search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
770 Research products, page 1 of 77

  • Canada
  • Other research products
  • English
  • Energy Research

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Herstein, Lesley;
    Country: Canada

    Municipal water distribution system (WDS) expansion is often focused on increasing system capacity with designs that best meet hydraulic requirements at the least cost. Increasing public awareness regarding global warming and environmental degradation is making environmental impact an important factor in decision-making for municipalities. There is thus a growing need to consider environmental impacts alongside cost and hydraulic requirements in the expansion and design of WDSs. As a result, the multiplicity of environmental impacts to consider in WDS expansion can complicate the decisions faced by water utilities. For example, a water utility may wish to consider environmental policy issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, non-renewable resource use, and releases to land, water, and air in WDS expansion planning. This thesis outlines a multi-objective optimization approach for WDS design and expansion that balances the objectives of capital cost, annual pumping energy use, and environmental impact minimization, while meeting hydraulic constraints. An environmental impact index that aggregates multiple environmental measures was incorporated as an environmental impact objective function in the multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm. The environmental impact index was developed to reflect stakeholder prioritization of specific environmental policy issues. The evaluation of the environmental impact index and its application to the WDS expansion problem was demonstrated with a water transmission system example. The environmental impact index and multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm were applied to the “Anytown” network expansion problem. Preliminary results suggest that solutions obtained with the triple-objective capital cost/energy/EI index optimization minimize a number of environmental impact measures while producing results that are comparable in pumping energy use and, in some instances, slightly higher in capital cost when compared to solutions obtained with a double cost/energy optimization in which environmental impact was not considered.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Elias, Morgan;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change models for continental regions of North America include reduced growing season precipitation and a “repackaging” of rainfall into fewer but larger events. Water and nutrients (NPK) have individually been proven to be a limiting resource on plant growth and determinants of competition in many grassland systems, however their interacting effects remain relatively unknown. My study will examine the effects of water and nutrient availability alone, and their combined influences on above-ground biomass production and functional group composition which could provide fundamental insight into the functioning of a mesic temperate old field meadow in southeastern Ontario. Total and graminoid above-ground biomass was significantly higher in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to the added and ambient precipitation treatments, whereas legumes and other forbs had the highest above-ground biomass in the added precipitation treatment. Below-ground processes such as microbial activity and root systems may have been enhanced under rainout shelters for graminoids, compared to legumes which were possibly able to fix nitrogen more efficiently in added water plots. Rainout shelters acting as microclimates, such as by reducing wind speed, may have created ideal conditions for the point-frame method, which could explain the highest above-ground biomass in the reduced water treatment. Soil moisture was significantly lower in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to added and ambient precipitation treatments. Nutrient addition, as well as the interacting effects of water and nutrients insignificantly affected plant above-ground biomass production and composition. Therefore, nutrient addition may not be a major limiting factor to plant productivity or composition in this community, and water addition only seems to enhance legume and other forb productivity.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chang Bejarano, Alan;
    Country: Canada

    The global energy sector is seeing an ever-increasing demand for renewable alternatives to fossil fuels to meet current and future energy demands. One of the most versatile alternatives to fossil fuels, such as natural gas, is biogas, which is a by-product of the decomposition of organic matter known as anaerobic digestion (AD). Biogas is produced by specialized methane-producing microorganisms known as methanogens. It constitutes a carbon-neutral energy source with a similar composition to natural gas at about 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. One of the biggest challenges that biogas production faces are the start-up lag phase, as biogas output can take up to twelve weeks to achieve a steady yield. Understanding the effects that temperature, pH, bioaugmentation, microbial composition and the use of sensor and electrode technology have on biogas production under start-up operations could provide a better understanding of the underlying causes affecting start-up and how it could be improved to reach optimal biogas production. The results from this research showed that temperature has a significant role in biogas production by driving the biogas process. The effect of thermophilic temperatures caused a decrease in the methanogenic microbial diversity of sludge. pH control only offers a limited effect on overall biogas yield within a 6.5-7.5 range. Novel technological approaches such as sensors and electrode enhanced AD (MEC-AD) can provide a stabilizing effect during AD under start-up operation, MEC-AD provided a six-fold increase in biogas yield compared to conventional AD. Microbial activity tracking was attempted using bio-impedance with promising results and the effects of bioaugmentation and toxic shock in MEC-AD digesters showed that bioaugmentation potential benefits are only significant in the absence of inhibitory conditions. Overall, the characterization of the AD processes in a bench-scale system could provide valuable insight for large-scale systems aiming to optimize and update their operational procedures.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Metcalfe, Evan;
    Country: Canada

    The implementation of solar shelters over top of parking spaces has the potential to make the production of renewable energy a secondary function of parking lots without impeding their ability to function as parking locations. This has the capacity to reduce the amount of natural space converted to solar farms as solar energy becomes more common. In addition, if these shelters are outfitted as charging stations for electric vehicles, they could serve as a driver for a cultural shift towards a more sustainable vehicle fleet. Implementation of this technology has begun on a small scale in San Diego, California and this project assessed the feasibility of implementation in Kingston, Ontario. This study set out to determine how much energy could be produced by a solar shelter over one parking space and how many parking spaces would be required to produce 1% of Kingston’s total electricity consumption. An insolation model was written in C, which used past climate data and mathematical models to incorporate the effects of latitude, cloud cover and snow. This model was compared to the current production in San Diego to check for validity. Since the insolation model was deemed to be valid, the results were used in conjunction with typical solar panel efficiencies in Kingston to calculate the potential energy production per structure. This was then used to determine the number of structures that would be required to provide 1% of Kingston’s electricity. Through literature review, it was determined that although snow on the panels would have a drastic effect on power production, it would not remain on the panels long enough to cause a significant effect. It was found that a single parking space in Kingston would be capable of generating 5500±_800^1000 kWh/year using the single-axis tracking model that is currently being implemented in San Diego, although a dual-axis tracking model would be capable of generating 11% more energy. Using the current prototype, Kingston would require implementation across about 2750 parking spaces in order to provide 1% of its electricity and it has ample locations which would be suitable. However, due to the current $40,000 price tag per structure, the current buy-back period is about 55 years which makes the current technology not economically feasible without lowering the cost or increasing the efficiency.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tutton, Rosamond;
    Country: Canada

    Snow depth is an essential climate variable critical to global energy balance, basin scale hydrology, vegetation change and human livelihoods. It holds special significance in Indigenous northern communities such as those found in Nunatsiavut, NunatuKavut and Nitassinan (Labrador) where changes to snow depth can be hazardous to infrastructure, travel and cultural activities. The energy exchange between snow and ground thermal regime is of particular concern as permafrost distribution has been found to be highly influenced by snow onset/melt and redistribution in Labrador. Our understanding of snow and the impact it has on vegetation and permafrost is hindered by large spatial and temporal gaps in snow measurement and biases toward urban centres that may not be representative of environmental conditions. This thesis expands our understanding of snow characteristics through development of a new, low-cost snow observation technique and through the application of a numerical model that links snow variability to ecosystem and ground thermal processes. This thesis introduces the snow characterization with light and temperature method (SCLT) for determining snow depth using vertically arranged light and temperature loggers. SCLT data was collected for one year at six remote field sites located in forest and shrub-tundra environments in eastern Labrador. Three different approaches to analyze SCLT data are presented and results are compared to a temperature-only approach applied by prior studies. The results show that SCLT can definitively be used to estimate snow depth accurately. A sensitivity analysis is then performed using the Northern Ecosystem Soil Temperature (NEST) model to consider snow-vegetation-permafrost interactions in Labrador. Preliminary simulations at two sites in coastal Labrador show no significant ground temperature warming over 1979-2018 at the top of permafrost/ base of the freeze-thaw layer for most snow/ vegetation conditions. Findings support previous research that wind scouring controls permafrost distribution at the southern end of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This thesis demonstrates the need to integrate snow, geomorphological and ecosystem science together and that measurement of snow depth in diverse environments is required to anticipate changes in the cryosphere in Nunatsiavut, NunatuKavut and Nitassinan.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laferriere, Colin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L'utilisation du pentobarbital de sodium (PB), injecté par voie intrapéritonéale (IP), est décrite comme une technique acceptable par les directives d'euthanasie de l'AVMA et du CCPA pour tuer les rongeurs. Cependant, de plus en plus de preuves contestent l'acceptabilité de l'IP PB. Celle-ci a été décrite comme inconsistante et il existe des données suggérant que cette technique pourrait induire de la douleur et du stress. L'objectif de cette thèse était donc de développer et d'évaluer des méthodes alternatives d'euthanasie. Au cours de l'étude pilote, nous avons développé un protocole d'injection pour les injections intrahépatiques (IH) de PB. Ensuite, nous avons testé cette injection sur des souris et des rats. Comme objectif secondaire, nous avons évalué l'utilisation de l'éthanol (ET) comme alternative au PB pour l’euthanasie des souris. Pour les souris, quatre-vingts souris CD1 adultes (mâles et femelles- 26,8 g [23-34 g], moyenne [intervalle]) ont été assignées au hasard à 6 groupes de traitement et ont été tuées par des injections IH ou des injections IP, en utilisant soit ET ou PB. Le taux de mauvaise injection (mauvais placement du contenu de l'injection) pour les essais IH était de 93% (28/30), y compris 14% intrathoracique (4/28), le reste ayant abouti dans la cavité péritonéale telle une injection IP. Ainsi, seulement 7% (2/30) des injections ont donné lieu à une administration hépatique (selon l’évaluation d'autopsie). Les injections IH ayant abouti dans le foie ont entraîné des décès quasi instantanés. Ces données montrent que les injections IH ne sont pas réalisables chez la souris étant donné la difficulté à frapper le foie et le risque d'injections intrathoraciques. D'autre part, l'IP ET a produit des temps significativement (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) plus courts de l'injection à l'arrêt du rythme cardiaque (CHB) (115s [88-185] médian [intervalle]) par rapport à l'IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirmant que l'ET est une alternative viable et potentiellement supérieure à la PB. Pour les rats, 66 injections IH et 14 injections IP ont été tentées sur des rats Sprague-Dawley mâles et femelles adultes (poids médian 371g, plage 170-730g), et ont entraîné un délai significativement plus rapide pour la perte du réflexe de redressement (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) et temps de CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) par rapport aux injections IP. Le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IH était de 4s [1 to 96] et 142.5s [2 to 330] respectivement; alors que le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IP était de 89.5s [73 to 110] et 275s [237 to 423], respectivement. Le taux de mauvaise injection, basé sur les évaluations d’autopsie, était plus élevé avec les injections IH qu'avec les injections IP (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); cependant, 97% des mauvaises injections IH ont tout de même produit une euthanasie réussie et rapide (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. Les injections IH sont donc une alternative efficace aux injections IP pour l'euthanasie chez le rat, et présentent moins de risques d'échec des tentatives d'euthanasie. The use of sodium pentobarbital (PB), injected intraperitoneally (IP), for killing rodents is described as an acceptable technique by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) euthanasia guidelines. However, there is a growing body of evidence challenging the acceptability of IP PB. It has been described as inconsistent and there is evidence that it may induce pain and stress. The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate alternative methods of euthanasia. During the pilot study, an injection protocol for intrahepatic (IH) injections of PB was developed and then tested on both mice and rats. As a secondary objective, the use of ethanol (ET) was evaluated as an alternative to PB for mice. For mice, eighty adult (male and female) CD1 mice (26.8g [23-34g], mean [range]) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups and were killed by IH injections or IP injections, using either ET or PB. the misinjection rate (misplacement of injectate) for IH injections was 93% (28/30), including 14% intrathoracic (4/28), and the remainder were IP delivery. Only 7% (2/30) of IH attempts resulted in successful IH delivery, per necropsy evaluation. These yielded quasi-instantaneous deaths. These data show that IH injections are not feasible in mice given the difficulty in hitting the liver and the risk of intrathoracic injections. On the other hand, IP ET produced significantly (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) shorter time from injection to cessation of heartbeat (CHB) (115s [88-185] median [range]) compared with IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirming that ET is a viable and potentially superior alternative to PB. For rats, 66 IH injections and 14 IP injections were attempted on adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (median weight 371g, range 170-730g), and resulted in significantly faster time to loss of righting reflex (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) and time to CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) compared with IP injections. Time to LORR and CHB following IH injections were: LORR of 4s [1 to 96], CHB of 142.5s [2 to 330]; compared with IP injections: LORR of 89.5s [73 to 110], CHB of 275s [237 to 423). The misinjection rate was higher with IH injections than with IP injections (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); however, 97 % of IH misinjections resulted in fast and successful euthanasia (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. IH injections are thus an efficacious alternative to IP injections for rat euthanasia and pose less risk of failed euthanasia attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robinson, Bryanne;
    Country: Canada

    Due to climate change and rampant urbanization in developing countries, increased attention needs to be paid to environmental sustainability concerns, helping to shape cities for the future. Instead of offering a “blueprint”, the EcoDistrict framework for sustainability recognizes that districts, neighbourhoods, and communities experience a range of differing circumstances and priorities, allowing for flexibility through the application of context specific indicators. East Harbour, a redevelopment east of Toronto’s downtown core, aims to apply this framework. This report seeks to explore the topic of EcoDistricts, determine the current environmentally sustainable programs and tools being used by existing EcoDistricts, and to recommend next steps that Toronto would need to consider when addressing the environmental sustainability of East Harbour. This research explores in detail the programs and tools that current EcoDistricts are using to be environmentally sustainable. In doing so, a qualitative, mixed methods research approach was used. The research methods used include a literature and documents review to provide background on and context for researching the EcoDistrict approach, and a multi-case study design to examine how EcoDistricts have successfully implemented environmental sustainability programs and tools. The case study portion included an analysis of the following EcoDistricts: (1) High Falls EcoDistrict, Rochester, New York; (2) Seaholm EcoDistrict, Austin, Texas, and; (3) Lloyd EcoDistrict, Portland, Oregon. The research suggests that Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict takes caution in terms of its marketing as it does not effectively differentiate between a vague idealism of the EcoDistrict model and the creation of an effective and applicable approach to environmental sustainability at the scale of a neighbourhood. This research has proposed three key considerations to minimize the issue of marketing and has presented ideas of how EcoDistricts can go beyond the idea of marketing sustainability that will hopefully spark a conversation that is necessary to determine how these next steps could benefit Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict. The key considerations outlined by this research are: (1) the application of a comprehensive plan and roadmap; (2) the development of context specific indicators, and (3) the use of indicator monitoring and reporting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Babasola, Adegboyega;
    Country: Canada

    A CO2 emission analysis and system investigation of a direct fuel cell waste energy recovery and power generation system (DFC-ERG) for pressure letdown stations was undertaken. The hybrid system developed by FuelCell Energy Inc. is an integrated turboexpander and a direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell system in a combined circle. At pressure letdown stations, popularly called city gates, the pressure of natural gas transported on long pipelines is reduced by traditional pressure regulating systems. Energy is lost as a result of pressure reduction. Pressure reduction also results in severe cooling of the gas due to the Joule Thompson effect, thus, requiring preheating of the natural gas using traditional gas fired-burners. The thermal energy generated results in the emission of green house gases. The DFC-ERG system is a novel waste energy recovery and green house gas mitigation system that can replace traditional pressure regulating systems on city gates. A DFC-ERG system has been simulated using UniSim Design process simulation software. A case study using data from Utilities Kingston’s city gate at Glenburnie was analysed. The waste energy recovery system was modelled using the design specifications of the FuelCell Energy Inc’s DFC 300 system and turboexpander design characteristics of Cryostar TG120. The Fuel Cell system sizing was based on the required thermal output, electrical power output, available configuration and cost. The predicted performance of the fuel cell system was simulated at a current density of 140mA/cm2, steam to carbon ratio of 3, fuel utilization of 75% and oxygen utilization of 30%. The power output of the turboexpander was found to strongly depend on the high pressure natural gas flowrate, temperature and pressure. The simulated DFC-ERG system was found to reduce CO2 emissions when the electrical power generated by the DFC-ERG system replaced electrical power generated by a coal fired plant.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
770 Research products, page 1 of 77
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Herstein, Lesley;
    Country: Canada

    Municipal water distribution system (WDS) expansion is often focused on increasing system capacity with designs that best meet hydraulic requirements at the least cost. Increasing public awareness regarding global warming and environmental degradation is making environmental impact an important factor in decision-making for municipalities. There is thus a growing need to consider environmental impacts alongside cost and hydraulic requirements in the expansion and design of WDSs. As a result, the multiplicity of environmental impacts to consider in WDS expansion can complicate the decisions faced by water utilities. For example, a water utility may wish to consider environmental policy issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, non-renewable resource use, and releases to land, water, and air in WDS expansion planning. This thesis outlines a multi-objective optimization approach for WDS design and expansion that balances the objectives of capital cost, annual pumping energy use, and environmental impact minimization, while meeting hydraulic constraints. An environmental impact index that aggregates multiple environmental measures was incorporated as an environmental impact objective function in the multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm. The environmental impact index was developed to reflect stakeholder prioritization of specific environmental policy issues. The evaluation of the environmental impact index and its application to the WDS expansion problem was demonstrated with a water transmission system example. The environmental impact index and multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm were applied to the “Anytown” network expansion problem. Preliminary results suggest that solutions obtained with the triple-objective capital cost/energy/EI index optimization minimize a number of environmental impact measures while producing results that are comparable in pumping energy use and, in some instances, slightly higher in capital cost when compared to solutions obtained with a double cost/energy optimization in which environmental impact was not considered.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Elias, Morgan;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change models for continental regions of North America include reduced growing season precipitation and a “repackaging” of rainfall into fewer but larger events. Water and nutrients (NPK) have individually been proven to be a limiting resource on plant growth and determinants of competition in many grassland systems, however their interacting effects remain relatively unknown. My study will examine the effects of water and nutrient availability alone, and their combined influences on above-ground biomass production and functional group composition which could provide fundamental insight into the functioning of a mesic temperate old field meadow in southeastern Ontario. Total and graminoid above-ground biomass was significantly higher in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to the added and ambient precipitation treatments, whereas legumes and other forbs had the highest above-ground biomass in the added precipitation treatment. Below-ground processes such as microbial activity and root systems may have been enhanced under rainout shelters for graminoids, compared to legumes which were possibly able to fix nitrogen more efficiently in added water plots. Rainout shelters acting as microclimates, such as by reducing wind speed, may have created ideal conditions for the point-frame method, which could explain the highest above-ground biomass in the reduced water treatment. Soil moisture was significantly lower in the reduced precipitation treatment compared to added and ambient precipitation treatments. Nutrient addition, as well as the interacting effects of water and nutrients insignificantly affected plant above-ground biomass production and composition. Therefore, nutrient addition may not be a major limiting factor to plant productivity or composition in this community, and water addition only seems to enhance legume and other forb productivity.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chang Bejarano, Alan;
    Country: Canada

    The global energy sector is seeing an ever-increasing demand for renewable alternatives to fossil fuels to meet current and future energy demands. One of the most versatile alternatives to fossil fuels, such as natural gas, is biogas, which is a by-product of the decomposition of organic matter known as anaerobic digestion (AD). Biogas is produced by specialized methane-producing microorganisms known as methanogens. It constitutes a carbon-neutral energy source with a similar composition to natural gas at about 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. One of the biggest challenges that biogas production faces are the start-up lag phase, as biogas output can take up to twelve weeks to achieve a steady yield. Understanding the effects that temperature, pH, bioaugmentation, microbial composition and the use of sensor and electrode technology have on biogas production under start-up operations could provide a better understanding of the underlying causes affecting start-up and how it could be improved to reach optimal biogas production. The results from this research showed that temperature has a significant role in biogas production by driving the biogas process. The effect of thermophilic temperatures caused a decrease in the methanogenic microbial diversity of sludge. pH control only offers a limited effect on overall biogas yield within a 6.5-7.5 range. Novel technological approaches such as sensors and electrode enhanced AD (MEC-AD) can provide a stabilizing effect during AD under start-up operation, MEC-AD provided a six-fold increase in biogas yield compared to conventional AD. Microbial activity tracking was attempted using bio-impedance with promising results and the effects of bioaugmentation and toxic shock in MEC-AD digesters showed that bioaugmentation potential benefits are only significant in the absence of inhibitory conditions. Overall, the characterization of the AD processes in a bench-scale system could provide valuable insight for large-scale systems aiming to optimize and update their operational procedures.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Metcalfe, Evan;
    Country: Canada

    The implementation of solar shelters over top of parking spaces has the potential to make the production of renewable energy a secondary function of parking lots without impeding their ability to function as parking locations. This has the capacity to reduce the amount of natural space converted to solar farms as solar energy becomes more common. In addition, if these shelters are outfitted as charging stations for electric vehicles, they could serve as a driver for a cultural shift towards a more sustainable vehicle fleet. Implementation of this technology has begun on a small scale in San Diego, California and this project assessed the feasibility of implementation in Kingston, Ontario. This study set out to determine how much energy could be produced by a solar shelter over one parking space and how many parking spaces would be required to produce 1% of Kingston’s total electricity consumption. An insolation model was written in C, which used past climate data and mathematical models to incorporate the effects of latitude, cloud cover and snow. This model was compared to the current production in San Diego to check for validity. Since the insolation model was deemed to be valid, the results were used in conjunction with typical solar panel efficiencies in Kingston to calculate the potential energy production per structure. This was then used to determine the number of structures that would be required to provide 1% of Kingston’s electricity. Through literature review, it was determined that although snow on the panels would have a drastic effect on power production, it would not remain on the panels long enough to cause a significant effect. It was found that a single parking space in Kingston would be capable of generating 5500±_800^1000 kWh/year using the single-axis tracking model that is currently being implemented in San Diego, although a dual-axis tracking model would be capable of generating 11% more energy. Using the current prototype, Kingston would require implementation across about 2750 parking spaces in order to provide 1% of its electricity and it has ample locations which would be suitable. However, due to the current $40,000 price tag per structure, the current buy-back period is about 55 years which makes the current technology not economically feasible without lowering the cost or increasing the efficiency.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tutton, Rosamond;
    Country: Canada

    Snow depth is an essential climate variable critical to global energy balance, basin scale hydrology, vegetation change and human livelihoods. It holds special significance in Indigenous northern communities such as those found in Nunatsiavut, NunatuKavut and Nitassinan (Labrador) where changes to snow depth can be hazardous to infrastructure, travel and cultural activities. The energy exchange between snow and ground thermal regime is of particular concern as permafrost distribution has been found to be highly influenced by snow onset/melt and redistribution in Labrador. Our understanding of snow and the impact it has on vegetation and permafrost is hindered by large spatial and temporal gaps in snow measurement and biases toward urban centres that may not be representative of environmental conditions. This thesis expands our understanding of snow characteristics through development of a new, low-cost snow observation technique and through the application of a numerical model that links snow variability to ecosystem and ground thermal processes. This thesis introduces the snow characterization with light and temperature method (SCLT) for determining snow depth using vertically arranged light and temperature loggers. SCLT data was collected for one year at six remote field sites located in forest and shrub-tundra environments in eastern Labrador. Three different approaches to analyze SCLT data are presented and results are compared to a temperature-only approach applied by prior studies. The results show that SCLT can definitively be used to estimate snow depth accurately. A sensitivity analysis is then performed using the Northern Ecosystem Soil Temperature (NEST) model to consider snow-vegetation-permafrost interactions in Labrador. Preliminary simulations at two sites in coastal Labrador show no significant ground temperature warming over 1979-2018 at the top of permafrost/ base of the freeze-thaw layer for most snow/ vegetation conditions. Findings support previous research that wind scouring controls permafrost distribution at the southern end of the discontinuous permafrost zone. This thesis demonstrates the need to integrate snow, geomorphological and ecosystem science together and that measurement of snow depth in diverse environments is required to anticipate changes in the cryosphere in Nunatsiavut, NunatuKavut and Nitassinan.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laferriere, Colin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    L'utilisation du pentobarbital de sodium (PB), injecté par voie intrapéritonéale (IP), est décrite comme une technique acceptable par les directives d'euthanasie de l'AVMA et du CCPA pour tuer les rongeurs. Cependant, de plus en plus de preuves contestent l'acceptabilité de l'IP PB. Celle-ci a été décrite comme inconsistante et il existe des données suggérant que cette technique pourrait induire de la douleur et du stress. L'objectif de cette thèse était donc de développer et d'évaluer des méthodes alternatives d'euthanasie. Au cours de l'étude pilote, nous avons développé un protocole d'injection pour les injections intrahépatiques (IH) de PB. Ensuite, nous avons testé cette injection sur des souris et des rats. Comme objectif secondaire, nous avons évalué l'utilisation de l'éthanol (ET) comme alternative au PB pour l’euthanasie des souris. Pour les souris, quatre-vingts souris CD1 adultes (mâles et femelles- 26,8 g [23-34 g], moyenne [intervalle]) ont été assignées au hasard à 6 groupes de traitement et ont été tuées par des injections IH ou des injections IP, en utilisant soit ET ou PB. Le taux de mauvaise injection (mauvais placement du contenu de l'injection) pour les essais IH était de 93% (28/30), y compris 14% intrathoracique (4/28), le reste ayant abouti dans la cavité péritonéale telle une injection IP. Ainsi, seulement 7% (2/30) des injections ont donné lieu à une administration hépatique (selon l’évaluation d'autopsie). Les injections IH ayant abouti dans le foie ont entraîné des décès quasi instantanés. Ces données montrent que les injections IH ne sont pas réalisables chez la souris étant donné la difficulté à frapper le foie et le risque d'injections intrathoraciques. D'autre part, l'IP ET a produit des temps significativement (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) plus courts de l'injection à l'arrêt du rythme cardiaque (CHB) (115s [88-185] médian [intervalle]) par rapport à l'IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirmant que l'ET est une alternative viable et potentiellement supérieure à la PB. Pour les rats, 66 injections IH et 14 injections IP ont été tentées sur des rats Sprague-Dawley mâles et femelles adultes (poids médian 371g, plage 170-730g), et ont entraîné un délai significativement plus rapide pour la perte du réflexe de redressement (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) et temps de CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) par rapport aux injections IP. Le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IH était de 4s [1 to 96] et 142.5s [2 to 330] respectivement; alors que le temps médian de LORR et CHB après les injections IP était de 89.5s [73 to 110] et 275s [237 to 423], respectivement. Le taux de mauvaise injection, basé sur les évaluations d’autopsie, était plus élevé avec les injections IH qu'avec les injections IP (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); cependant, 97% des mauvaises injections IH ont tout de même produit une euthanasie réussie et rapide (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. Les injections IH sont donc une alternative efficace aux injections IP pour l'euthanasie chez le rat, et présentent moins de risques d'échec des tentatives d'euthanasie. The use of sodium pentobarbital (PB), injected intraperitoneally (IP), for killing rodents is described as an acceptable technique by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) euthanasia guidelines. However, there is a growing body of evidence challenging the acceptability of IP PB. It has been described as inconsistent and there is evidence that it may induce pain and stress. The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate alternative methods of euthanasia. During the pilot study, an injection protocol for intrahepatic (IH) injections of PB was developed and then tested on both mice and rats. As a secondary objective, the use of ethanol (ET) was evaluated as an alternative to PB for mice. For mice, eighty adult (male and female) CD1 mice (26.8g [23-34g], mean [range]) were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups and were killed by IH injections or IP injections, using either ET or PB. the misinjection rate (misplacement of injectate) for IH injections was 93% (28/30), including 14% intrathoracic (4/28), and the remainder were IP delivery. Only 7% (2/30) of IH attempts resulted in successful IH delivery, per necropsy evaluation. These yielded quasi-instantaneous deaths. These data show that IH injections are not feasible in mice given the difficulty in hitting the liver and the risk of intrathoracic injections. On the other hand, IP ET produced significantly (p = 0.010; Mann-Whitney) shorter time from injection to cessation of heartbeat (CHB) (115s [88-185] median [range]) compared with IP PB (176s [123-260]), confirming that ET is a viable and potentially superior alternative to PB. For rats, 66 IH injections and 14 IP injections were attempted on adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (median weight 371g, range 170-730g), and resulted in significantly faster time to loss of righting reflex (LORR) (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 68 to 88s, Mann-Whitney) and time to CHB (p < 0.0001, 95%CI 82 to 234s, Mann-Whitney) compared with IP injections. Time to LORR and CHB following IH injections were: LORR of 4s [1 to 96], CHB of 142.5s [2 to 330]; compared with IP injections: LORR of 89.5s [73 to 110], CHB of 275s [237 to 423). The misinjection rate was higher with IH injections than with IP injections (IH: 59%, IP: 29%); however, 97 % of IH misinjections resulted in fast and successful euthanasia (LORR: 29s [1 to 96], CHB: 216s [12 to 330]. IH injections are thus an efficacious alternative to IP injections for rat euthanasia and pose less risk of failed euthanasia attempts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robinson, Bryanne;
    Country: Canada

    Due to climate change and rampant urbanization in developing countries, increased attention needs to be paid to environmental sustainability concerns, helping to shape cities for the future. Instead of offering a “blueprint”, the EcoDistrict framework for sustainability recognizes that districts, neighbourhoods, and communities experience a range of differing circumstances and priorities, allowing for flexibility through the application of context specific indicators. East Harbour, a redevelopment east of Toronto’s downtown core, aims to apply this framework. This report seeks to explore the topic of EcoDistricts, determine the current environmentally sustainable programs and tools being used by existing EcoDistricts, and to recommend next steps that Toronto would need to consider when addressing the environmental sustainability of East Harbour. This research explores in detail the programs and tools that current EcoDistricts are using to be environmentally sustainable. In doing so, a qualitative, mixed methods research approach was used. The research methods used include a literature and documents review to provide background on and context for researching the EcoDistrict approach, and a multi-case study design to examine how EcoDistricts have successfully implemented environmental sustainability programs and tools. The case study portion included an analysis of the following EcoDistricts: (1) High Falls EcoDistrict, Rochester, New York; (2) Seaholm EcoDistrict, Austin, Texas, and; (3) Lloyd EcoDistrict, Portland, Oregon. The research suggests that Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict takes caution in terms of its marketing as it does not effectively differentiate between a vague idealism of the EcoDistrict model and the creation of an effective and applicable approach to environmental sustainability at the scale of a neighbourhood. This research has proposed three key considerations to minimize the issue of marketing and has presented ideas of how EcoDistricts can go beyond the idea of marketing sustainability that will hopefully spark a conversation that is necessary to determine how these next steps could benefit Toronto’s East Harbour EcoDistrict. The key considerations outlined by this research are: (1) the application of a comprehensive plan and roadmap; (2) the development of context specific indicators, and (3) the use of indicator monitoring and reporting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Babasola, Adegboyega;
    Country: Canada

    A CO2 emission analysis and system investigation of a direct fuel cell waste energy recovery and power generation system (DFC-ERG) for pressure letdown stations was undertaken. The hybrid system developed by FuelCell Energy Inc. is an integrated turboexpander and a direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell system in a combined circle. At pressure letdown stations, popularly called city gates, the pressure of natural gas transported on long pipelines is reduced by traditional pressure regulating systems. Energy is lost as a result of pressure reduction. Pressure reduction also results in severe cooling of the gas due to the Joule Thompson effect, thus, requiring preheating of the natural gas using traditional gas fired-burners. The thermal energy generated results in the emission of green house gases. The DFC-ERG system is a novel waste energy recovery and green house gas mitigation system that can replace traditional pressure regulating systems on city gates. A DFC-ERG system has been simulated using UniSim Design process simulation software. A case study using data from Utilities Kingston’s city gate at Glenburnie was analysed. The waste energy recovery system was modelled using the design specifications of the FuelCell Energy Inc’s DFC 300 system and turboexpander design characteristics of Cryostar TG120. The Fuel Cell system sizing was based on the required thermal output, electrical power output, available configuration and cost. The predicted performance of the fuel cell system was simulated at a current density of 140mA/cm2, steam to carbon ratio of 3, fuel utilization of 75% and oxygen utilization of 30%. The power output of the turboexpander was found to strongly depend on the high pressure natural gas flowrate, temperature and pressure. The simulated DFC-ERG system was found to reduce CO2 emissions when the electrical power generated by the DFC-ERG system replaced electrical power generated by a coal fired plant.