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10 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • 2021-2021
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  • Scholarship@Western

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Liu, Siyuan;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    10.1109/SANER50967.2021.00078

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Comor, Edward;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Harold Innis is one of the foundational theorists of media and communications studies. In the mid-20th century, he developed his concept of media bias (also called the bias of communication). It remains Innis’s most cited concept, but it is also significantly misunderstood. For example, since his death in 1952, bias has often been applied in ways that are akin to a form of technological or media determinism. This has been an ongoing problem despite the fact that Innis developed his concept as a means of compelling analysts to reject such mechanistic formulations. Indeed, his goal was to promote more self-reflective modes of scholarship and, by extension, a recognition that such intellectual capacities—which he believed were essential for civilization’s survival—would be lost if they were not recognized and defended. More generally, Innis contextualized his work regarding media bias in terms of interrelated historical conditions involving political economic dynamics. Through his application of the concept to over 4000 years of history, he sought to provide his contemporaries with the reflective perspective needed to comprehend the underpinnings of modern biases that stressed present-mindedness and spatial control to the neglect of creativity and duration. Bias was derived from Innis’s studies on Canadian economic development involving the exploitation of its resources (an approach to history called the staples thesis). Several of the insights he garnered in those studies need to be recognized if we are to fully understand his subsequent communications research. Also, tracing the origins of his concept of bias enables us to fully assess the nature of Innis’s supposed media determinism. Typical uses of bias today focus on the spatial or temporal orientations that many assume are compelled through the use of a specific medium or set of media technologies. This misreading, inspired mainly by Marshall McLuhan’s representations of Innis, has led to assumptions regarding Innis’s determinism and a general neglect of the complexity of his original work. To repeat, Innis developed bias in order to redress the mechanistic and unreflective thinking of his day and always conceptualized it in terms of factors that are salient to the place and time being examined. Moreover, he applied bias alongside now largely forgotten concepts ranging from unused capacity to classic power–knowledge dialectics. Lastly, he situated the development and implications of a particular medium in relation to both old and new media (not just technologies, but organizations and institutions also). In sum, to comprehend Innis’s concept of bias, its intellectual and political underpinnings need to be acknowledged, the political economic dynamics of its development and application understood, and the implications of McLuhan’s influence recognized.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irimia, Alexandra;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Contemporary art historian, critic, and theorist Georges Didi-Huberman thinks of images not as static objects, but as movements, passages, and gestures of memory and/or desire. For the French “historian of passing images,” as he has been called, “all images are migrants. Images are migrations. They are never simply local” (D2017). His book, Passer, quoi qu'il en coûte ("To Pass at Any Price"), co-written with the Greek poet and director Niki Giannari, takes on precisely the visual dynamics of passages, passengers, and passageways in the context of contemporary migration flows. In April 2018, only several months after the launching of the book, the Carnegie Museums in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, engage in a series of events and exhibitions celebrating and investigating the contemporary process of “becoming a migrant” in America. The challenging title of the series, What moves you?, points not only to the experiences of loss, encounter, and transformation that occur between the departure and the arrival of the migrant, but also to the presence of absence of an empathic affective response from the host culture. For the individuals whose identity becomes defined by their passage (homo migrans, to use a term coined by Didi-Huberman), passing over the American border may be a matter of survival. Their desire to pass through a wall of interdictions and restrictions moves not only the image in which it is reflected, and – obviously – the migrants themselves; through its visual embodiments, this desire also ‘moves’ some of the witnesses of this passage. My paper aims to present Didi-Huberman’s most recent thoughts on the intrinsic nomadic character of the image (in general) and of photography (in particular), in the context of a photographic project that stands out among those proposed by Carnegie Museums. Entitled “Out of Many,” the project consists of migration-related shots taken as recently as 2017 by a group of 5 photographers living and working in Pennsylvania: Brian Cohen, Scott Goldsmith, Nate Guidry, Lynn Johnson, and Annie O’Neill. Their selection of migration images, seen through the lens of Didi-Huberman’s “nomadic image,” have a strong potential to rekindle discussions on how art history deals with contemporary phenomena of American migration as reflected into photographic production.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Colangelo, Jeremy;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pollock, Katina; Wang, Fei;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stahl, Matt; Arewa, Olufunmilayo B.;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    This chapter focuses on contractual royalties in the U.S. recording industry. Developing Arewa’s (2019) research on entertainment industry contract accounting and Stahl’s (2015) research on record industry royalty reform, we aim to shed light on contractual accounting practices in the record industry and the structural asymmetries of power that characterize them. Central to our analysis is the crucial but until now unstudied role played by the Health and Retirement Funds (“AFTRA H&R Funds” or “H&R Funds”) of the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (“AFTRA”) in the economic lives of U.S. recording singers. The activities of this benefits system include monitoring and auditing of singers’ compensation and royalty accounts. Archival and other sorts of evidence documenting these activities provide a new and unique window into otherwise obscure accounting and business practices. In part I, we discuss the life and death of Mary Wells, a highly visible and successful recording artist in the early years of Motown. We discuss how the Mary Wells case exemplifies key aspects of the relationships among record companies, unions, and performing artists. In part II, we discuss contractual accounting in light of the historical development of the cultural industries. In part III, we outline AFTRA’s relationship with its recording singer members, how singers’ recording contracts articulated individual and collective bargaining, and how singers’ healthcare and pension accounts expressed the asymmetries of record company royalty accounting. In part IV, we discuss the standard form and terms of recording contracts of the 1950s and 1960s and some of the manipulative accounting practices brought to light in the 1980s by “royalty reform” activists that were (and may still be) central to business practice. In part V, we briefly examine the Moore case, a major 1993-2002 lawsuit by aging singers against the H&R Funds, drawing on archival evidence as well as contemporaneous trade journal coverage. We conclude by returning to issues related to contractual accounting in the cultural industries. This chapter makes use of unique sources and types of data that have not been utilized in relevant scholarly literature and provides the first comprehensive examination of singers as union members.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pollock, Katina;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Julian, Erin; Solga, Kim;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    What does it mean to ‘practise’ diversity in Shakespeare production in the twenty-first century, specifically in an Anglo-American context? How is ‘practising’ diversity, from devising and directing to work in the rehearsal hall and on audience engagement, materially different from the now-familiar (but still important) goal of ‘representing’ diverse bodies on stage? In the last twenty years, debates about what the diversification of Shakespeare performance – along racial lines, gender lines, the lines of age and ability – means or could mean, and the simultaneous interrogation of what ‘Shakespeare’ signifies, for whom, and to whose benefit, have become increasingly urgent issues for scholars and artists. If theatre companies across the Anglosphere increasingly share the assumption that diversity and inclusion, in both the casting and creation of Shakespeare in performance, is necessary and good for ethical and artistic reasons, what tools, resources and attitudinal shifts are required in order for those companies to move beyond representations of difference on stage, and toward engaging deeply with equity and diversity as conditions of theatrical production and reception?

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nielsen, Ruth;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irimia, Alexandra;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    The article draws up an inventory of, and compares strategies for, the theoretical and critical treatment of the absence–presence interplay at stake in the literary and visual representations of absence. This brings to our attention a multiplicity of heterogeneous and, to a greater or lesser degree, marginal signify-ing phenomena that have in common patterns of disrupting and deviating from the standard conventions of creating and conveying meaning through figures of absence. Lacking a name for these disparate yet similar instances where meaning is created from empty signifiers, we have chosen to call them figural voids. This attempt to produce a critical inventory focuses on modern and contemporary approaches to the analysis of figures and figurations of absence in literature, visual arts, and cinema, relying on the works of Anne Cauquelin, Jean-Pierre Mourey, Philippe Le Roux, Maurice Frechuret, Bruno Duborgel, and Marc Vernet. Their theoretical positions stand in a variety of literary and artistic contexts that are seemingly disconnected yet can be brought together on the basis of their common affinity to figural voids. This calls for a comparative standpoint and can be illustrated with examples ranging across historical periods and disciplines: from Stoic writings to Alberto Moravia’s Boredom, from Mallarmé’s blank page to the controversial curatorial practices espoused by Yves Klein.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
10 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Liu, Siyuan;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    10.1109/SANER50967.2021.00078

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Comor, Edward;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Harold Innis is one of the foundational theorists of media and communications studies. In the mid-20th century, he developed his concept of media bias (also called the bias of communication). It remains Innis’s most cited concept, but it is also significantly misunderstood. For example, since his death in 1952, bias has often been applied in ways that are akin to a form of technological or media determinism. This has been an ongoing problem despite the fact that Innis developed his concept as a means of compelling analysts to reject such mechanistic formulations. Indeed, his goal was to promote more self-reflective modes of scholarship and, by extension, a recognition that such intellectual capacities—which he believed were essential for civilization’s survival—would be lost if they were not recognized and defended. More generally, Innis contextualized his work regarding media bias in terms of interrelated historical conditions involving political economic dynamics. Through his application of the concept to over 4000 years of history, he sought to provide his contemporaries with the reflective perspective needed to comprehend the underpinnings of modern biases that stressed present-mindedness and spatial control to the neglect of creativity and duration. Bias was derived from Innis’s studies on Canadian economic development involving the exploitation of its resources (an approach to history called the staples thesis). Several of the insights he garnered in those studies need to be recognized if we are to fully understand his subsequent communications research. Also, tracing the origins of his concept of bias enables us to fully assess the nature of Innis’s supposed media determinism. Typical uses of bias today focus on the spatial or temporal orientations that many assume are compelled through the use of a specific medium or set of media technologies. This misreading, inspired mainly by Marshall McLuhan’s representations of Innis, has led to assumptions regarding Innis’s determinism and a general neglect of the complexity of his original work. To repeat, Innis developed bias in order to redress the mechanistic and unreflective thinking of his day and always conceptualized it in terms of factors that are salient to the place and time being examined. Moreover, he applied bias alongside now largely forgotten concepts ranging from unused capacity to classic power–knowledge dialectics. Lastly, he situated the development and implications of a particular medium in relation to both old and new media (not just technologies, but organizations and institutions also). In sum, to comprehend Innis’s concept of bias, its intellectual and political underpinnings need to be acknowledged, the political economic dynamics of its development and application understood, and the implications of McLuhan’s influence recognized.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irimia, Alexandra;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    Contemporary art historian, critic, and theorist Georges Didi-Huberman thinks of images not as static objects, but as movements, passages, and gestures of memory and/or desire. For the French “historian of passing images,” as he has been called, “all images are migrants. Images are migrations. They are never simply local” (D2017). His book, Passer, quoi qu'il en coûte ("To Pass at Any Price"), co-written with the Greek poet and director Niki Giannari, takes on precisely the visual dynamics of passages, passengers, and passageways in the context of contemporary migration flows. In April 2018, only several months after the launching of the book, the Carnegie Museums in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, engage in a series of events and exhibitions celebrating and investigating the contemporary process of “becoming a migrant” in America. The challenging title of the series, What moves you?, points not only to the experiences of loss, encounter, and transformation that occur between the departure and the arrival of the migrant, but also to the presence of absence of an empathic affective response from the host culture. For the individuals whose identity becomes defined by their passage (homo migrans, to use a term coined by Didi-Huberman), passing over the American border may be a matter of survival. Their desire to pass through a wall of interdictions and restrictions moves not only the image in which it is reflected, and – obviously – the migrants themselves; through its visual embodiments, this desire also ‘moves’ some of the witnesses of this passage. My paper aims to present Didi-Huberman’s most recent thoughts on the intrinsic nomadic character of the image (in general) and of photography (in particular), in the context of a photographic project that stands out among those proposed by Carnegie Museums. Entitled “Out of Many,” the project consists of migration-related shots taken as recently as 2017 by a group of 5 photographers living and working in Pennsylvania: Brian Cohen, Scott Goldsmith, Nate Guidry, Lynn Johnson, and Annie O’Neill. Their selection of migration images, seen through the lens of Didi-Huberman’s “nomadic image,” have a strong potential to rekindle discussions on how art history deals with contemporary phenomena of American migration as reflected into photographic production.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Colangelo, Jeremy;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pollock, Katina; Wang, Fei;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stahl, Matt; Arewa, Olufunmilayo B.;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    This chapter focuses on contractual royalties in the U.S. recording industry. Developing Arewa’s (2019) research on entertainment industry contract accounting and Stahl’s (2015) research on record industry royalty reform, we aim to shed light on contractual accounting practices in the record industry and the structural asymmetries of power that characterize them. Central to our analysis is the crucial but until now unstudied role played by the Health and Retirement Funds (“AFTRA H&R Funds” or “H&R Funds”) of the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (“AFTRA”) in the economic lives of U.S. recording singers. The activities of this benefits system include monitoring and auditing of singers’ compensation and royalty accounts. Archival and other sorts of evidence documenting these activities provide a new and unique window into otherwise obscure accounting and business practices. In part I, we discuss the life and death of Mary Wells, a highly visible and successful recording artist in the early years of Motown. We discuss how the Mary Wells case exemplifies key aspects of the relationships among record companies, unions, and performing artists. In part II, we discuss contractual accounting in light of the historical development of the cultural industries. In part III, we outline AFTRA’s relationship with its recording singer members, how singers’ recording contracts articulated individual and collective bargaining, and how singers’ healthcare and pension accounts expressed the asymmetries of record company royalty accounting. In part IV, we discuss the standard form and terms of recording contracts of the 1950s and 1960s and some of the manipulative accounting practices brought to light in the 1980s by “royalty reform” activists that were (and may still be) central to business practice. In part V, we briefly examine the Moore case, a major 1993-2002 lawsuit by aging singers against the H&R Funds, drawing on archival evidence as well as contemporaneous trade journal coverage. We conclude by returning to issues related to contractual accounting in the cultural industries. This chapter makes use of unique sources and types of data that have not been utilized in relevant scholarly literature and provides the first comprehensive examination of singers as union members.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pollock, Katina;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Julian, Erin; Solga, Kim;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    What does it mean to ‘practise’ diversity in Shakespeare production in the twenty-first century, specifically in an Anglo-American context? How is ‘practising’ diversity, from devising and directing to work in the rehearsal hall and on audience engagement, materially different from the now-familiar (but still important) goal of ‘representing’ diverse bodies on stage? In the last twenty years, debates about what the diversification of Shakespeare performance – along racial lines, gender lines, the lines of age and ability – means or could mean, and the simultaneous interrogation of what ‘Shakespeare’ signifies, for whom, and to whose benefit, have become increasingly urgent issues for scholars and artists. If theatre companies across the Anglosphere increasingly share the assumption that diversity and inclusion, in both the casting and creation of Shakespeare in performance, is necessary and good for ethical and artistic reasons, what tools, resources and attitudinal shifts are required in order for those companies to move beyond representations of difference on stage, and toward engaging deeply with equity and diversity as conditions of theatrical production and reception?

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nielsen, Ruth;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irimia, Alexandra;
    Publisher: Scholarship@Western
    Country: Canada

    The article draws up an inventory of, and compares strategies for, the theoretical and critical treatment of the absence–presence interplay at stake in the literary and visual representations of absence. This brings to our attention a multiplicity of heterogeneous and, to a greater or lesser degree, marginal signify-ing phenomena that have in common patterns of disrupting and deviating from the standard conventions of creating and conveying meaning through figures of absence. Lacking a name for these disparate yet similar instances where meaning is created from empty signifiers, we have chosen to call them figural voids. This attempt to produce a critical inventory focuses on modern and contemporary approaches to the analysis of figures and figurations of absence in literature, visual arts, and cinema, relying on the works of Anne Cauquelin, Jean-Pierre Mourey, Philippe Le Roux, Maurice Frechuret, Bruno Duborgel, and Marc Vernet. Their theoretical positions stand in a variety of literary and artistic contexts that are seemingly disconnected yet can be brought together on the basis of their common affinity to figural voids. This calls for a comparative standpoint and can be illustrated with examples ranging across historical periods and disciplines: from Stoic writings to Alberto Moravia’s Boredom, from Mallarmé’s blank page to the controversial curatorial practices espoused by Yves Klein.