in southeastern Ontario. Total and graminoid above-ground biomass was significantly higher in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to the added and ambient precipitation treatments, whereas legumes and other forbs had the highest above-ground biomass in the added precipitation treatment. Below-ground processes such as microbial activity and root systems may have been enhanced under rainout shelters for graminoids, compared to legumes which were possibly able to fix nitrogen more efficiently in added water plots. Rainout shelters acting as microclimates, such as by reducing wind speed, may have created ideal conditions for the point-frame method, which could explain the highest above-ground biomass in the reduced water treatment. Soil moisture was significantly lower in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to added and ambient precipitation treatments. Nutrient addition, as well as the interacting effects of water and nutrients insignificantly affected plant above-ground biomass production and composition. Therefore, nutrient addition may not be a major limiting factor to plant productivity or composition in this community, and water addition only seems to enhance legume and other forb productivity.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laferriere, Colin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L'utilisation du pentobarbital de sodium (PB), injecté par voie intrapéritonéale (IP), est décrite comme une technique acceptable par les directives d'euthanasie de l'AVMA et du CCPA pour tuer les rongeurs. Cependant, de plus en plus de preuves contestent l'acceptabilité de l'IP PB. Celle-ci a été décrite comme inconsistante et il existe des données suggérant que cette technique pourrait induire de la douleur et du stress. L'objectif de cette thèse était donc de développer et d'évaluer des méthodes alternatives d'euthanasie. Au cours de l'étude pilote, nous avons développé un protocole d'injection pour les injections intrahépatiques (IH) de PB. Ensuite, nous avons testé cette injection sur des souris et des rats. Comme objectif secondaire, nous avons évalué l'utilisation de l'éthanol (ET) comme alternative au PB pour l’euthanasie des souris. Pour les souris, quatre-vingts souris CD1 adultes (mâles et femelles- 26,8 g [23-34 g], moyenne [intervalle]) ont été assignées au hasard à 6 groupes de traitement et ont été tuées par des injections IH ou des injections IP, en utilisant soit ET ou PB. Le taux de mauvaise injection (mauvais placement du contenu de l'injection) pour les essais IH était de 93% (28/30), y compris 14% intrathoracique (4/28), le reste ayant abouti dans la cavité péritonéale telle une injection IP. Ainsi, seulement 7% (2/30) des injections ont donné lieu à une administration hépatique (selon l’évaluation d'autopsie). Les injections IH ayant abouti dans le foie ont entraîné des décès quasi instantanés. Ces données montrent que les injections IH ne sont pas réalisables chez la souris étant donné la difficulté à frapper le foie et le risque d'injections intrathoraciques. D'autre part, l'IP ET a produit des temps significativement (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) plus courts de l'injection à l'arrêt du rythme cardiaque (CHB) (115s [88-185] médian [intervalle]) par rapport à l'IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirmant que l'ET est une alternative viable et potentiellement supérieure à la PB. Pour les rats, 66 injections IH et 14 injections IP ont été tentées sur des rats Sprague-Dawley mâles et femelles adultes (poids médian 371g, plage 170-730g), et ont entraîné un délai significativement plus rapide pour la perte du réflexe de redressement (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) et temps de CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) par rapport aux injections IP. Le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IH était de 4s [1 to 96] et 142.5s [2 to 330] respectivement; alors que le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IP était de 89.5s [73 to 110] et 275s [237 to 423], respectivement. Le taux de mauvaise injection, basé sur les évaluations d’autopsie, était plus élevé avec les injections IH qu'avec les injections IP (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); cependant, 97% des mauvaises injections IH ont tout de même produit une euthanasie réussie et rapide (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. Les injections IH sont donc une alternative efficace aux injections IP pour l'euthanasie chez le rat, et présentent moins de risques d'échec des tentatives d'euthanasie. The use of sodium pentobarbital (PB), injected intraperitoneally (IP), for killing rodents is described as an acceptable technique by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) euthanasia guidelines. However, there is a growing body of evidence challenging the acceptability of IP PB. It has been described as inconsistent and there is evidence that it may induce pain and stress. The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate alternative methods of euthanasia. During the pilot study, an injection protocol for intrahepatic (IH) injections of PB was developed and then tested on both mice and rats. As a secondary objective, the use of ethanol (ET) was evaluated as an alternative to PB for mice. For mice, eighty adult (male and female) CD1 mice (26.8g [23-34g], mean [range]) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups and were killed by IH injections or IP injections, using either ET or PB. the misinjection rate (misplacement of injectate) for IH injections was 93% (28/30), including 14% intrathoracic (4/28), and the remainder were IP delivery. Only 7% (2/30) of IH attempts resulted in successful IH delivery, per necropsy evaluation. These yielded quasi-instantaneous deaths. These data show that IH injections are not feasible in mice given the difficulty in hitting the liver and the risk of intrathoracic injections. On the other hand, IP ET produced significantly (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) shorter time from injection to cessation of heartbeat (CHB) (115s [88-185] median [range]) compared with IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirming that ET is a viable and potentially superior alternative to PB. For rats, 66 IH injections and 14 IP injections were attempted on adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (median weight 371g, range 170-730g), and resulted in significantly faster time to loss of righting reflex (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) and time to CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) compared with IP injections. Time to LORR and CHB following IH injections were: LORR of 4s [1 to 96], CHB of 142.5s [2 to 330]; compared with IP injections: LORR of 89.5s [73 to 110], CHB of 275s [237 to 423). The misinjection rate was higher with IH injections than with IP injections (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); however, 97 % of IH misinjections resulted in fast and successful euthanasia (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. IH injections are thus an efficacious alternative to IP injections for rat euthanasia and pose less risk of failed euthanasia attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robinson, Bryanne;
    Country: Canada

    Due to climate change and rampant urbanization in developing countries, increased attention needs to be paid to environmental sustainability concerns, helping to shape cities for the future. Instead of offering a “blueprint”, the EcoDistrict framework for sustainability recognizes that districts, neighbourhoods, and communities experience a range of differing circumstances and priorities, allowing for flexibility through the application of context specific indicators. East Harbour, a redevelopment east of Toronto’s downtown core, aims to apply this framework. This report seeks to explore the topic of EcoDistricts, determine the current environmentally sustainable programs and tools being used by existing EcoDistricts, and to recommend next steps that Toronto would need to consider when addressing the environmental sustainability of East Harbour. This research explores in detail the programs and tools that current EcoDistricts are using to be environmentally sustainable. In doing so, a qualitative, mixed methods research approach was used. The research methods used include a literature and documents review to provide background on and context for researching the EcoDistrict approach, and a multi-case study design to examine how EcoDistricts have successfully implemented environmental sustainability programs and tools. The case study portion included an analysis of the following EcoDistricts: (1) High Falls EcoDistrict, Rochester, New York; (2) Seaholm EcoDistrict, Austin, Texas, and; (3) Lloyd EcoDistrict, Portland, Oregon. The research suggests that Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict takes caution in terms of its marketing as it does not effectively differentiate between a vague idealism of the EcoDistrict model and the creation of an effective and applicable approach to environmental sustainability at the scale of a neighbourhood. This research has proposed three key considerations to minimize the issue of marketing and has presented ideas of how EcoDistricts can go beyond the idea of marketing sustainability that will hopefully spark a conversation that is necessary to determine how these next steps could benefit Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict. The key considerations outlined by this research are: (1) the application of a comprehensive plan and roadmap; (2) the development of context specific indicators, and (3) the use of indicator monitoring and reporting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Choy, Emily Sarah;
    Publisher: Marine Biology
    Country: Canada

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an alarming rate, with the Arctic Ocean predicted to be summer sea ice free within the next few decades. Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant Arctic odontocete, exhibiting a circumpolar distribution and a strong association to sea ice, and are thus a sentinel species for the effects of climate change. The vulnerability of belugas to changing environmental conditions will depend on their adaptive capacity and resilience to changes in the prey base. The overall objective of my thesis was to examine the potential effects of prey shifts due to changing environmental conditions on Beaufort Sea beluga whales by examining relationships among body condition, dietary tracers, and physiology. Differences in lipid content and carbonates in the tissues of beluga and their potential prey affected both carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios, which could lead to incorrect ecological interpretations. Inter-annual variation in blubber fatty acid signatures and liver δ13C and δ15N values in beluga whales may be related to annual differences in environmental conditions and abundances of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). To establish an effective approach for identifying prey, I used Bayesian mixing model Fatty Acid Source Tracking Algorithm in R (FASTAR) to reconstruct the known diets of two captive beluga whales using fatty acid signatures. FASTAR was then used to reconstruct the offshore diets of Beaufort Sea belugas. Although diets varied annually, Arctic cod and capelin (Mallotus villosus) were identified as the main prey of belugas. Finally, I examined physiological limits and the relationships between body condition and physiological parameters pertaining to oxygen storage capacity in belugas. Males had higher oxygen stores than females due to larger body size and higher hemoglobin concentrations. Body condition indices positively correlated with myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit, resulting in lower calculated aerobic dive limits in whales with lower body condition. Overall, prey shifts that reduce fitness will lead to lower oxygen stores, a positive feedback mechanism. The interconnectedness of diet, body condition, and physiology should be a conservation priority to monitor the long-term effects of climate change on belugas and other Arctic marine mammals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    External Relations, University of Regina;
    Publisher: External Relations, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    The University of Regina, in partnership with the United Nations Water for Life Decade in Canada and University of Texas in Austin is hosting a major international conference Storm Warning: Water, Energy, and Climate Security in a Changing World October 15-19 in Banff, Alberta. Staff no

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dean, Darrell Christopher;
    Country: Canada

    With continually increasing concern over anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their effect on global climate, the search for alternative fuels, especially for mobile applications such as in vehicles, is of immediate concern. Herein, research towards hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier is discussed; first, with the investigation of “hybrid” hydrogen storage systems that are meant to provide hydrogen for a fully fuel cell powered vehicle via a chemical reaction; and second, that of a thermally regenerative fuel cell system (TRFC) to partially supplant the energy needs of transport trucks by harnessing engine waste heat. Hybrid storage systems are comprised of a heterocyclic carrier that undergoes endothermic hydrogen release (indoline) and an organic hydride that undergoes exothermic release (amine boranes). Different embodiments are considered, varying in the mechanism of exothermic release (thermolysis vs. hydrolysis) and the mode of combination (physical vs. chemical). A thorough investigation into the effect of catalyst, sterics and temperature on the heterogeneously catalyzed dehydrogenation rate of N-heterocycles was executed. A number of trends with respect to the catalyst identity and the level of steric protection around the nitrogen atom were observed. The study towards a TRFC involved an investigation of the heterogeneous hydrogenation of benzylic ketones. Screening of a myriad of different catalysts was performed, including those with various supports, metals and modifications, and the examination of how both the sterics and electronics of the ketone affect the hydrogenation rate. A rapid hydrogenation at relatively low metal loadings and hydrogen pressures with extreme selectivity (>99.9%) is required. To date, however, such a combination has been elusive. The best selectivity was obtained with commercial Pd/SiO2 (99.99%), yet at a low conversion of 6%, after 1 h under 1 atm of H2 at 100 ˚C. In addition to the poor conversion, SiO2 is not electronically conductive and is therefore not fit for this application. The best viable catalyst, then, was a Pd/Vulcan XC-72 (carbon) catalyst made by the author with an observed 14% conversion and 98% selectivity under the same conditions. However, trends in activity and selectivity with respect to the catalyst and ketone have been characterized herein.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Patino Sanchez, Camila;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    En Colombie, la prépondérance de l’hydroélectricité comme principale source d’énergie électrique a normalement été expliquée par la richesse hydrique du pays et justement, par la « rentabilité » de sa production par rapport à d’autres sources d’énergie. Cependant, cette recherche vise à contester ces idées préconçues. Mon argument principal est qu’il est nécessaire d’explorer le caractère politique et relationnel de cette ressource pour comprendre son importance au sein du secteur de l’énergie électrique. Pour ce faire, j’explore les causes et les effets de la crise énergétique de 1992, bien connue comme El gran apagón (la grande panne). Je montre comment cette crise a été instrumentalisée afin de négocier les techno-politiques du secteur ainsi que ses infrastructures. Soit dans l’implémentation des politiques néolibérales qui émergeaient dans les années 1990 et dans la légitimation de nouveaux barrages hydroélectriques. Dans le cas présent, le barrage hydroélectrique Porce II, situé dans le département d’Antioquia. L’objectif est de mettre en évidence comment les discours de crise et de rareté (mais aussi les discours d’abondance) de l’hydroélectricité ont permis sa prolifération, et par conséquent la transformation massive de certains territoires. Tout en discutant comment ces discours ne sont ni neutres ni statiques dans le temps et dans l’espace. À partir des perspectives de l’écologie politique et des études de la Science et des technologies, je m’attarde sur les effets des discours d’experts et des représentations dominantes de l’eau et de l’hydroélectricité afin de voir comment ils jouent un rôle dans la configuration le secteur de l’énergie électrique entre 1940 et 2000. La crise de El gran Apagón s’avère intéressante dans la mesure elle met en lumière comment ces représentations, mais aussi les pratiques, modèles de gestion et la gouvernance du secteur sont mises en dispute dans ce contexte. Dans la trajectoire historique de l’hydroélectricité en Colombie, cette étude voit comment ces infrastructures sont légitimées non seulement des promesses contradictoires de développement et de progrès, mais aussi par les discours crises. In Colombia, the predominance of hydropower over other sources of energy have generally been explained by the notion of water abundance in the territory and therefore because of the rentability of its production. Nevertheless, this research aims to question these given ideas. I argue that it is necessary to explore the political and relational nature of this resource to understand its importance in the national electric sector. To do so, I explore the causes and effects of the 1992 energetic crisis, well-know as El gran apagón (The Great Blackout). I put into evidence how this crisis happened to be instrumentalized to negotiate the techno-politics and infrastructures that shape the electric sector system. More precisely, in the processes of implementation of neoliberal politics and in the legitimization of the construction of new dams. In this case, Porce II dam situated in the department of Antioquia. The main goal of this study is to reveal how crisis and scarcity discourses (as much as abundance discourses) of hydroelectricity allowed its proliferation, and thus, massive transformations of several territories in the country. Discussing at the same time how these discourses aren’t neutral nor static through space and time. From political ecology and Science and technology studies perspectives, I pay attention on the effects of expert discourses and representations of hydropower and water to see how they have shaped the electric sector in the period between 1940 and 2000. The crisis of El grand Apagón proves to be interesting as it allows to put into light how these representations, but also practices and the governance are contested and negotiated in this context. In the historical trajectory of hydropower in Colombia, this research seeks to explore how infrastructures are not only legitimated by contradictory promises of development and progress, but also by crisis discourses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Campbell, Karley;
    Country: Canada

    The spring bloom of microalgae within the bottom of sea ice provides a significant contribution to primary production in the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this research was to improve observations of the ice algae bloom using a transmitted irradiance technique to remotely estimate biomass, and to examine the influence of physical processes on biomass throughout the sea ice melt season. Results indicate that bottom ice temperature is highly influential in controlling biomass variability and bloom termination. Snow depth is also significant as it buffers ice temperature from the atmosphere and largely controls transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The relationship between snow depth and biomass can change over the spring however, limiting biomass accumulation early on while promoting it later. Brine drainage, under-ice current velocity, and surface PAR in the absence of snow cover are also important factors. Overall this research helps to characterize the spring ice algae bloom in the Arctic by improving in situ biomass estimates and identifying primary factors controlling it.