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225 Research products, page 1 of 23

  • Canada
  • Other research products
  • 2017-2021
  • Open Access
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waechtler, Heidi;
    Country: Canada

    This report documents my experience of teaching PUB 800 – Text and Context: Publishing in Contemporary Culture at SFU Publishing in the Fall 2020 semester, which was both my first time teaching this course and the first time it had been delivered remotely, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. It details the work of designing a publishing theory seminar as a non-academic, industry professional, and examines how a course that originated as a primer in Canadian publishing policy has evolved into a seminar course that more broadly interrogates the structure, state, and culture of contemporary publishing. The report reflects on the challenges of structuring the course to adequately cover the necessary material in twelve weeks, and on the limitations of using Canadian book publishing as the course’s primary case study. It also looks at the adaptations made to the course structure and delivery in light of the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romund, Grace; Fuhr, Justin; Speare, Marie; Albrecht, Vickie; Babb, Maureen; Schultz, Ryan;
    Publisher: American Libraries Association Conference (ALA ’21)
    Country: Canada

    The University of Manitoba’s science librarians developed a three-credit, second-year course entitled “Information Skills for the Sciences” that was delivered for the first time in the fall of 2020. The culminating project of the course was a scientific poster session where students shared their research project as a poster presentation with their instructors and classmates. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the course was moved to online synchronous delivery and all assignments needed to be adapted for the online format. We designed a virtual poster session simulating an in-person event, hosting the poster session on Zoom for a class of twenty students using breakout rooms to separate presentations. Our poster details the methods used to deliver an online in-class poster session in an undergraduate setting with visualizations to illustrate the experience. Despite the conditions of remote learning, the poster presentation session allowed students to engage meaningfully with the research of their classmates demonstrating that an exciting end-of-semester event like an in-person poster session was possible in an online environment. We discuss the challenges we encountered creating the poster session as well as our reflections on what worked and what might be improved in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vitt, Kathleen;
    Country: Canada

    Despite ongoing relationship building efforts at the community level, Indigenous and immigrant and refugee newcomer communities in Canada continue to experience a fractured relationship characterized by misperceptions, misunderstandings and tension. One of the predominant reasons for this ongoing fractured relationship is the lack of community-driven, decolonial information that each community receives about the other. This project sought to respond to this reality, by exploring the experience of an online relationship building Talking Circle and video-making process, where Indigenous and newcomer youth reflected on their identities as newcomer or Indigenous peoples and the possibilities for transformed relationships between both communities. The video that was created then went on to be shared with Indigenous and newcomer serving organizations within Winnipeg and was posted free online, becoming a potential community-driven, decolonial relationship building resource for community members to access. This project was guided by an Indigenous research paradigm, as well as the visiting way, storytelling and arts-based methodologies. Overall, this project found an imbalance in perceptions between both communities, alongside relationship building possibilities within increasing opportunities for community-driven, decolonial information to be transferred, shared minority experiences and cultural strengths, and the need for both formal and informal relationship building opportunities. Several key implications for social work practice are discussed and recommendations for bridging relations between Indigenous and newcomer communities are proposed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arezoo Haratian; Hadi Fazelinia; Zeinab Maleki; Pouria Ramazi; Hao Wang; Mark A. Lewis; Russell Greiner; David Wishart;
    Country: Canada

    This dataset provides information related to the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in the United States, including data from each of 3142 US counties from the beginning of the outbreak (January 2020) until June 2021. This data is collected from many public online databases and includes the daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths, as well as 46 features that may be relevant to the pandemic dynamics: demographic, geographic, climatic, traffic, public-health, social-distancing-policy adherence, and political characteristics of each county. We anticipate many researchers will use this dataset to train models that can predict the spread of COVID-19 and to identify the key driving factors.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Zhang, Sophie;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Contexte : Partout dans le monde, la population âgée en hébergement a été la plus lourdement affectée par la pandémie de COVID-19, du point de vue des infections et des décès. Or, ces mêmes personnes ont été exclues d’une grande partie de la littérature scientifique. Ce mémoire décrit l’évolution des éclosions dans 17 CHSLD publics de Montréal, dont certains ont été fortement atteints alors que d’autres ont été épargnés pendant la première vague (23 février au 11 juillet 2020), en cherchant à élucider les facteurs associés à l’incidence et à la létalité de la COVID-19. Méthodes : Des données institutionnelles ont été recueillies sur les 17 CHSLD du CIUSSS Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal et des données individuelles ont été obtenues grâce à une révision des 1197 dossiers de patients atteints de la COVID-19 en première vague. Dans l’analyse ARIMA, des séries chronologiques ont été construites pour les cas incidents bruts chez les résidents en CHSLD et dans la ville de Montréal, afin d’évaluer l’impact de deux interventions, soit le port généralisé du masque de procédure et le dépistage élargi des résidents et des employés. Dans l’analyse des infections par CHSLD, des modèles de régression de type binomial négatif ont été construits pour estimer l’effet des facteurs de risque institutionnels sur l’incidence de la COVID-19 chez les résidents. Dans l’analyse de surmortalité, les excès de décès durant la période de février à juillet ont été évalués avec des tests t et des ratios de taux entre l’année 2020 et la moyenne des quatre années précédentes (2016-2019). Enfin, pour l’analyse de mortalité dans la cohorte rétrospective de résidents atteints de la COVID-19, des modèles de régression logistique à effets mixtes ont été utilisés pour évaluer les facteurs institutionnels et les traitements associés à la mortalité dans les 30 jours suivant un diagnostic de COVID-19, en contrôlant pour les facteurs de risque individuels. Résultats : Dans l’analyse de série chronologique ARIMA, chaque augmentation d’un cas incident quotidien par 100 000 à Montréal était associée avec une augmentation de 0,051 (IC95% 0,044 à 0,058) fois l’incidence quotidienne en CHSLD la semaine suivante, chez les résidents à risque. De plus, en contrôlant pour la transmission communautaire, chaque palier d’intensification du dépistage était associé à une diminution de l’incidence de 11,8 fois (IC95% -15,1 à -8,5) dans les deux semaines suivantes, chez les résidents à risque. Dans le modèle explicatif des infections au niveau des CHSLD, la pénurie sévère d’infirmières auxiliaires (IRR 3,2; IC95% 1,4 à 7,2), la mauvaise performance aux audits ministériels (IRR 3,0; IC95% 1,1 à 7,8) et un score moyen d’autonomie plus faible (IRR 2,1; IC95% 1,4 à 3,1) étaient associés au taux d’incidence par centre. En revanche, la présence de zone chaude dédiée aux patients COVID-19 (IRR; 0,56 IC95% 0,34 à 0,92) était protectrice. Pour l’ensemble des 17 CHSLD avec 2670 lits, l’excès de décès de février à juillet 2020 était de 428 (IC95% 409 à 447). Comparé aux quatre années précédentes, il y a eu plus que le double (IRR 2,3; IC95% 2,1 à 2,5) de décès en 2020 pendant la période de la première vague. Pour 12 CHSLD qui ont vécu des éclosions importantes, les excès de décès en 2020 variaient de 5,2 à 41,9 décès par 100 lits, avec une surmortalité par rapport aux années précédentes allant de 1,9 à 3,8. Selon l’analyse de mortalité dans la cohorte rétrospective, les facteurs individuels associés à la mortalité dans les 30 jours suivant le diagnostic de COVID-19 étaient l’âge (OR 1,58; IC95% 1,35 à 1,85 par tranche additionnelle de 10 ans), le sexe masculin (OR 2,37; IC95% 1,70 à 3,32), la perte d’autonomie (OR 1,12; IC95% 1,05 à 1,20 pour chaque augmentation d’un point à l’Iso-SMAF), le niveau d’intervention médicale C (OR 3,43; IC95% 1,57 à 7,51) et D (OR 3,61; IC95% 1,47 à 8,89) comparé au niveau A, ainsi que les diagnostics de trouble neurocognitif (OR 1,54; IC95% 1,04 à 2,29) et d’insuffisance cardiaque (OR 2,36; IC95% 1,45 à 3,85). Le traitement avec une thromboprophylaxie (OR 0,42; IC95% 0,29 à 0,63) et l’infection tardive après le 20 avril 2020 (OR 0,46; IC95% 0,33 à 0,65) étaient associés à la survie à 30 jours. Pour les facteurs institutionnels, la pénurie sévère de 25% ou plus d’infirmières auxiliaires (OR 1,91; IC95% 1,14 à 3,21 par rapport à une pénurie légère < 15%) et la taille du centre (OR 1,77; IC95% 1,17 à 2,68 pour chaque 100 lits additionnels) étaient associés au décès dans les 30 jours. Conclusion : Ce mémoire a relevé plusieurs facteurs de risque modifiables au niveau institutionnel associés aux infections et aux décès COVID-19, dont le dépistage, l’adhérence aux directives ministérielles de prévention et contrôle des infections, la pénurie d’infirmières auxiliaires et le nombre de lits par centre. Ces enjeux cruciaux devront être au cœur des futures orientations et politiques touchant les centres d’hébergement, pour cette pandémie et au-delà. Background: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the population of long-term care residents has been the hardest hit by infections and deaths all around the world. Yet, these same individuals have been excluded from vast segments of the scientific literature. This thesis describes the evolution of outbreaks in 17 public long-term care facilities (“CHSLD”) in Montreal, some of which were severely affected and others were relatively spared during the first wave (February 23 to July 12, 2020), in search of risk factors associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. Methods: Institutional-level data on the 17 CHSLDs were collected from relevant administrative departments within the establishment (CIUSSS Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal), and individual-level data was obtained from the chart reviews of 1,197 first wave COVID-19 patients. For the ARIMA analysis, time series were built using the crude incidence rates among CHSLD residents and in the city of Montreal, in order to assess the impact of two interventions – introduction of the mask-wearing policy and generalized testing among residents and staff. For the analysis of facility-level infection rates, negative binomial regression models were built to estimate the effects of several institutional risk factors on incident cases. As for the excess mortality analysis, excess death and relative mortality were estimated using one-sample t-tests and rate ratio tests to compare 2020 deaths with average deaths in the previous four years (2016-2019), for the period of February to July. Lastly, for the survival analysis of the retrospective cohort, mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to identify institutional factors and treatments associated with 30-day mortality after a COVID-19 diagnosis, while controlling for individual risk factors. Results: In the ARIMA time series analysis, each additional case per 100,000 per day in Montreal was associated with a 0.051 (95%CI 0.044 to 0.058) increase in CHSLD daily incidence a week later, among at-risk residents. In addition, while controlling for community transmission, increased testing intensity was associated with a 11.8 (95%CI -15.1 to -8.5) decrease in CHSLD daily incidence two weeks later, among at-risk residents. In the negative binomial regression model for facility-level COVID-19 infections, poor performance on ministry audits (IRR 3.0 95%CI 1.1 to 7.8), severe shortage of auxiliary nurses (IRR 3.2 95%CI 1.4 to 7.2) and lower average autonomy scores (IRR 2.1 95%CI 1.4 to 3.1) were associated with incident cases, while the presence of a COVID-19 unit or “red zone” (IRR 0.56 95%CI 0.34 to 0.92) was inversely associated with infections. For the 17 CHSLDs, excess deaths from February to July 2020 was 428 (95%CI 409 to 447). Compared to the same period in the previous four years, 2020 mortality during the first wave was 2.3 (IRR 95%CI 2.1 to 2.5) times higher. For a subset of 12 facilities that experienced substantial outbreaks, excess deaths in 2020 varied from 5.2 to 41.9 deaths per 100 beds, with significant excess mortality between 1.9 and 3.8, relative to previous years. According to the mortality analysis by mixed-effects logistic regression, individual risk factors associated with 30-day mortality after a COVID-19 diagnosis were age (OR 1.58 95%CI 1.35 to 1.85 per additional 10 years), male sex (OR 2.37 95%CI 1.70 to 3.32), loss of autonomy (OR 1.12 95%CI 1.05 to 1.20 per unit increase of Iso-SMAF profile), C-level (OR 3.43 95%CI 1.57 to 7.51) or D-level (OR 3.61 95%CI 1.47 to 8.89) medical intervention compared to A-level, as well as being diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder (OR 1.54 95%CI 1.04 to 2.29) or congestive heart failure (OR 2.36 95%CI 1.45 to 3.85). Treatment with thromboprophylaxis (OR 0.42 95%CI 0.29 to 0.63) and diagnosis after April 20, 2020 (OR 0.46 95%CI 0.33 to 0.65) were associated with 30-day survival. As for institutional risk factors, severe shortage of auxiliary nurses (OR 1.91 95%CI 1.14 to 3.21) and facility size (OR 1.77 95%CI 1.17 to 2.68 per 100 beds) increased the odds of dying within 30 days. Conclusion: This study identified several modifiable risk factors at the institutional level associated with COVID-19 infections and deaths, including testing strategies, adherence to ministry directives for infection prevention, auxiliary nurse shortages, and number of beds per facility. Future policies and regulations targeting long-term care facilities will need to tackle these critical issues, for this pandemic and beyond.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina;
    Publisher: University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    Strength, resilience, adaptability, and compassion - these are the building blocks of the Regina COVID-19 Volunteer Community Response Team, a community support network initiated by Dr. JoLee Sasakamoose, Associate Professor in Educational Psychology and Counselling at the University of Regina. Since a state of emergency was announced by the Government of Saskatchewan in March 2020, the Regina COVID Response team of five core members and numerous volunteers has been working day and night to support Elders and other vulnerable Indigenous people in Regina, who do not have a network of family or caregivers. Staff no

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina;
    Publisher: University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    By May 2021, millions of people from around the world had already endured some 15 months of living with COVID-19. Like elsewhere, in Saskatchewan the effects of the pandemic were felt by everyone, everywhere. Friends, family and colleagues talked of amplified levels of anxiety, stress and depression. Some individuals upped their alcohol and drug use to cope with the pressures of isolation. But to what extent did COVID-19 play havoc on Saskatchewan residents’ mental well-being during the pandemic? Staff no

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The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
225 Research products, page 1 of 23
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim, Steve;
    Country: Canada

    In an urban context, the immigrant church is not only a place of worship, but it is also a community hub, a cultural center, and a social gathering place. When COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, there began a ripple effect of economic, social and mental health impacts. This study explores the use of social capital at three Korean immigrant churches in the Greater Toronto Area and Metro Vancouver to demonstrate community resilience. This research explores how and what kinds of supports were provided between the leadership and congregation, as well as between congregant-to-congregant. Although the physical locations were closed, the communications infrastructure and social relationships that existed prior to COVID were instrumental in sustaining a support network for Korean churchgoers during the pandemic. The immigrant church is a valuable urban asset that cities ought to support and partner with for future shock and stress events.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Borges do Nascimento, Israel Júnior et al.;

    A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-e ects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n=1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Agarwal, Gina; AlShenaiber, Leena;
    Country: Canada

    [English] CP@clinic has responded and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic. The program has specific components to facilitate virtual program implementation, which are supported by a SMART database. [Français] PC@clinique répond et s'adapte à la pandémie de COVID-19. Le programme comprend des composants spécifiques pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre du programme virtuel, qui sont soutenus par une base de données INTELLIGENTE.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waechtler, Heidi;
    Country: Canada

    This report documents my experience of teaching PUB 800 – Text and Context: Publishing in Contemporary Culture at SFU Publishing in the Fall 2020 semester, which was both my first time teaching this course and the first time it had been delivered remotely, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. It details the work of designing a publishing theory seminar as a non-academic, industry professional, and examines how a course that originated as a primer in Canadian publishing policy has evolved into a seminar course that more broadly interrogates the structure, state, and culture of contemporary publishing. The report reflects on the challenges of structuring the course to adequately cover the necessary material in twelve weeks, and on the limitations of using Canadian book publishing as the course’s primary case study. It also looks at the adaptations made to the course structure and delivery in light of the pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romund, Grace; Fuhr, Justin; Speare, Marie; Albrecht, Vickie; Babb, Maureen; Schultz, Ryan;
    Publisher: American Libraries Association Conference (ALA ’21)
    Country: Canada

    The University of Manitoba’s science librarians developed a three-credit, second-year course entitled “Information Skills for the Sciences” that was delivered for the first time in the fall of 2020. The culminating project of the course was a scientific poster session where students shared their research project as a poster presentation with their instructors and classmates. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the course was moved to online synchronous delivery and all assignments needed to be adapted for the online format. We designed a virtual poster session simulating an in-person event, hosting the poster session on Zoom for a class of twenty students using breakout rooms to separate presentations. Our poster details the methods used to deliver an online in-class poster session in an undergraduate setting with visualizations to illustrate the experience. Despite the conditions of remote learning, the poster presentation session allowed students to engage meaningfully with the research of their classmates demonstrating that an exciting end-of-semester event like an in-person poster session was possible in an online environment. We discuss the challenges we encountered creating the poster session as well as our reflections on what worked and what might be improved in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vitt, Kathleen;
    Country: Canada

    Despite ongoing relationship building efforts at the community level, Indigenous and immigrant and refugee newcomer communities in Canada continue to experience a fractured relationship characterized by misperceptions, misunderstandings and tension. One of the predominant reasons for this ongoing fractured relationship is the lack of community-driven, decolonial information that each community receives about the other. This project sought to respond to this reality, by exploring the experience of an online relationship building Talking Circle and video-making process, where Indigenous and newcomer youth reflected on their identities as newcomer or Indigenous peoples and the possibilities for transformed relationships between both communities. The video that was created then went on to be shared with Indigenous and newcomer serving organizations within Winnipeg and was posted free online, becoming a potential community-driven, decolonial relationship building resource for community members to access. This project was guided by an Indigenous research paradigm, as well as the visiting way, storytelling and arts-based methodologies. Overall, this project found an imbalance in perceptions between both communities, alongside relationship building possibilities within increasing opportunities for community-driven, decolonial information to be transferred, shared minority experiences and cultural strengths, and the need for both formal and informal relationship building opportunities. Several key implications for social work practice are discussed and recommendations for bridging relations between Indigenous and newcomer communities are proposed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arezoo Haratian; Hadi Fazelinia; Zeinab Maleki; Pouria Ramazi; Hao Wang; Mark A. Lewis; Russell Greiner; David Wishart;
    Country: Canada

    This dataset provides information related to the outbreak of COVID-19 disease in the United States, including data from each of 3142 US counties from the beginning of the outbreak (January 2020) until June 2021. This data is collected from many public online databases and includes the daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths, as well as 46 features that may be relevant to the pandemic dynamics: demographic, geographic, climatic, traffic, public-health, social-distancing-policy adherence, and political characteristics of each county. We anticipate many researchers will use this dataset to train models that can predict the spread of COVID-19 and to identify the key driving factors.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Zhang, Sophie;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Contexte : Partout dans le monde, la population âgée en hébergement a été la plus lourdement affectée par la pandémie de COVID-19, du point de vue des infections et des décès. Or, ces mêmes personnes ont été exclues d’une grande partie de la littérature scientifique. Ce mémoire décrit l’évolution des éclosions dans 17 CHSLD publics de Montréal, dont certains ont été fortement atteints alors que d’autres ont été épargnés pendant la première vague (23 février au 11 juillet 2020), en cherchant à élucider les facteurs associés à l’incidence et à la létalité de la COVID-19. Méthodes : Des données institutionnelles ont été recueillies sur les 17 CHSLD du CIUSSS Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal et des données individuelles ont été obtenues grâce à une révision des 1197 dossiers de patients atteints de la COVID-19 en première vague. Dans l’analyse ARIMA, des séries chronologiques ont été construites pour les cas incidents bruts chez les résidents en CHSLD et dans la ville de Montréal, afin d’évaluer l’impact de deux interventions, soit le port généralisé du masque de procédure et le dépistage élargi des résidents et des employés. Dans l’analyse des infections par CHSLD, des modèles de régression de type binomial négatif ont été construits pour estimer l’effet des facteurs de risque institutionnels sur l’incidence de la COVID-19 chez les résidents. Dans l’analyse de surmortalité, les excès de décès durant la période de février à juillet ont été évalués avec des tests t et des ratios de taux entre l’année 2020 et la moyenne des quatre années précédentes (2016-2019). Enfin, pour l’analyse de mortalité dans la cohorte rétrospective de résidents atteints de la COVID-19, des modèles de régression logistique à effets mixtes ont été utilisés pour évaluer les facteurs institutionnels et les traitements associés à la mortalité dans les 30 jours suivant un diagnostic de COVID-19, en contrôlant pour les facteurs de risque individuels. Résultats : Dans l’analyse de série chronologique ARIMA, chaque augmentation d’un cas incident quotidien par 100 000 à Montréal était associée avec une augmentation de 0,051 (IC95% 0,044 à 0,058) fois l’incidence quotidienne en CHSLD la semaine suivante, chez les résidents à risque. De plus, en contrôlant pour la transmission communautaire, chaque palier d’intensification du dépistage était associé à une diminution de l’incidence de 11,8 fois (IC95% -15,1 à -8,5) dans les deux semaines suivantes, chez les résidents à risque. Dans le modèle explicatif des infections au niveau des CHSLD, la pénurie sévère d’infirmières auxiliaires (IRR 3,2; IC95% 1,4 à 7,2), la mauvaise performance aux audits ministériels (IRR 3,0; IC95% 1,1 à 7,8) et un score moyen d’autonomie plus faible (IRR 2,1; IC95% 1,4 à 3,1) étaient associés au taux d’incidence par centre. En revanche, la présence de zone chaude dédiée aux patients COVID-19 (IRR; 0,56 IC95% 0,34 à 0,92) était protectrice. Pour l’ensemble des 17 CHSLD avec 2670 lits, l’excès de décès de février à juillet 2020 était de 428 (IC95% 409 à 447). Comparé aux quatre années précédentes, il y a eu plus que le double (IRR 2,3; IC95% 2,1 à 2,5) de décès en 2020 pendant la période de la première vague. Pour 12 CHSLD qui ont vécu des éclosions importantes, les excès de décès en 2020 variaient de 5,2 à 41,9 décès par 100 lits, avec une surmortalité par rapport aux années précédentes allant de 1,9 à 3,8. Selon l’analyse de mortalité dans la cohorte rétrospective, les facteurs individuels associés à la mortalité dans les 30 jours suivant le diagnostic de COVID-19 étaient l’âge (OR 1,58; IC95% 1,35 à 1,85 par tranche additionnelle de 10 ans), le sexe masculin (OR 2,37; IC95% 1,70 à 3,32), la perte d’autonomie (OR 1,12; IC95% 1,05 à 1,20 pour chaque augmentation d’un point à l’Iso-SMAF), le niveau d’intervention médicale C (OR 3,43; IC95% 1,57 à 7,51) et D (OR 3,61; IC95% 1,47 à 8,89) comparé au niveau A, ainsi que les diagnostics de trouble neurocognitif (OR 1,54; IC95% 1,04 à 2,29) et d’insuffisance cardiaque (OR 2,36; IC95% 1,45 à 3,85). Le traitement avec une thromboprophylaxie (OR 0,42; IC95% 0,29 à 0,63) et l’infection tardive après le 20 avril 2020 (OR 0,46; IC95% 0,33 à 0,65) étaient associés à la survie à 30 jours. Pour les facteurs institutionnels, la pénurie sévère de 25% ou plus d’infirmières auxiliaires (OR 1,91; IC95% 1,14 à 3,21 par rapport à une pénurie légère < 15%) et la taille du centre (OR 1,77; IC95% 1,17 à 2,68 pour chaque 100 lits additionnels) étaient associés au décès dans les 30 jours. Conclusion : Ce mémoire a relevé plusieurs facteurs de risque modifiables au niveau institutionnel associés aux infections et aux décès COVID-19, dont le dépistage, l’adhérence aux directives ministérielles de prévention et contrôle des infections, la pénurie d’infirmières auxiliaires et le nombre de lits par centre. Ces enjeux cruciaux devront être au cœur des futures orientations et politiques touchant les centres d’hébergement, pour cette pandémie et au-delà. Background: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the population of long-term care residents has been the hardest hit by infections and deaths all around the world. Yet, these same individuals have been excluded from vast segments of the scientific literature. This thesis describes the evolution of outbreaks in 17 public long-term care facilities (“CHSLD”) in Montreal, some of which were severely affected and others were relatively spared during the first wave (February 23 to July 12, 2020), in search of risk factors associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. Methods: Institutional-level data on the 17 CHSLDs were collected from relevant administrative departments within the establishment (CIUSSS Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal), and individual-level data was obtained from the chart reviews of 1,197 first wave COVID-19 patients. For the ARIMA analysis, time series were built using the crude incidence rates among CHSLD residents and in the city of Montreal, in order to assess the impact of two interventions – introduction of the mask-wearing policy and generalized testing among residents and staff. For the analysis of facility-level infection rates, negative binomial regression models were built to estimate the effects of several institutional risk factors on incident cases. As for the excess mortality analysis, excess death and relative mortality were estimated using one-sample t-tests and rate ratio tests to compare 2020 deaths with average deaths in the previous four years (2016-2019), for the period of February to July. Lastly, for the survival analysis of the retrospective cohort, mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to identify institutional factors and treatments associated with 30-day mortality after a COVID-19 diagnosis, while controlling for individual risk factors. Results: In the ARIMA time series analysis, each additional case per 100,000 per day in Montreal was associated with a 0.051 (95%CI 0.044 to 0.058) increase in CHSLD daily incidence a week later, among at-risk residents. In addition, while controlling for community transmission, increased testing intensity was associated with a 11.8 (95%CI -15.1 to -8.5) decrease in CHSLD daily incidence two weeks later, among at-risk residents. In the negative binomial regression model for facility-level COVID-19 infections, poor performance on ministry audits (IRR 3.0 95%CI 1.1 to 7.8), severe shortage of auxiliary nurses (IRR 3.2 95%CI 1.4 to 7.2) and lower average autonomy scores (IRR 2.1 95%CI 1.4 to 3.1) were associated with incident cases, while the presence of a COVID-19 unit or “red zone” (IRR 0.56 95%CI 0.34 to 0.92) was inversely associated with infections. For the 17 CHSLDs, excess deaths from February to July 2020 was 428 (95%CI 409 to 447). Compared to the same period in the previous four years, 2020 mortality during the first wave was 2.3 (IRR 95%CI 2.1 to 2.5) times higher. For a subset of 12 facilities that experienced substantial outbreaks, excess deaths in 2020 varied from 5.2 to 41.9 deaths per 100 beds, with significant excess mortality between 1.9 and 3.8, relative to previous years. According to the mortality analysis by mixed-effects logistic regression, individual risk factors associated with 30-day mortality after a COVID-19 diagnosis were age (OR 1.58 95%CI 1.35 to 1.85 per additional 10 years), male sex (OR 2.37 95%CI 1.70 to 3.32), loss of autonomy (OR 1.12 95%CI 1.05 to 1.20 per unit increase of Iso-SMAF profile), C-level (OR 3.43 95%CI 1.57 to 7.51) or D-level (OR 3.61 95%CI 1.47 to 8.89) medical intervention compared to A-level, as well as being diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder (OR 1.54 95%CI 1.04 to 2.29) or congestive heart failure (OR 2.36 95%CI 1.45 to 3.85). Treatment with thromboprophylaxis (OR 0.42 95%CI 0.29 to 0.63) and diagnosis after April 20, 2020 (OR 0.46 95%CI 0.33 to 0.65) were associated with 30-day survival. As for institutional risk factors, severe shortage of auxiliary nurses (OR 1.91 95%CI 1.14 to 3.21) and facility size (OR 1.77 95%CI 1.17 to 2.68 per 100 beds) increased the odds of dying within 30 days. Conclusion: This study identified several modifiable risk factors at the institutional level associated with COVID-19 infections and deaths, including testing strategies, adherence to ministry directives for infection prevention, auxiliary nurse shortages, and number of beds per facility. Future policies and regulations targeting long-term care facilities will need to tackle these critical issues, for this pandemic and beyond.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina;
    Publisher: University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    Strength, resilience, adaptability, and compassion - these are the building blocks of the Regina COVID-19 Volunteer Community Response Team, a community support network initiated by Dr. JoLee Sasakamoose, Associate Professor in Educational Psychology and Counselling at the University of Regina. Since a state of emergency was announced by the Government of Saskatchewan in March 2020, the Regina COVID Response team of five core members and numerous volunteers has been working day and night to support Elders and other vulnerable Indigenous people in Regina, who do not have a network of family or caregivers. Staff no

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina;
    Publisher: University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina
    Country: Canada

    By May 2021, millions of people from around the world had already endured some 15 months of living with COVID-19. Like elsewhere, in Saskatchewan the effects of the pandemic were felt by everyone, everywhere. Friends, family and colleagues talked of amplified levels of anxiety, stress and depression. Some individuals upped their alcohol and drug use to cope with the pressures of isolation. But to what extent did COVID-19 play havoc on Saskatchewan residents’ mental well-being during the pandemic? Staff no