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335 Research products, page 1 of 34

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wakaruk, A.;
    Country: Canada

    Access to government information in Canada is changing. This session provided a brief overview of new policies and initiatives that impact the way information professionals access government documents and publications in Canada. Topics included the Depository Services Program's move away from print distribution (and the depository library agreement), a major digitization project for Government of Alberta publications, and the work of the CGI PLN preservation network.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harasyn, Madison Leigh;
    Country: Canada

    Inaccuracies in sea ice observations from passive microwave satellite sensors increase during the summer melt period due to the evolution of sea ice thermophysical properties driving complexity in ice emissivity. Research from this thesis examines variations in sea ice thermophysical properties in Hudson Bay throughout summer melt and relates them to ice surface emissivity. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of a time-series of in situ passive microwave and unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of sea ice. Contributions from this thesis are made under two overarching categories: 1) the influence of sediment presence on sea ice passive microwave signature and; 2) the evolution of in situ and satellite-based sea ice emissivity throughout the melt period in Hudson Bay. Results from this research link non-uniform distribution of sediment across the ice surface to increased surface topography, as a result of enhanced melt rates from decreased surface albedo. The in situ passive microwave signature of sediment-laden ice is then examined, in relation to the surface roughness and liquid water presence on the ice surface. This thesis also verifies the evolution of in situ sea ice emissivity during the melt period in relation to the existing literature, and distinct periods of ice emissivity during ice melt are highlighted. In situ and satellite-based microwave brightness temperatures are compared, facilitated by a multi-sensor approach. To the authors' knowledge, these results contribute the first multi-sensor in situ observations of sediment laden sea ice, and the first comprehensive analysis of the emissive properties of Hudson Bay sea ice throughout the summer melt period.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deaconu, Ana Laura;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Préoccupés par les pratiques agricoles qui nuisent à la santé humaine et environnementale, des réseaux d'agriculteurs équatoriens se sont organisés autour d’une alternative plus durable, l'agroécologie, au moment où une transition nutritionnelle conduit la population rurale à des niveaux sans précédents de surpoids et d'obésité, alors que persistent des carences en micronutriments, créant ainsi un double fardeau de malnutrition. À travers les réseaux d'alimentation alternative (RAA) basés sur l'agroécologie, les agriculteurs et leurs alliés reconnaissent de plus en plus les liens entre les pratiques agricoles saines et la consommation d'aliments sains. De nombreuses publications ont exploré la manière avec laquelle les interventions agricoles peuvent améliorer la nutrition, par exemple, en favorisant la diversité de la production, en augmentant les revenus et en renforçant l'autonomie des femmes. L'agroécologie possède un grand potentiel d’action sur ces mécanismes. Toutefois, comme l'agroécologie se répand souvent en tant que mouvement social plutôt qu'en tant qu'intervention systématique, des recherches empiriques sont encore nécessaires pour évaluer les liens entre l'agroécologie et les pratiques alimentaires des agriculteurs. Cette thèse explore comment les pratiques de production et le capital social promus par les RAA agroécologiques peuvent être associés à des pratiques alimentaires uniques, avec le potentiel de soutenir la santé nutritionnelle face à l'obésité et aux carences en micronutriments. Suivant une approche participative de recherche, un devis mixte séquentiel exploratoire comprenant l'ethnographie, des entretiens avec des informateurs clés, des discussions de groupe et une enquête transversale comparant des agricultrices appartenant aux RAA agroécologiques à leurs voisines agricultrices non participantes a été appliqué. Les résultats montrent que les participantes aux RAA ont obtenu de meilleurs résultats que leurs voisines à travers de multiples indicateurs d'adéquation et de modération alimentaires. Les analyses suggèrent en outre que les RAA agroécologiques soutiennent ces meilleurs résultats nutritionnels en renforçant la diversité de la production et le capital social qui, à leur tour, favorisent la consommation d'aliments issus de l’auto-production et de l'économie sociale (par exemple le troc), ainsi que la consommation d'aliments traditionnels. Ces résultats démontrent empiriquement comment l'agroécologie peut agir sur les mécanismes liant l'agriculture à la nutrition pour favoriser une alimentation saine. Étant donné la nature du mouvement agroécologique mondial, largement auto-disséminé, l'agroécologie peut représenter une ressource endogène importante pour soutenir le bien-être nutritionnel des populations rurales. Concerned with agricultural practices that harm human and environmental health, networks of farmers in Ecuador have organized around agroecology as a more sustainable alternative. This comes at a time in which a nutrition transition has driven Ecuador’s rural population to unprecedented levels of overweight and obesity, even while micronutrient deficiencies persist, thus creating a double burden of malnutrition. Through agroecology-based alternative food networks (AFNs), farmers and their allies have increasingly recognized the linkages between healthy agricultural practices and healthy food consumption. A breadth of literature explores how agriculture interventions can improve nutritional outcomes, such as by promoting production diversity, increasing incomes and empowering women. Agroecology has much potential to act on these pathways. However, because agroecology often spreads as a social movement rather than as a systematic intervention, empirical research assessing linkages between agroecology and farmers’ dietary practices is lacking. This thesis explores how the production practices and social capital promoted through agroecological AFNs may be associated with unique dietary practices that hold potential to support nutritional health in the face of both obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. To do so, this research implemented a participatory approach and sequential, exploratory mixed method design including ethnography, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey comparing agroecology AFN participants and their non-participant farming neighbours. Findings show that AFN participants out-performed their neighbours on multiple indicators of dietary nutrient adequacy and moderation. Analyses further suggest that agroecological AFNs support these dietary outcomes by strengthening production diversity and social capital, which in turn promote the consumption of foods from own-production and from the social economy (e.g. barter) as well as promote the consumption of traditional foods. These results empirically demonstrate how agroecology can act on agriculture-nutrition pathways to enable healthy diets. Given the largely self-spreading nature of the global agroecology movement, agroecology may present an endogenous resource for supporting rural nutritional well-being.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Loukes, Keira;
    Country: Canada

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar by French Jesuit and agricultural scientist Fr. Henri de Laulanie in the 1980s has since been propagated to over 50 countries worldwide. By transplanting younger seedlings, increasing the spacing between individual plants, irrigating intermittently and consistently aerating the soil, SRI promises to increase global rice production to twice the 3.7 t/ha currently experienced (Uphoff, 2003). Notwithstanding regional variance (Uphoff, 2003) and contestation of the results (Sheehy et al., 2005), SRI advocates in various countries posit SRI as an agro-ecological innovation that is an alternative to top-down, input-intensive agriculture, yet can greatly expand yields and farm incomes. These properties are argued to be particularly important in a world of rising temperatures and increased demand for foodstuffs. In projecting SRI as a singular solution to current and future constraints upon rice production, however, little attention has been given to its translation and embedding within diverse socio-ecological settings. Given that socio-ecological and political climates vary greatly from region to region, my broad research question uses political agronomy as a theoretical framework to ask: what social realities are silenced in order to craft a narrative in which SRI can become a universal driver of agricultural development? Through ten weeks of participatory observation and interviews with farmers, NGO representatives, researchers and extension officers directly involved in SRI in two districts in Nepal’s Terai, (Chitwan and Morang), I was able to observe how SRI is enacted in unique settings. The aim of this project was to understand how SRI practices are institutionalized on the ground and whether broad characteristics lead specific types of farmers to gravitate towards, or be selected for, the adoption of SRI (such as land holdings or access to water and institutional channels such as bank credit and agricultural extension). In asking these questions, this research aims to more adequately assess SRI's suitability as a global agricultural innovation.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sylvestre, Nicolas;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L’Écosse du XVIIIe siècle connaît de grands changements qui seront à l’aune des transformations socio-économiques sous-tendant sa Révolution industrielle. L’historiographie sur le sujet est divisée entre deux visions du développement – nommées pour le bienfait de cette étude traditionnelle et révisionniste – à savoir si ces transformations valident la notion d’une « révolution agraire ». Cette étude propose une recension de ces deux courants et propose d’appliquer leur analyse sur une région circonscrite, l’Aberdeenshire. À l’aide de l’Old Statistical Account, source majeure pour l’étude de l’histoire moderne écossaise, nous tenterons de démontrer que le caractère particulier du développement des régions ne correspond pas à l’application des conclusions nationales. Nous accorderons une attention spéciale à la propriété foncière, à l’impact des enclosures et à la temporalité des changements. De par ses spécificités, et son retard de modernisation agraire et agricole, nous croyons que la région suit le schéma dressé par les historiens révisionnistes, c.-à-d. des changements structurels s’étendant sur un temps long et ne s’inscrivant pas directement dans la période 1755-1815, traditionnellement désignée comme « révolution agraire ». Il s’agirait plutôt d’une adaptation partielle et originale des nouvelles idées mises de l’avant par les protagonistes de la modernisation. During the eighteenth century, Scotland underwent numerous structural changes that ultimately led to its entry into the Industrial Revolution. Concerning its historiography, there is an ongoing debate between two factions – named for the purpose of this study traditionalists and revisionists – in order to determine the validity of the “Agricultural revolution” notion of development. This study aims to explore both visions and to apply their conclusions to a particular region, in this case Aberdeenshire. Using the Old Statistical Account, one of the major documentary resources concerning Scottish modern history, we will try to demonstrate that the regional experience of development differs from the general assertions applied to Scotland. We will focus on land property, the impact of enclosures and the timeframe of the changes. Owing to its specific characteristics, we believe that the entry of Aberdeenshire into agricultural modernity followed the path of long-term structural changes, as favoured by the writers of the revisionist persuasion. In other words, this region did not experience but more or less adapted the new ideas and techniques to its own particular characteristics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McMillan, Michelle;
    Country: Canada

    Background: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers is greater than non-farming populations. The burden on Canadian farmers is unknown, however. Research is required to determine the occurrence of these conditions and the work-related tasks that contribute to musculoskeletal pain in prevalent anatomical sites. Objectives: The objectives of the two studies comprising this thesis were to 1) describe the sample population of Saskatchewan farmers and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and, 2) explore the strength of associations between biomechanical exposures and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: Objective 1. Participants received a mail-out survey for the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. Study outcomes were self-reports of musculoskeletal disorders characterized by presence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in nine anatomical regions. Objective 2. A cross-sectional analysis of the experience of musculoskeletal pain in relation to four main biomechanical work exposures was performed. Relationships were determined by modeling the exposures separately using modified Poisson regression. Results: Objective 1. A strong majority of participants (82.2%) reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was the anatomical site most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by the shoulders (44.0%). Objective 2. Results suggest that all biomechanical exposures had a dose-response effect on musculoskeletal outcomes. Shovel or pitchfork use was strongest for lower back pain, while working with arms above head was the greatest risk factor for shoulder pain. Conclusions: Objective 1. Our study suggests that Canadian farmers also experience musculoskeletal pain most frequently in the lower back and shoulders, similar to those in other regions and commodity types. It also found that all farm people are at risk for musculoskeletal disorders, highlighting the need to target all subgroups and commodity types equally. Objective 2. Strong associations between increased biomechanical exposures and pain in the lower back and shoulders support the evidence that these regions are susceptible to the physical exposures of farm work.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liliana ALVAREZ;
    Country: Canada
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2016
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    McCann, Cameron N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanuk, Michael;
    Country: Canada

    The phenology and productivity of temperate forests has changed across eastern North America in recent decades. However, these changes have varied spatially and temporally. And, while climate change has been an important cause of these changes in forest growth, the precise influence of climate remains unclear. This thesis presents the results of research which 1) tested for forest growth trends that could indicate that forest growth has changed in response to environmental stressors; and 2) assessed climate-growth relationships for different forest growth processes (phenology and productivity). Analysis was conducted at a regional scale within the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks (A2A) corridor, and at a sub-regional scale within the four geoclimatologically distinct ecoregions of A2A (Algonquin Highlands, Frontenac Arch, St. Lawrence Lowlands & Adirondack Mountains). We conducted two studies using different, but complimentary, methodologies. In the first study we used dendrochronology to study the growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) over a century (1912-2011). We found that sugar maple ring-widths declined recently in the Algonquin Highlands (- 46 mm2/year, 1993-2011) and Adirondack Mountains (- 33 mm2/year, 1991-2011), but that climate-growth relationships with temperature, precipitation and the SPEI drought index were limited (response function coefficients of ± 0.3). In the second study we used remote-sensing to study forest landscapes (i.e., pixels) over 26 years (1989-2014). We found that statistically significant (p 80 %), and accumulated heating (> 4 0C) and chilling (< 20 0C) temperatures were the most important climatic variables for driving forest growth. Understanding climate-growth relationships for temperate forests in A2A will improve understandings of how forests have already responded to climate change, and will contribute to our capacity to predict how they may respond to future climate change.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Midwood, Jonathan D.;
    Country: Canada
search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
335 Research products, page 1 of 34
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wakaruk, A.;
    Country: Canada

    Access to government information in Canada is changing. This session provided a brief overview of new policies and initiatives that impact the way information professionals access government documents and publications in Canada. Topics included the Depository Services Program's move away from print distribution (and the depository library agreement), a major digitization project for Government of Alberta publications, and the work of the CGI PLN preservation network.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harasyn, Madison Leigh;
    Country: Canada

    Inaccuracies in sea ice observations from passive microwave satellite sensors increase during the summer melt period due to the evolution of sea ice thermophysical properties driving complexity in ice emissivity. Research from this thesis examines variations in sea ice thermophysical properties in Hudson Bay throughout summer melt and relates them to ice surface emissivity. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of a time-series of in situ passive microwave and unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of sea ice. Contributions from this thesis are made under two overarching categories: 1) the influence of sediment presence on sea ice passive microwave signature and; 2) the evolution of in situ and satellite-based sea ice emissivity throughout the melt period in Hudson Bay. Results from this research link non-uniform distribution of sediment across the ice surface to increased surface topography, as a result of enhanced melt rates from decreased surface albedo. The in situ passive microwave signature of sediment-laden ice is then examined, in relation to the surface roughness and liquid water presence on the ice surface. This thesis also verifies the evolution of in situ sea ice emissivity during the melt period in relation to the existing literature, and distinct periods of ice emissivity during ice melt are highlighted. In situ and satellite-based microwave brightness temperatures are compared, facilitated by a multi-sensor approach. To the authors' knowledge, these results contribute the first multi-sensor in situ observations of sediment laden sea ice, and the first comprehensive analysis of the emissive properties of Hudson Bay sea ice throughout the summer melt period.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deaconu, Ana Laura;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Préoccupés par les pratiques agricoles qui nuisent à la santé humaine et environnementale, des réseaux d'agriculteurs équatoriens se sont organisés autour d’une alternative plus durable, l'agroécologie, au moment où une transition nutritionnelle conduit la population rurale à des niveaux sans précédents de surpoids et d'obésité, alors que persistent des carences en micronutriments, créant ainsi un double fardeau de malnutrition. À travers les réseaux d'alimentation alternative (RAA) basés sur l'agroécologie, les agriculteurs et leurs alliés reconnaissent de plus en plus les liens entre les pratiques agricoles saines et la consommation d'aliments sains. De nombreuses publications ont exploré la manière avec laquelle les interventions agricoles peuvent améliorer la nutrition, par exemple, en favorisant la diversité de la production, en augmentant les revenus et en renforçant l'autonomie des femmes. L'agroécologie possède un grand potentiel d’action sur ces mécanismes. Toutefois, comme l'agroécologie se répand souvent en tant que mouvement social plutôt qu'en tant qu'intervention systématique, des recherches empiriques sont encore nécessaires pour évaluer les liens entre l'agroécologie et les pratiques alimentaires des agriculteurs. Cette thèse explore comment les pratiques de production et le capital social promus par les RAA agroécologiques peuvent être associés à des pratiques alimentaires uniques, avec le potentiel de soutenir la santé nutritionnelle face à l'obésité et aux carences en micronutriments. Suivant une approche participative de recherche, un devis mixte séquentiel exploratoire comprenant l'ethnographie, des entretiens avec des informateurs clés, des discussions de groupe et une enquête transversale comparant des agricultrices appartenant aux RAA agroécologiques à leurs voisines agricultrices non participantes a été appliqué. Les résultats montrent que les participantes aux RAA ont obtenu de meilleurs résultats que leurs voisines à travers de multiples indicateurs d'adéquation et de modération alimentaires. Les analyses suggèrent en outre que les RAA agroécologiques soutiennent ces meilleurs résultats nutritionnels en renforçant la diversité de la production et le capital social qui, à leur tour, favorisent la consommation d'aliments issus de l’auto-production et de l'économie sociale (par exemple le troc), ainsi que la consommation d'aliments traditionnels. Ces résultats démontrent empiriquement comment l'agroécologie peut agir sur les mécanismes liant l'agriculture à la nutrition pour favoriser une alimentation saine. Étant donné la nature du mouvement agroécologique mondial, largement auto-disséminé, l'agroécologie peut représenter une ressource endogène importante pour soutenir le bien-être nutritionnel des populations rurales. Concerned with agricultural practices that harm human and environmental health, networks of farmers in Ecuador have organized around agroecology as a more sustainable alternative. This comes at a time in which a nutrition transition has driven Ecuador’s rural population to unprecedented levels of overweight and obesity, even while micronutrient deficiencies persist, thus creating a double burden of malnutrition. Through agroecology-based alternative food networks (AFNs), farmers and their allies have increasingly recognized the linkages between healthy agricultural practices and healthy food consumption. A breadth of literature explores how agriculture interventions can improve nutritional outcomes, such as by promoting production diversity, increasing incomes and empowering women. Agroecology has much potential to act on these pathways. However, because agroecology often spreads as a social movement rather than as a systematic intervention, empirical research assessing linkages between agroecology and farmers’ dietary practices is lacking. This thesis explores how the production practices and social capital promoted through agroecological AFNs may be associated with unique dietary practices that hold potential to support nutritional health in the face of both obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. To do so, this research implemented a participatory approach and sequential, exploratory mixed method design including ethnography, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey comparing agroecology AFN participants and their non-participant farming neighbours. Findings show that AFN participants out-performed their neighbours on multiple indicators of dietary nutrient adequacy and moderation. Analyses further suggest that agroecological AFNs support these dietary outcomes by strengthening production diversity and social capital, which in turn promote the consumption of foods from own-production and from the social economy (e.g. barter) as well as promote the consumption of traditional foods. These results empirically demonstrate how agroecology can act on agriculture-nutrition pathways to enable healthy diets. Given the largely self-spreading nature of the global agroecology movement, agroecology may present an endogenous resource for supporting rural nutritional well-being.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Loukes, Keira;
    Country: Canada

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar by French Jesuit and agricultural scientist Fr. Henri de Laulanie in the 1980s has since been propagated to over 50 countries worldwide. By transplanting younger seedlings, increasing the spacing between individual plants, irrigating intermittently and consistently aerating the soil, SRI promises to increase global rice production to twice the 3.7 t/ha currently experienced (Uphoff, 2003). Notwithstanding regional variance (Uphoff, 2003) and contestation of the results (Sheehy et al., 2005), SRI advocates in various countries posit SRI as an agro-ecological innovation that is an alternative to top-down, input-intensive agriculture, yet can greatly expand yields and farm incomes. These properties are argued to be particularly important in a world of rising temperatures and increased demand for foodstuffs. In projecting SRI as a singular solution to current and future constraints upon rice production, however, little attention has been given to its translation and embedding within diverse socio-ecological settings. Given that socio-ecological and political climates vary greatly from region to region, my broad research question uses political agronomy as a theoretical framework to ask: what social realities are silenced in order to craft a narrative in which SRI can become a universal driver of agricultural development? Through ten weeks of participatory observation and interviews with farmers, NGO representatives, researchers and extension officers directly involved in SRI in two districts in Nepal’s Terai, (Chitwan and Morang), I was able to observe how SRI is enacted in unique settings. The aim of this project was to understand how SRI practices are institutionalized on the ground and whether broad characteristics lead specific types of farmers to gravitate towards, or be selected for, the adoption of SRI (such as land holdings or access to water and institutional channels such as bank credit and agricultural extension). In asking these questions, this research aims to more adequately assess SRI's suitability as a global agricultural innovation.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sylvestre, Nicolas;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L’Écosse du XVIIIe siècle connaît de grands changements qui seront à l’aune des transformations socio-économiques sous-tendant sa Révolution industrielle. L’historiographie sur le sujet est divisée entre deux visions du développement – nommées pour le bienfait de cette étude traditionnelle et révisionniste – à savoir si ces transformations valident la notion d’une « révolution agraire ». Cette étude propose une recension de ces deux courants et propose d’appliquer leur analyse sur une région circonscrite, l’Aberdeenshire. À l’aide de l’Old Statistical Account, source majeure pour l’étude de l’histoire moderne écossaise, nous tenterons de démontrer que le caractère particulier du développement des régions ne correspond pas à l’application des conclusions nationales. Nous accorderons une attention spéciale à la propriété foncière, à l’impact des enclosures et à la temporalité des changements. De par ses spécificités, et son retard de modernisation agraire et agricole, nous croyons que la région suit le schéma dressé par les historiens révisionnistes, c.-à-d. des changements structurels s’étendant sur un temps long et ne s’inscrivant pas directement dans la période 1755-1815, traditionnellement désignée comme « révolution agraire ». Il s’agirait plutôt d’une adaptation partielle et originale des nouvelles idées mises de l’avant par les protagonistes de la modernisation. During the eighteenth century, Scotland underwent numerous structural changes that ultimately led to its entry into the Industrial Revolution. Concerning its historiography, there is an ongoing debate between two factions – named for the purpose of this study traditionalists and revisionists – in order to determine the validity of the “Agricultural revolution” notion of development. This study aims to explore both visions and to apply their conclusions to a particular region, in this case Aberdeenshire. Using the Old Statistical Account, one of the major documentary resources concerning Scottish modern history, we will try to demonstrate that the regional experience of development differs from the general assertions applied to Scotland. We will focus on land property, the impact of enclosures and the timeframe of the changes. Owing to its specific characteristics, we believe that the entry of Aberdeenshire into agricultural modernity followed the path of long-term structural changes, as favoured by the writers of the revisionist persuasion. In other words, this region did not experience but more or less adapted the new ideas and techniques to its own particular characteristics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McMillan, Michelle;
    Country: Canada

    Background: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers is greater than non-farming populations. The burden on Canadian farmers is unknown, however. Research is required to determine the occurrence of these conditions and the work-related tasks that contribute to musculoskeletal pain in prevalent anatomical sites. Objectives: The objectives of the two studies comprising this thesis were to 1) describe the sample population of Saskatchewan farmers and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and, 2) explore the strength of associations between biomechanical exposures and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: Objective 1. Participants received a mail-out survey for the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. Study outcomes were self-reports of musculoskeletal disorders characterized by presence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in nine anatomical regions. Objective 2. A cross-sectional analysis of the experience of musculoskeletal pain in relation to four main biomechanical work exposures was performed. Relationships were determined by modeling the exposures separately using modified Poisson regression. Results: Objective 1. A strong majority of participants (82.2%) reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was the anatomical site most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by the shoulders (44.0%). Objective 2. Results suggest that all biomechanical exposures had a dose-response effect on musculoskeletal outcomes. Shovel or pitchfork use was strongest for lower back pain, while working with arms above head was the greatest risk factor for shoulder pain. Conclusions: Objective 1. Our study suggests that Canadian farmers also experience musculoskeletal pain most frequently in the lower back and shoulders, similar to those in other regions and commodity types. It also found that all farm people are at risk for musculoskeletal disorders, highlighting the need to target all subgroups and commodity types equally. Objective 2. Strong associations between increased biomechanical exposures and pain in the lower back and shoulders support the evidence that these regions are susceptible to the physical exposures of farm work.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liliana ALVAREZ;
    Country: Canada
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2016
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    McCann, Cameron N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanuk, Michael;
    Country: Canada

    The phenology and productivity of temperate forests has changed across eastern North America in recent decades. However, these changes have varied spatially and temporally. And, while climate change has been an important cause of these changes in forest growth, the precise influence of climate remains unclear. This thesis presents the results of research which 1) tested for forest growth trends that could indicate that forest growth has changed in response to environmental stressors; and 2) assessed climate-growth relationships for different forest growth processes (phenology and productivity). Analysis was conducted at a regional scale within the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks (A2A) corridor, and at a sub-regional scale within the four geoclimatologically distinct ecoregions of A2A (Algonquin Highlands, Frontenac Arch, St. Lawrence Lowlands & Adirondack Mountains). We conducted two studies using different, but complimentary, methodologies. In the first study we used dendrochronology to study the growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) over a century (1912-2011). We found that sugar maple ring-widths declined recently in the Algonquin Highlands (- 46 mm2/year, 1993-2011) and Adirondack Mountains (- 33 mm2/year, 1991-2011), but that climate-growth relationships with temperature, precipitation and the SPEI drought index were limited (response function coefficients of ± 0.3). In the second study we used remote-sensing to study forest landscapes (i.e., pixels) over 26 years (1989-2014). We found that statistically significant (p 80 %), and accumulated heating (> 4 0C) and chilling (< 20 0C) temperatures were the most important climatic variables for driving forest growth. Understanding climate-growth relationships for temperate forests in A2A will improve understandings of how forests have already responded to climate change, and will contribute to our capacity to predict how they may respond to future climate change.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Midwood, Jonathan D.;
    Country: Canada