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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    James, Leah;
    Country: Canada

    Bythotrephes longimanus is an invasive, macroinvertebrate from Eurasia that was introduced into the Great Lakes region in the mid 1980s. Bythotrephes introductions into lake ecosystems have resulted in substantial changes in zooplankton communities, including declines in species richness, abundance, biomass and production. Changes in zooplankton communities may alter the quantity and quality of prey to other predators such as cisco (Coregonus artedii), a pelagic forage fish. Here, I conduct a current day comparison of cisco populations to determine if prey consumption by cisco differs in the presence of Bythotrephes, and whether changes in diet result in energetic consequences (changes in growth and condition) for cisco. Effects of Bythotrephes on native zooplankton communities have resulted in substantial changes in the variety and proportion biomass of zooplankton and macroinvertebrate prey types in cisco stomachs, which have in turn modified growth of cisco. Cisco taken from invaded lakes achieve greater total lengths but changes in condition were not detected. This effect may be driven by improved growth in the second and subsequent growing seasons, suggesting that growth consequences for young fish (that do not feed on Bythotrephes) are different than for older individuals. Length-at-structure age data indicate that by the end of the first growing season (age 1) cisco achieve comparable total body lengths in invaded and reference lakes, suggesting that food consumption by young cisco remains unchanged by Bythotrephes. Alternatively, young cisco forage may be reduced in the presence of Bythotrephes, resulting in decreased survival and similar growth among individuals that survive to age 1. In contrast, despite changes in the zooplankton community; growth of older fish (≥ age 2) was enhanced in lakes that have Bythotrephes. Improved growth among older cisco (≥ age 2) in invaded lakes may be related to the presence of a newly attainable, high energy prey source (Bythotrephes). Alternatively, enhanced growth may be explained by lower competition due to reduced recruitment of young cisco (≤ age 1) in invaded lakes. Increased knowledge regarding the effects of Bythotrephes on growth of cisco is important in furthering our understanding of its impact on lake ecosystems.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Chen, Lin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Les infrastructures de transport est essentielle au maintien et à l'expansion des activités sociales et économiques dans les régions circumpolaires. À mesure que le climat se réchauffe, la dégradation du pergélisol sous les remblais a entraîné de graves dommages structuraux à la route, entraînant une augmentation importante des coûts d'entretien et une réduction de la durée de vie des infrastructures. Pendant ce temps, l'advection de chaleur déclenchée par les écoulements d’eau souterrains peut altérer le bilan énergétique du remblai et du pergélisol sous-jacent et modifier le régime thermique des remblais routiers. Cependant, peu de recherches ont été effectuées pour comprendre la synergie entre les processus thermiques de surface et souterrains des remblais routiers des régions froides. L'objectif de cette recherche était de comprendre les interactions thermiques entre l'atmosphère, le remblai routier, les écoulements d’eau et le pergélisol dans le contexte du changement climatique. Cette base, de connaissances est nécessaire pour la conception technique, l'entretien des routes et l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité des infrastructures. Les travaux de recherche ont permis de développer de nouvelles méthodes d'analyse thermique pour caractériser et identifier le rôle de l'advection thermique sur le changement de température d'un remblai routier expérimental au Yukon (Canada) en termes d’intensité, de vitesse et de profondeur de l'impact thermique. Les résultats montrent que l'augmentation de la température due aux flux de chaleur advectifs déclenchés par l’écoulement d'eau peut être jusqu'à deux ordres de grandeur plus rapide qu'en raison du seul réchauffement atmosphérique. La recherche a ensuite présenté un bilan énergétique de surface pour quantifier la quantité d'énergie entrant dans le centre et la pente du remblai avec des épaisseurs et des propriétés de neige variables. Le tout a été appuyé par des observations géothermique de plusieurs années et une grande quantité de données météorologiques. Les résultats illustrent que le bilan énergétique de surface est principalement contrôlé par le rayonnement net et moins par le flux de chaleur sensible. Le flux de chaleur transmis à la pente du remblai diminue de façon exponentielle avec l'augmentation de l'épaisseur de la neige et diminue de façon linéaire avec l’installation du couvert de neige et la longueur de la période d’enneigement. De plus, un modèle de bilan énergétique de surface et un modèle cryohydrologique entièrement couplé ont été développés pour étudier l'impact thermique de l'advection de chaleur associée à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine sur le dégel du pergélisol et le développement de taliks (c.-à-d. zone perpétuellement non gelée dans les zones de pergélisol). Le modèle couplé a réussi à reproduire la tendance à la hausse du plafond du pergélisol (erreur absolue moyenne <0,2 m) au cours de la période 1997-2018. Les résultats montrent que l'advection de chaleur a fourni une source d'énergie supplémentaire pour accélérer le dégel du pergélisol et a doublé le taux d’augmentation de l’épaisseur de la couche active 0,1 m·a-1 à 0,19 m·a-1, par rapport au scénario où aucun écoulement d'eau ne se produit. Le talik s'est initialement formé et développé en fonction du temps sous l’effet combiné des écoulement d’eau, de l'isolation de la neige, de la construction de la route et du réchauffement climatique. Le débit d'eau souterraine a relié des corps isolés de talik et a amené le remblai de la route dans un état thermique irréversible, en raison de la rétroaction de l'eau liquide (effet de chaleur latente) piégée dans le talik. Ces résultats montrent l'importance de l'advection de chaleur induite par l'écoulement d'eau sur le régime thermique de la sous-couche (c.-à-d. la couche de matériau de remblai) et du sous-sol (c.-à-d. le matériau natif sous un remblai) du remblai lorsque le remblai routier intercepte le drainage local. De plus, les résultats obtenus soulignent la nécessité de coupler les processus thermiques de surface et souterrains dans le but d'évaluer la stabilité thermique des routes subarctiques. Transportation infrastructure is crucial to maintaining and expanding the social and economic activities in circumpolar regions. As the climate warms, degradation of the permafrost causes severe structural damages to the road embankment, leading to large increases in maintenance costs and reductions in its lifespan. Meanwhile, heat advection triggered by mobile water flow can alter energy balance of the embankment and underlying permafrost and modify the thermal regime of road embankments. However, little research has been done to understand the synergy between surface and subsurface thermal processes of cold region road embankments. The overall goal of this research was to elucidate thermal interactions between the atmosphere, the road embankment, mobile water flow, and permafrost within the context of climate change. This knowledge is needed for engineered design, road maintenance, and infrastructure vulnerability assessment. The research first used new thermal analysis to characterize and identify the role of heat advection on temperature change of an experimental road embankment, Yukon, Canada in terms of magnitude, rate and thermal impact depth. It shows that soil temperature increase due to advective heat fluxes triggered by mobile water flow can be up to two orders of magnitude faster than due to atmospheric warming only. The research then presented a novel surface energy balance to quantify the amount of ground heat flux entering the embankment center and slope with varying snow depth and properties, supported by multi-year thermal and meteorological observations. My results illustrate that the surface energy budget is mainly controlled by net radiation, and less by the sensible heat flux. The ground heat flux released at embankment slope exponentially decreased with the increase of snow depth, and was linearly reduced with earlier snow cover and longer snow-covered period. A fully integrated surface energy balance and cryohydrogeological model was implemented to investigate the thermal impact of heat advection associated with subsurface water flow on permafrost thaw and talik (i.e., perennially unfrozen zone in permafrost areas) development. The integrated model successfully reproduced the observed increasing trend of the active layer depth (mean absolute error < 0.2 m) over the 1997-2018 period. The results show that heat advection provided an additional energy source to expedite permafrost thaw, doubling the increasing rate of permafrost table depth from 0.1 m·a-1 to 0.19 m·a-1, compared with the scenario where no water flow occurs. Talik formation and development occurred over time under the combined effect of subsurface water flow, snow insulation, road construction and climate warming. Subsurface water flow connected isolated talik bodies and triggered an irreversible thermal state for the road embankment, due to a local feedback mechanism (latent heat effect) of trapped, unfrozen water in talik. These findings elucidate the importance of heat advection induced by mobile water flow on the thermal regime of embankment subbase (i.e., a layer of fill material) and subgrade (i.e., the native material under an embankment) when the road embankment intercepts the local drainage. Furthermore, the obtained results emphasize the need to couple surface and subsurface thermal processes to evaluate the thermal stability of sub-Arctic roads.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Herstein, Lesley;
    Country: Canada

    Municipal water distribution system (WDS) expansion is often focused on increasing system capacity with designs that best meet hydraulic requirements at the least cost. Increasing public awareness regarding global warming and environmental degradation is making environmental impact an important factor in decision-making for municipalities. There is thus a growing need to consider environmental impacts alongside cost and hydraulic requirements in the expansion and design of WDSs. As a result, the multiplicity of environmental impacts to consider in WDS expansion can complicate the decisions faced by water utilities. For example, a water utility may wish to consider environmental policy issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, non-renewable resource use, and releases to land, water, and air in WDS expansion planning. This thesis outlines a multi-objective optimization approach for WDS design and expansion that balances the objectives of capital cost, annual pumping energy use, and environmental impact minimization, while meeting hydraulic constraints. An environmental impact index that aggregates multiple environmental measures was incorporated as an environmental impact objective function in the multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm. The environmental impact index was developed to reflect stakeholder prioritization of specific environmental policy issues. The evaluation of the environmental impact index and its application to the WDS expansion problem was demonstrated with a water transmission system example. The environmental impact index and multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm were applied to the “Anytown” network expansion problem. Preliminary results suggest that solutions obtained with the triple-objective capital cost/energy/EI index optimization minimize a number of environmental impact measures while producing results that are comparable in pumping energy use and, in some instances, slightly higher in capital cost when compared to solutions obtained with a double cost/energy optimization in which environmental impact was not considered.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tuori, Danielle;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change is currently the most pressing environmental concern, especially for northern climatic regions like Canada. Climate change impacts a wide variety of environmental factors that in turn alter vegetative processes, like that in cereal grains. As grain kernels weaken due to environmental stress it becomes increasingly susceptible to infection. This review will detail one such type of infection produced by fungi: mycotoxins. Mycotoxins come in several varieties of which five will be examined in this review: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone. Mycotoxins cause many different types of illnesses ranging from gastrointestinal disruption to death. Since mycotoxins affect plants, all consumers are at a possible risk of infection, with the most vulnerable members of the population being children, due to their small body size. Therefore, this review will assess the impact of climate change on mycotoxin contamination in cereal grains and the implications for children’s health in a Canadian context.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Daly, Corinne;
    Country: Canada

    Climate warming will adversely affect Canadian waters and potentially predator-prey interactions in Boreal zone lakes. A series of feeding experiments were conducted at temperatures 18 - 30°C with freshwater macroinvertebrate predators, phantom midge larvae, Chaoborus punctipennis, backswimmer, Buenoa macrotibialis, and zooplankton prey from Swan Lake, Sudbury, Ontario. I wanted to determine the influence of a warming climate on predation rate and composition of predator diets. Unexpectedly, warmer water temperatures did not result in significantly higher predation from macroinvertebrate predators on zooplankton. Electivity calculations showed no general preference or avoidance trends for all species of zooplankton prey from either of the predators. This indicated that prey preference was not a factor in overall predation rate across temperature trials. Principal component analyses revealed that the zooplankton species composition in the diets of C. punctipennis and B. macrotibialis changed with temperature. A comparison of the community composition in the diet with what was available in the environment revealed a strong correlation for both predators. Findings indicate that predators were consuming zooplankton specifically present in their environment. The predators appear to be consuming prey more opportunistically rather than what may be the most energetically profitable for the energy expended to forage and consume prey. This study suggests that in light of climate warming, macroinvertebrate predators, such as the phantom midge larvae and backswimmer, will likely respond to climate-driven changes in zooplankton community composition by switching prey items.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Ghorbanian, Vali;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lees, Kevin;
    Country: Canada

    Ice is a prominent characteristic of water bodies in cold regions. For rivers regulated for hydropower operations, the production of ice particles can result in obstructions and subsequent performance issues during energy production. Rough and thickened ice covers resulting from high flow conditions can also lead to substantial hydraulic losses. While ice formations impact hydropower operations, a river’s flow hydrograph also influences ice processes from freeze-up through break-up. Research investigations into the influence of regulation on ice processes benefits not only hydropower practioners, but also those who are impacted by hydropower operations. Further, understanding these cause-and-affect relationships supports design of innovative tools to quantify the impact of ice on river hydraulics. In this study, a detailed characterization of ice processes is presented for the regulated Upper Nelson River region located at the outlet of Lake Winnipeg in Northern Manitoba, Canada. With a focus on freeze-up and mid-winter processes, this characterization informed design of a 2D numerical modelling methodology to simulate ice-affected winter hydraulics. Model development included simulation of both thermal and dynamic ice phenomenon, which relied on derivation of numerous site-specific hydraulic functions. The presence of significant skim ice runs in this region inspired development of a novel treatment to simulate freeze-up jamming of skim ice floes on very mild-sloped rivers. The modelling methodology shows strong performance in simulating both freeze-up and mid-winter hydraulics, which is a signficiant contribution considering the complexity of this lake-outlet system. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of climate change on river ice hydraulics is included, with future projection of shorter and warmer winters leading to greater cumulative discharge from Lake Winnipeg. While discharge increases may lead to increased power production in future years, concurrent projections of increased inter-annual variability may present new operational challenges. Findings from this original research can be applied not only to the Nelson River, but also other regulated regions that are impacted by river ice.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dean, Darrell Christopher;
    Country: Canada

    With continually increasing concern over anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their effect on global climate, the search for alternative fuels, especially for mobile applications such as in vehicles, is of immediate concern. Herein, research towards hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier is discussed; first, with the investigation of “hybrid” hydrogen storage systems that are meant to provide hydrogen for a fully fuel cell powered vehicle via a chemical reaction; and second, that of a thermally regenerative fuel cell system (TRFC) to partially supplant the energy needs of transport trucks by harnessing engine waste heat. Hybrid storage systems are comprised of a heterocyclic carrier that undergoes endothermic hydrogen release (indoline) and an organic hydride that undergoes exothermic release (amine boranes). Different embodiments are considered, varying in the mechanism of exothermic release (thermolysis vs. hydrolysis) and the mode of combination (physical vs. chemical). A thorough investigation into the effect of catalyst, sterics and temperature on the heterogeneously catalyzed dehydrogenation rate of N-heterocycles was executed. A number of trends with respect to the catalyst identity and the level of steric protection around the nitrogen atom were observed. The study towards a TRFC involved an investigation of the heterogeneous hydrogenation of benzylic ketones. Screening of a myriad of different catalysts was performed, including those with various supports, metals and modifications, and the examination of how both the sterics and electronics of the ketone affect the hydrogenation rate. A rapid hydrogenation at relatively low metal loadings and hydrogen pressures with extreme selectivity (>99.9%) is required. To date, however, such a combination has been elusive. The best selectivity was obtained with commercial Pd/SiO2 (99.99%), yet at a low conversion of 6%, after 1 h under 1 atm of H2 at 100 ˚C. In addition to the poor conversion, SiO2 is not electronically conductive and is therefore not fit for this application. The best viable catalyst, then, was a Pd/Vulcan XC-72 (carbon) catalyst made by the author with an observed 14% conversion and 98% selectivity under the same conditions. However, trends in activity and selectivity with respect to the catalyst and ketone have been characterized herein.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
772 Research products, page 1 of 78
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    James, Leah;
    Country: Canada

    Bythotrephes longimanus is an invasive, macroinvertebrate from Eurasia that was introduced into the Great Lakes region in the mid 1980s. Bythotrephes introductions into lake ecosystems have resulted in substantial changes in zooplankton communities, including declines in species richness, abundance, biomass and production. Changes in zooplankton communities may alter the quantity and quality of prey to other predators such as cisco (Coregonus artedii), a pelagic forage fish. Here, I conduct a current day comparison of cisco populations to determine if prey consumption by cisco differs in the presence of Bythotrephes, and whether changes in diet result in energetic consequences (changes in growth and condition) for cisco. Effects of Bythotrephes on native zooplankton communities have resulted in substantial changes in the variety and proportion biomass of zooplankton and macroinvertebrate prey types in cisco stomachs, which have in turn modified growth of cisco. Cisco taken from invaded lakes achieve greater total lengths but changes in condition were not detected. This effect may be driven by improved growth in the second and subsequent growing seasons, suggesting that growth consequences for young fish (that do not feed on Bythotrephes) are different than for older individuals. Length-at-structure age data indicate that by the end of the first growing season (age 1) cisco achieve comparable total body lengths in invaded and reference lakes, suggesting that food consumption by young cisco remains unchanged by Bythotrephes. Alternatively, young cisco forage may be reduced in the presence of Bythotrephes, resulting in decreased survival and similar growth among individuals that survive to age 1. In contrast, despite changes in the zooplankton community; growth of older fish (≥ age 2) was enhanced in lakes that have Bythotrephes. Improved growth among older cisco (≥ age 2) in invaded lakes may be related to the presence of a newly attainable, high energy prey source (Bythotrephes). Alternatively, enhanced growth may be explained by lower competition due to reduced recruitment of young cisco (≤ age 1) in invaded lakes. Increased knowledge regarding the effects of Bythotrephes on growth of cisco is important in furthering our understanding of its impact on lake ecosystems.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Chen, Lin;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Les infrastructures de transport est essentielle au maintien et à l'expansion des activités sociales et économiques dans les régions circumpolaires. À mesure que le climat se réchauffe, la dégradation du pergélisol sous les remblais a entraîné de graves dommages structuraux à la route, entraînant une augmentation importante des coûts d'entretien et une réduction de la durée de vie des infrastructures. Pendant ce temps, l'advection de chaleur déclenchée par les écoulements d’eau souterrains peut altérer le bilan énergétique du remblai et du pergélisol sous-jacent et modifier le régime thermique des remblais routiers. Cependant, peu de recherches ont été effectuées pour comprendre la synergie entre les processus thermiques de surface et souterrains des remblais routiers des régions froides. L'objectif de cette recherche était de comprendre les interactions thermiques entre l'atmosphère, le remblai routier, les écoulements d’eau et le pergélisol dans le contexte du changement climatique. Cette base, de connaissances est nécessaire pour la conception technique, l'entretien des routes et l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité des infrastructures. Les travaux de recherche ont permis de développer de nouvelles méthodes d'analyse thermique pour caractériser et identifier le rôle de l'advection thermique sur le changement de température d'un remblai routier expérimental au Yukon (Canada) en termes d’intensité, de vitesse et de profondeur de l'impact thermique. Les résultats montrent que l'augmentation de la température due aux flux de chaleur advectifs déclenchés par l’écoulement d'eau peut être jusqu'à deux ordres de grandeur plus rapide qu'en raison du seul réchauffement atmosphérique. La recherche a ensuite présenté un bilan énergétique de surface pour quantifier la quantité d'énergie entrant dans le centre et la pente du remblai avec des épaisseurs et des propriétés de neige variables. Le tout a été appuyé par des observations géothermique de plusieurs années et une grande quantité de données météorologiques. Les résultats illustrent que le bilan énergétique de surface est principalement contrôlé par le rayonnement net et moins par le flux de chaleur sensible. Le flux de chaleur transmis à la pente du remblai diminue de façon exponentielle avec l'augmentation de l'épaisseur de la neige et diminue de façon linéaire avec l’installation du couvert de neige et la longueur de la période d’enneigement. De plus, un modèle de bilan énergétique de surface et un modèle cryohydrologique entièrement couplé ont été développés pour étudier l'impact thermique de l'advection de chaleur associée à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine sur le dégel du pergélisol et le développement de taliks (c.-à-d. zone perpétuellement non gelée dans les zones de pergélisol). Le modèle couplé a réussi à reproduire la tendance à la hausse du plafond du pergélisol (erreur absolue moyenne <0,2 m) au cours de la période 1997-2018. Les résultats montrent que l'advection de chaleur a fourni une source d'énergie supplémentaire pour accélérer le dégel du pergélisol et a doublé le taux d’augmentation de l’épaisseur de la couche active 0,1 m·a-1 à 0,19 m·a-1, par rapport au scénario où aucun écoulement d'eau ne se produit. Le talik s'est initialement formé et développé en fonction du temps sous l’effet combiné des écoulement d’eau, de l'isolation de la neige, de la construction de la route et du réchauffement climatique. Le débit d'eau souterraine a relié des corps isolés de talik et a amené le remblai de la route dans un état thermique irréversible, en raison de la rétroaction de l'eau liquide (effet de chaleur latente) piégée dans le talik. Ces résultats montrent l'importance de l'advection de chaleur induite par l'écoulement d'eau sur le régime thermique de la sous-couche (c.-à-d. la couche de matériau de remblai) et du sous-sol (c.-à-d. le matériau natif sous un remblai) du remblai lorsque le remblai routier intercepte le drainage local. De plus, les résultats obtenus soulignent la nécessité de coupler les processus thermiques de surface et souterrains dans le but d'évaluer la stabilité thermique des routes subarctiques. Transportation infrastructure is crucial to maintaining and expanding the social and economic activities in circumpolar regions. As the climate warms, degradation of the permafrost causes severe structural damages to the road embankment, leading to large increases in maintenance costs and reductions in its lifespan. Meanwhile, heat advection triggered by mobile water flow can alter energy balance of the embankment and underlying permafrost and modify the thermal regime of road embankments. However, little research has been done to understand the synergy between surface and subsurface thermal processes of cold region road embankments. The overall goal of this research was to elucidate thermal interactions between the atmosphere, the road embankment, mobile water flow, and permafrost within the context of climate change. This knowledge is needed for engineered design, road maintenance, and infrastructure vulnerability assessment. The research first used new thermal analysis to characterize and identify the role of heat advection on temperature change of an experimental road embankment, Yukon, Canada in terms of magnitude, rate and thermal impact depth. It shows that soil temperature increase due to advective heat fluxes triggered by mobile water flow can be up to two orders of magnitude faster than due to atmospheric warming only. The research then presented a novel surface energy balance to quantify the amount of ground heat flux entering the embankment center and slope with varying snow depth and properties, supported by multi-year thermal and meteorological observations. My results illustrate that the surface energy budget is mainly controlled by net radiation, and less by the sensible heat flux. The ground heat flux released at embankment slope exponentially decreased with the increase of snow depth, and was linearly reduced with earlier snow cover and longer snow-covered period. A fully integrated surface energy balance and cryohydrogeological model was implemented to investigate the thermal impact of heat advection associated with subsurface water flow on permafrost thaw and talik (i.e., perennially unfrozen zone in permafrost areas) development. The integrated model successfully reproduced the observed increasing trend of the active layer depth (mean absolute error < 0.2 m) over the 1997-2018 period. The results show that heat advection provided an additional energy source to expedite permafrost thaw, doubling the increasing rate of permafrost table depth from 0.1 m·a-1 to 0.19 m·a-1, compared with the scenario where no water flow occurs. Talik formation and development occurred over time under the combined effect of subsurface water flow, snow insulation, road construction and climate warming. Subsurface water flow connected isolated talik bodies and triggered an irreversible thermal state for the road embankment, due to a local feedback mechanism (latent heat effect) of trapped, unfrozen water in talik. These findings elucidate the importance of heat advection induced by mobile water flow on the thermal regime of embankment subbase (i.e., a layer of fill material) and subgrade (i.e., the native material under an embankment) when the road embankment intercepts the local drainage. Furthermore, the obtained results emphasize the need to couple surface and subsurface thermal processes to evaluate the thermal stability of sub-Arctic roads.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Herstein, Lesley;
    Country: Canada

    Municipal water distribution system (WDS) expansion is often focused on increasing system capacity with designs that best meet hydraulic requirements at the least cost. Increasing public awareness regarding global warming and environmental degradation is making environmental impact an important factor in decision-making for municipalities. There is thus a growing need to consider environmental impacts alongside cost and hydraulic requirements in the expansion and design of WDSs. As a result, the multiplicity of environmental impacts to consider in WDS expansion can complicate the decisions faced by water utilities. For example, a water utility may wish to consider environmental policy issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, non-renewable resource use, and releases to land, water, and air in WDS expansion planning. This thesis outlines a multi-objective optimization approach for WDS design and expansion that balances the objectives of capital cost, annual pumping energy use, and environmental impact minimization, while meeting hydraulic constraints. An environmental impact index that aggregates multiple environmental measures was incorporated as an environmental impact objective function in the multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm. The environmental impact index was developed to reflect stakeholder prioritization of specific environmental policy issues. The evaluation of the environmental impact index and its application to the WDS expansion problem was demonstrated with a water transmission system example. The environmental impact index and multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) optimization algorithm were applied to the “Anytown” network expansion problem. Preliminary results suggest that solutions obtained with the triple-objective capital cost/energy/EI index optimization minimize a number of environmental impact measures while producing results that are comparable in pumping energy use and, in some instances, slightly higher in capital cost when compared to solutions obtained with a double cost/energy optimization in which environmental impact was not considered.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tuori, Danielle;
    Country: Canada

    Climate change is currently the most pressing environmental concern, especially for northern climatic regions like Canada. Climate change impacts a wide variety of environmental factors that in turn alter vegetative processes, like that in cereal grains. As grain kernels weaken due to environmental stress it becomes increasingly susceptible to infection. This review will detail one such type of infection produced by fungi: mycotoxins. Mycotoxins come in several varieties of which five will be examined in this review: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone. Mycotoxins cause many different types of illnesses ranging from gastrointestinal disruption to death. Since mycotoxins affect plants, all consumers are at a possible risk of infection, with the most vulnerable members of the population being children, due to their small body size. Therefore, this review will assess the impact of climate change on mycotoxin contamination in cereal grains and the implications for children’s health in a Canadian context.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jazwiec, Alicja N.;
    Country: Canada
  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Daly, Corinne;
    Country: Canada

    Climate warming will adversely affect Canadian waters and potentially predator-prey interactions in Boreal zone lakes. A series of feeding experiments were conducted at temperatures 18 - 30°C with freshwater macroinvertebrate predators, phantom midge larvae, Chaoborus punctipennis, backswimmer, Buenoa macrotibialis, and zooplankton prey from Swan Lake, Sudbury, Ontario. I wanted to determine the influence of a warming climate on predation rate and composition of predator diets. Unexpectedly, warmer water temperatures did not result in significantly higher predation from macroinvertebrate predators on zooplankton. Electivity calculations showed no general preference or avoidance trends for all species of zooplankton prey from either of the predators. This indicated that prey preference was not a factor in overall predation rate across temperature trials. Principal component analyses revealed that the zooplankton species composition in the diets of C. punctipennis and B. macrotibialis changed with temperature. A comparison of the community composition in the diet with what was available in the environment revealed a strong correlation for both predators. Findings indicate that predators were consuming zooplankton specifically present in their environment. The predators appear to be consuming prey more opportunistically rather than what may be the most energetically profitable for the energy expended to forage and consume prey. This study suggests that in light of climate warming, macroinvertebrate predators, such as the phantom midge larvae and backswimmer, will likely respond to climate-driven changes in zooplankton community composition by switching prey items.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Ghorbanian, Vali;
    Country: Canada
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lees, Kevin;
    Country: Canada

    Ice is a prominent characteristic of water bodies in cold regions. For rivers regulated for hydropower operations, the production of ice particles can result in obstructions and subsequent performance issues during energy production. Rough and thickened ice covers resulting from high flow conditions can also lead to substantial hydraulic losses. While ice formations impact hydropower operations, a river’s flow hydrograph also influences ice processes from freeze-up through break-up. Research investigations into the influence of regulation on ice processes benefits not only hydropower practioners, but also those who are impacted by hydropower operations. Further, understanding these cause-and-affect relationships supports design of innovative tools to quantify the impact of ice on river hydraulics. In this study, a detailed characterization of ice processes is presented for the regulated Upper Nelson River region located at the outlet of Lake Winnipeg in Northern Manitoba, Canada. With a focus on freeze-up and mid-winter processes, this characterization informed design of a 2D numerical modelling methodology to simulate ice-affected winter hydraulics. Model development included simulation of both thermal and dynamic ice phenomenon, which relied on derivation of numerous site-specific hydraulic functions. The presence of significant skim ice runs in this region inspired development of a novel treatment to simulate freeze-up jamming of skim ice floes on very mild-sloped rivers. The modelling methodology shows strong performance in simulating both freeze-up and mid-winter hydraulics, which is a signficiant contribution considering the complexity of this lake-outlet system. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of climate change on river ice hydraulics is included, with future projection of shorter and warmer winters leading to greater cumulative discharge from Lake Winnipeg. While discharge increases may lead to increased power production in future years, concurrent projections of increased inter-annual variability may present new operational challenges. Findings from this original research can be applied not only to the Nelson River, but also other regulated regions that are impacted by river ice.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dean, Darrell Christopher;
    Country: Canada

    With continually increasing concern over anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their effect on global climate, the search for alternative fuels, especially for mobile applications such as in vehicles, is of immediate concern. Herein, research towards hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier is discussed; first, with the investigation of “hybrid” hydrogen storage systems that are meant to provide hydrogen for a fully fuel cell powered vehicle via a chemical reaction; and second, that of a thermally regenerative fuel cell system (TRFC) to partially supplant the energy needs of transport trucks by harnessing engine waste heat. Hybrid storage systems are comprised of a heterocyclic carrier that undergoes endothermic hydrogen release (indoline) and an organic hydride that undergoes exothermic release (amine boranes). Different embodiments are considered, varying in the mechanism of exothermic release (thermolysis vs. hydrolysis) and the mode of combination (physical vs. chemical). A thorough investigation into the effect of catalyst, sterics and temperature on the heterogeneously catalyzed dehydrogenation rate of N-heterocycles was executed. A number of trends with respect to the catalyst identity and the level of steric protection around the nitrogen atom were observed. The study towards a TRFC involved an investigation of the heterogeneous hydrogenation of benzylic ketones. Screening of a myriad of different catalysts was performed, including those with various supports, metals and modifications, and the examination of how both the sterics and electronics of the ketone affect the hydrogenation rate. A rapid hydrogenation at relatively low metal loadings and hydrogen pressures with extreme selectivity (>99.9%) is required. To date, however, such a combination has been elusive. The best selectivity was obtained with commercial Pd/SiO2 (99.99%), yet at a low conversion of 6%, after 1 h under 1 atm of H2 at 100 ˚C. In addition to the poor conversion, SiO2 is not electronically conductive and is therefore not fit for this application. The best viable catalyst, then, was a Pd/Vulcan XC-72 (carbon) catalyst made by the author with an observed 14% conversion and 98% selectivity under the same conditions. However, trends in activity and selectivity with respect to the catalyst and ketone have been characterized herein.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Knapp, A. K.; Collins, S. L.; Turkington, R.; Long, R.; White, S.; Cahill, J. F.; Carlyle, C. N.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Luo, Y.; Casper, B. B. Cleland, E.; +7 more
    Country: Canada

    There is a growing realization among scientists and policy makers that an increased understanding of today's environmental issues requires international collaboration and data synthesis. Meta-analyses have served this role in ecology for more than a decade, but the different experimental methodologies researchers use can limit the strength of the meta-analytic approach. Considering the global nature of many environmental issues, a new collaborative approach, which we call coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs), is needed that will control for both spatial and temporal scale, and that encompasses large geographic ranges. Ecological CDEs, involving standardized, controlled protocols, have the potential to advance our understanding of general principles in ecology and environmental science.