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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
332 Research products, page 1 of 34

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  • Other research products
  • Open Access
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shanshan Feng; Xiao-Feng Luo; Xin Pei; Zhen Jin; Mark Lewis; Hao Wang;
    Country: Canada

    Classical epidemiological models assume mass action. However, this assumption is violated when interactions are not random. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting shelter in place social distancing directives, mass action models must be modified to account for limited social interactions. In this paper we apply a pairwise network model with moment closure to study the early transmission of COVID-19 in New York and San Francisco and to investigate the factors determining the severity and duration of outbreak in these two cities. In particular, we consider the role of population density, transmission rates and social distancing on the disease dynamics and outcomes. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a strongly negative correlation between the clustering coefficient in the pairwise model and the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. The shelter in place policy makes the clustering coefficient increase thereby reducing the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. By switching population densities in New York and San Francisco we demonstrate how the outbreak would progress if New York had the same density as San Francisco and vice-versa. The results underscore the crucial role that population density has in the epidemic outcomes. We also show that under the assumption of no further changes in policy or transmission dynamics not lifting the shelter in place policy would have little effect on final outbreak size in New York, but would reduce the final size in San Francisco by 97%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shannon Fraser;
    Country: Canada

    The Covid-19 pandemic has had various effects on social, economic, and political aspects of our world. Specifically in the realm of education, teachers have been left to navigate the uncharted territory of teaching exclusively online in the first phase of the virus, beginning in March 2020, then intermittently teaching online during the 2020-2021 school year, then dealing with the impact of Covid-19 on absenteeism, student apathy, and disengagement during the 2021-2022 school year. The impact on teachers’ overall mental health and well-being was vast, and subsequent feelings of grief and burnout were experienced by many. In this qualitative study, based on grounded theory methodology, a small purposeful sampling of teachers volunteered to share their experiences of teaching in the pandemic, and to what extent they experienced the stages of grief (Kübler-Ross, 1969) and indicators of burnout (Nagoski & Nagoski, 2019). Six participants were interviewed, data collected, transcribed, analyzed, and coded to identify themes. Teaching experience varied among participants, but many similarities existed. The final part of the research and questioning centered around supports administration and leadership, both divisional and local, could offer to mitigate some of the symptoms of grief and burnout being experienced. Despite the variance in experience with grief and burnout, each participant identified with the frameworks presented, while continuing to hope for a better future for their teaching experience and in the greater world of education.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waechtler, Heidi;
    Country: Canada

    This report documents my experience of teaching PUB 800 – Text and Context: Publishing in Contemporary Culture at SFU Publishing in the Fall 2020 semester, which was both my first time teaching this course and the first time it had been delivered remotely, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. It details the work of designing a publishing theory seminar as a non-academic, industry professional, and examines how a course that originated as a primer in Canadian publishing policy has evolved into a seminar course that more broadly interrogates the structure, state, and culture of contemporary publishing. The report reflects on the challenges of structuring the course to adequately cover the necessary material in twelve weeks, and on the limitations of using Canadian book publishing as the course’s primary case study. It also looks at the adaptations made to the course structure and delivery in light of the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romund, Grace; Fuhr, Justin; Speare, Marie; Albrecht, Vickie; Babb, Maureen; Schultz, Ryan;
    Publisher: American Libraries Association Conference (ALA ’21)
    Country: Canada

    The University of Manitoba’s science librarians developed a three-credit, second-year course entitled “Information Skills for the Sciences” that was delivered for the first time in the fall of 2020. The culminating project of the course was a scientific poster session where students shared their research project as a poster presentation with their instructors and classmates. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the course was moved to online synchronous delivery and all assignments needed to be adapted for the online format. We designed a virtual poster session simulating an in-person event, hosting the poster session on Zoom for a class of twenty students using breakout rooms to separate presentations. Our poster details the methods used to deliver an online in-class poster session in an undergraduate setting with visualizations to illustrate the experience. Despite the conditions of remote learning, the poster presentation session allowed students to engage meaningfully with the research of their classmates demonstrating that an exciting end-of-semester event like an in-person poster session was possible in an online environment. We discuss the challenges we encountered creating the poster session as well as our reflections on what worked and what might be improved in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vitt, Kathleen;
    Country: Canada

    Despite ongoing relationship building efforts at the community level, Indigenous and immigrant and refugee newcomer communities in Canada continue to experience a fractured relationship characterized by misperceptions, misunderstandings and tension. One of the predominant reasons for this ongoing fractured relationship is the lack of community-driven, decolonial information that each community receives about the other. This project sought to respond to this reality, by exploring the experience of an online relationship building Talking Circle and video-making process, where Indigenous and newcomer youth reflected on their identities as newcomer or Indigenous peoples and the possibilities for transformed relationships between both communities. The video that was created then went on to be shared with Indigenous and newcomer serving organizations within Winnipeg and was posted free online, becoming a potential community-driven, decolonial relationship building resource for community members to access. This project was guided by an Indigenous research paradigm, as well as the visiting way, storytelling and arts-based methodologies. Overall, this project found an imbalance in perceptions between both communities, alongside relationship building possibilities within increasing opportunities for community-driven, decolonial information to be transferred, shared minority experiences and cultural strengths, and the need for both formal and informal relationship building opportunities. Several key implications for social work practice are discussed and recommendations for bridging relations between Indigenous and newcomer communities are proposed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arezoo Haratian; Hadi Fazelinia; Zeinab Maleki; Pouria Ramazi; Hao Wang; Mark A. Lewis; Russell Greiner; David Wishart;
    Country: Canada

    This dataset provides information related to the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in the United States, including data from each of 3142 US counties from the beginning of the outbreak (January 2020) until June 2021. This data is collected from many public online databases and includes the daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths, as well as 46 features that may be relevant to the pandemic dynamics: demographic, geographic, climatic, traffic, public-health, social-distancing-policy adherence, and political characteristics of each county. We anticipate many researchers will use this dataset to train models that can predict the spread of COVID-19 and to identify the key driving factors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Whalen, Daniel;
    Country: Canada

    The devastating COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 continues to be prolonged by the ability of the virus to evolve into more transmissible and vaccine-resistant variants of concern (VOC). These fast-evolving VOC demonstrate the need for broad-acting antivirals against coronaviruses. As with several other human-infecting viruses, SARS-CoV-2 initiates attachment to host cells by binding to complex cell-surface carbohydrates known as glycans. These glycans are used by the virus to recognize and concentrate virions on the host cell surface and facilitate binding to less abundant entry receptors, like ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2. Due to most viruses using glycans to initiate infection, we therefore hypothesize that glycans are a worthy target for broad-acting antivirals. While monovalent carbohydrate-protein interactions are weak and have a low affinity, virions exploit multivalent interactions and the attachment of viruses to the cell is relatively strong. Therefore, one strategy in building a broad-based antiviral is to develop multivalent prophylactic antivirals that blocks this initial attachment of SARS-CoV-2 to glycans in the upper respiratory tract by targeting these carbohydrate-protein interactions. This thesis will describe an approach we are developing to synthesize multivalent carbohydrate-based antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 by targeting initial glycan-mediated interactions involved in viral attachment. Four preliminary targets for SARS-CoV-2 have been identified: mannose, galactose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and gallic acid. These targets are functionalized with linkers bearing an azide functionality to facilitate conjugation to multivalent dendrimers scaffolds comprised of 3-24 alkyne moieties. The azide and alkyne functionalities allow for quick conjugation of the glycan mimetic derivatives through copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), creating multivalent glycan-based dendrimers. The efficacy of these dendrimers as inhibitors will be tested using a SARS-CoV-2 viral entry assay using A549 epithelial cells with and without overexpression of the ACE2 receptor protein and lentivirus pseudo-typed with spike protein, with viral entry being measured by luciferase reporter activity.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
332 Research products, page 1 of 34
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shanshan Feng; Xiao-Feng Luo; Xin Pei; Zhen Jin; Mark Lewis; Hao Wang;
    Country: Canada

    Classical epidemiological models assume mass action. However, this assumption is violated when interactions are not random. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting shelter in place social distancing directives, mass action models must be modified to account for limited social interactions. In this paper we apply a pairwise network model with moment closure to study the early transmission of COVID-19 in New York and San Francisco and to investigate the factors determining the severity and duration of outbreak in these two cities. In particular, we consider the role of population density, transmission rates and social distancing on the disease dynamics and outcomes. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a strongly negative correlation between the clustering coefficient in the pairwise model and the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. The shelter in place policy makes the clustering coefficient increase thereby reducing the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. By switching population densities in New York and San Francisco we demonstrate how the outbreak would progress if New York had the same density as San Francisco and vice-versa. The results underscore the crucial role that population density has in the epidemic outcomes. We also show that under the assumption of no further changes in policy or transmission dynamics not lifting the shelter in place policy would have little effect on final outbreak size in New York, but would reduce the final size in San Francisco by 97%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shannon Fraser;
    Country: Canada

    The Covid-19 pandemic has had various effects on social, economic, and political aspects of our world. Specifically in the realm of education, teachers have been left to navigate the uncharted territory of teaching exclusively online in the first phase of the virus, beginning in March 2020, then intermittently teaching online during the 2020-2021 school year, then dealing with the impact of Covid-19 on absenteeism, student apathy, and disengagement during the 2021-2022 school year. The impact on teachers’ overall mental health and well-being was vast, and subsequent feelings of grief and burnout were experienced by many. In this qualitative study, based on grounded theory methodology, a small purposeful sampling of teachers volunteered to share their experiences of teaching in the pandemic, and to what extent they experienced the stages of grief (Kübler-Ross, 1969) and indicators of burnout (Nagoski & Nagoski, 2019). Six participants were interviewed, data collected, transcribed, analyzed, and coded to identify themes. Teaching experience varied among participants, but many similarities existed. The final part of the research and questioning centered around supports administration and leadership, both divisional and local, could offer to mitigate some of the symptoms of grief and burnout being experienced. Despite the variance in experience with grief and burnout, each participant identified with the frameworks presented, while continuing to hope for a better future for their teaching experience and in the greater world of education.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waechtler, Heidi;
    Country: Canada

    This report documents my experience of teaching PUB 800 – Text and Context: Publishing in Contemporary Culture at SFU Publishing in the Fall 2020 semester, which was both my first time teaching this course and the first time it had been delivered remotely, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. It details the work of designing a publishing theory seminar as a non-academic, industry professional, and examines how a course that originated as a primer in Canadian publishing policy has evolved into a seminar course that more broadly interrogates the structure, state, and culture of contemporary publishing. The report reflects on the challenges of structuring the course to adequately cover the necessary material in twelve weeks, and on the limitations of using Canadian book publishing as the course’s primary case study. It also looks at the adaptations made to the course structure and delivery in light of the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romund, Grace; Fuhr, Justin; Speare, Marie; Albrecht, Vickie; Babb, Maureen; Schultz, Ryan;
    Publisher: American Libraries Association Conference (ALA ’21)
    Country: Canada

    The University of Manitoba’s science librarians developed a three-credit, second-year course entitled “Information Skills for the Sciences” that was delivered for the first time in the fall of 2020. The culminating project of the course was a scientific poster session where students shared their research project as a poster presentation with their instructors and classmates. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the course was moved to online synchronous delivery and all assignments needed to be adapted for the online format. We designed a virtual poster session simulating an in-person event, hosting the poster session on Zoom for a class of twenty students using breakout rooms to separate presentations. Our poster details the methods used to deliver an online in-class poster session in an undergraduate setting with visualizations to illustrate the experience. Despite the conditions of remote learning, the poster presentation session allowed students to engage meaningfully with the research of their classmates demonstrating that an exciting end-of-semester event like an in-person poster session was possible in an online environment. We discuss the challenges we encountered creating the poster session as well as our reflections on what worked and what might be improved in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vitt, Kathleen;
    Country: Canada

    Despite ongoing relationship building efforts at the community level, Indigenous and immigrant and refugee newcomer communities in Canada continue to experience a fractured relationship characterized by misperceptions, misunderstandings and tension. One of the predominant reasons for this ongoing fractured relationship is the lack of community-driven, decolonial information that each community receives about the other. This project sought to respond to this reality, by exploring the experience of an online relationship building Talking Circle and video-making process, where Indigenous and newcomer youth reflected on their identities as newcomer or Indigenous peoples and the possibilities for transformed relationships between both communities. The video that was created then went on to be shared with Indigenous and newcomer serving organizations within Winnipeg and was posted free online, becoming a potential community-driven, decolonial relationship building resource for community members to access. This project was guided by an Indigenous research paradigm, as well as the visiting way, storytelling and arts-based methodologies. Overall, this project found an imbalance in perceptions between both communities, alongside relationship building possibilities within increasing opportunities for community-driven, decolonial information to be transferred, shared minority experiences and cultural strengths, and the need for both formal and informal relationship building opportunities. Several key implications for social work practice are discussed and recommendations for bridging relations between Indigenous and newcomer communities are proposed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arezoo Haratian; Hadi Fazelinia; Zeinab Maleki; Pouria Ramazi; Hao Wang; Mark A. Lewis; Russell Greiner; David Wishart;
    Country: Canada

    This dataset provides information related to the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in the United States, including data from each of 3142 US counties from the beginning of the outbreak (January 2020) until June 2021. This data is collected from many public online databases and includes the daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths, as well as 46 features that may be relevant to the pandemic dynamics: demographic, geographic, climatic, traffic, public-health, social-distancing-policy adherence, and political characteristics of each county. We anticipate many researchers will use this dataset to train models that can predict the spread of COVID-19 and to identify the key driving factors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Whalen, Daniel;
    Country: Canada

    The devastating COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 continues to be prolonged by the ability of the virus to evolve into more transmissible and vaccine-resistant variants of concern (VOC). These fast-evolving VOC demonstrate the need for broad-acting antivirals against coronaviruses. As with several other human-infecting viruses, SARS-CoV-2 initiates attachment to host cells by binding to complex cell-surface carbohydrates known as glycans. These glycans are used by the virus to recognize and concentrate virions on the host cell surface and facilitate binding to less abundant entry receptors, like ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2. Due to most viruses using glycans to initiate infection, we therefore hypothesize that glycans are a worthy target for broad-acting antivirals. While monovalent carbohydrate-protein interactions are weak and have a low affinity, virions exploit multivalent interactions and the attachment of viruses to the cell is relatively strong. Therefore, one strategy in building a broad-based antiviral is to develop multivalent prophylactic antivirals that blocks this initial attachment of SARS-CoV-2 to glycans in the upper respiratory tract by targeting these carbohydrate-protein interactions. This thesis will describe an approach we are developing to synthesize multivalent carbohydrate-based antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 by targeting initial glycan-mediated interactions involved in viral attachment. Four preliminary targets for SARS-CoV-2 have been identified: mannose, galactose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and gallic acid. These targets are functionalized with linkers bearing an azide functionality to facilitate conjugation to multivalent dendrimers scaffolds comprised of 3-24 alkyne moieties. The azide and alkyne functionalities allow for quick conjugation of the glycan mimetic derivatives through copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), creating multivalent glycan-based dendrimers. The efficacy of these dendrimers as inhibitors will be tested using a SARS-CoV-2 viral entry assay using A549 epithelial cells with and without overexpression of the ACE2 receptor protein and lentivirus pseudo-typed with spike protein, with viral entry being measured by luciferase reporter activity.