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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Croston, Judith H.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana M.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Penna, R. F.; Sivakoff, Gregory Robert; Jordán, Andrés; Brassington, Nicola J.; +12 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada

    We present new results on the shock around the south-west radio lobe of Centaurus A using data from the Chandra Very Large Programme observations (740 ks total observing time). The X-ray spectrum of the emission around the outer south-western edge of the lobe is well described by a single power-law model with Galactic absorption – thermal models are strongly disfavoured, except in the region closest to the nucleus. We conclude that a significant fraction of the X-ray emission around the south-west part of the lobe is synchrotron, not thermal. We infer that in the region where the shock is strongest and the ambient gas density lowest, the inflation of the lobe is accelerating particles to X-ray synchrotron emitting energies, similar to supernova remnants such as SN1006. This interpretation resolves a problem of our earlier, purely thermal, interpretation for this emission, namely that the density compression across the shock was required to be much larger than the theoretically expected factor of 4. We describe a self-consistent model for the lobe dynamics and shock properties using the shell of thermal emission to the north of the lobe to estimate the lobe pressure. Based on this model, we estimate that the lobe is expanding to the south-west with a velocity of ∼2600 km s−1 , roughly Mach 8 relative to the ambient medium. We discuss the spatial variation of spectral index across the shock region, concluding that our observations constrain γmax for the accelerated particles to be ∼108 at the strongest part of the shock, consistent with expectations from diffusive shock acceleration theory. Finally, we consider the implications of these results for the production of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and TeV emission from Centaurus A, concluding that the shock front region is unlikely to be a significant source of UHECRs, but that TeV emission from this region is expected at levels comparable to current limits at TeV energies, for plausible assumed magnetic field strengths. ‘The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com '. Copyright Blackwell Publishing / Royal Astronomical Society. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14715.x Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhang, Zhongli; Gilfanov, Marat; Voss, Rasmus; Sivakoff, Gregory Robert; Kraft, Ralph P.; Brassington, Nicola J.; Kundu, Arunav; Jordán, Andrés Jordán; Sarazin, Craig, L.;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada

    Aims. Based on the archival data from the Chandra observations of nearby galaxies, we study different sub populations of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) - dynamically formed systems in globular clusters (GCs) and in the nucleus of M 31 and (presumably primordial) X-ray binaries in the fields of galaxies. Our aim is to produce accurate luminosity distributions of X-ray binaries in different environments, suitable for quantitative comparison with each other and with the output of population synthesis calculations. Methods. Our sample includes seven nearby galaxies (M 31, Maffei 1, Centaurus A, M 81, NGC 3379, NGC 4697, and NGC 4278) and the Milky Way, which together provide relatively uniform coverage down to the luminosity limit of 10(35) erg s(-1). In total we have detected 185 LMXBs associated with GCs, 35 X-ray sources in the nucleus of M 31, and 998 field sources of which similar to 365 are expected to be background AGN. We combine these data, taking special care to accurately account for X-ray and optical incompleteness corrections and the removal of the contamination from the cosmic X-ray background sources, to produce luminosity distributions of X-ray binaries in different environments to far greater accuracy than has been obtained previously. Results. We found that luminosity distributions of GC and field LMXBs differ throughout the entire luminosity range, the fraction of faint (log(L-X) < 37) sources among the former being similar to 4 times less than in the field population. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of sources in the nucleus of M 31 is similar to that of GC sources at the faint end but differs at the bright end, with the M 31 nucleus hosting significantly fewer bright sources. We discuss the possible origin and potential implications of these results. Original article can be found at: http://www.aanda.org/ Copyright The European Southern Observatory Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crymble, Adam;
    Publisher: Network in Canadian History & Environment
    Countries: Canada, United Kingdom

    The citation management program Zotero is a wonderful tool for researchers everywhere. Citations from the web may be "grabbed" simply by clicking on a in your web browser address bar. The citation information displayed on the screen is then saved to your Zotero collection with little or no additional effort. However, for this to work, each and every website must either follow standardized metadata guidelines, or must have its own personal "translator" that tells Zotero which words on the screen correspond with which bibliographic fields. Computers are stupid; translators make them smart. Most users who know about the citation capture feature are enthralled by it and want more. The Zotero forums receive multiple requests daily from users hoping their favourite site will be given this capability. Unfortunately, there just aren't enough Zotero programmers around to keep up with the demand for translators, and more intensive coding-projects take priority. Luckily, Zotero translators are fairly easy to create (as far as computer programming goes). This guide seeks to help take some of that load away from the Zotero staff by teaching the community of Zotero users how to create their own translators and to share them with others.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Croston, Judith H.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana M.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Penna, R. F.; Sivakoff, Gregory Robert; Jordán, Andrés; Brassington, Nicola J.; +12 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada

    We present new results on the shock around the south-west radio lobe of Centaurus A using data from the Chandra Very Large Programme observations (740 ks total observing time). The X-ray spectrum of the emission around the outer south-western edge of the lobe is well described by a single power-law model with Galactic absorption – thermal models are strongly disfavoured, except in the region closest to the nucleus. We conclude that a significant fraction of the X-ray emission around the south-west part of the lobe is synchrotron, not thermal. We infer that in the region where the shock is strongest and the ambient gas density lowest, the inflation of the lobe is accelerating particles to X-ray synchrotron emitting energies, similar to supernova remnants such as SN1006. This interpretation resolves a problem of our earlier, purely thermal, interpretation for this emission, namely that the density compression across the shock was required to be much larger than the theoretically expected factor of 4. We describe a self-consistent model for the lobe dynamics and shock properties using the shell of thermal emission to the north of the lobe to estimate the lobe pressure. Based on this model, we estimate that the lobe is expanding to the south-west with a velocity of ∼2600 km s−1 , roughly Mach 8 relative to the ambient medium. We discuss the spatial variation of spectral index across the shock region, concluding that our observations constrain γmax for the accelerated particles to be ∼108 at the strongest part of the shock, consistent with expectations from diffusive shock acceleration theory. Finally, we consider the implications of these results for the production of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and TeV emission from Centaurus A, concluding that the shock front region is unlikely to be a significant source of UHECRs, but that TeV emission from this region is expected at levels comparable to current limits at TeV energies, for plausible assumed magnetic field strengths. ‘The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com '. Copyright Blackwell Publishing / Royal Astronomical Society. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14715.x Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhang, Zhongli; Gilfanov, Marat; Voss, Rasmus; Sivakoff, Gregory Robert; Kraft, Ralph P.; Brassington, Nicola J.; Kundu, Arunav; Jordán, Andrés Jordán; Sarazin, Craig, L.;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada

    Aims. Based on the archival data from the Chandra observations of nearby galaxies, we study different sub populations of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) - dynamically formed systems in globular clusters (GCs) and in the nucleus of M 31 and (presumably primordial) X-ray binaries in the fields of galaxies. Our aim is to produce accurate luminosity distributions of X-ray binaries in different environments, suitable for quantitative comparison with each other and with the output of population synthesis calculations. Methods. Our sample includes seven nearby galaxies (M 31, Maffei 1, Centaurus A, M 81, NGC 3379, NGC 4697, and NGC 4278) and the Milky Way, which together provide relatively uniform coverage down to the luminosity limit of 10(35) erg s(-1). In total we have detected 185 LMXBs associated with GCs, 35 X-ray sources in the nucleus of M 31, and 998 field sources of which similar to 365 are expected to be background AGN. We combine these data, taking special care to accurately account for X-ray and optical incompleteness corrections and the removal of the contamination from the cosmic X-ray background sources, to produce luminosity distributions of X-ray binaries in different environments to far greater accuracy than has been obtained previously. Results. We found that luminosity distributions of GC and field LMXBs differ throughout the entire luminosity range, the fraction of faint (log(L-X) < 37) sources among the former being similar to 4 times less than in the field population. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of sources in the nucleus of M 31 is similar to that of GC sources at the faint end but differs at the bright end, with the M 31 nucleus hosting significantly fewer bright sources. We discuss the possible origin and potential implications of these results. Original article can be found at: http://www.aanda.org/ Copyright The European Southern Observatory Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Crymble, Adam;
    Publisher: Network in Canadian History & Environment
    Countries: Canada, United Kingdom

    The citation management program Zotero is a wonderful tool for researchers everywhere. Citations from the web may be "grabbed" simply by clicking on a in your web browser address bar. The citation information displayed on the screen is then saved to your Zotero collection with little or no additional effort. However, for this to work, each and every website must either follow standardized metadata guidelines, or must have its own personal "translator" that tells Zotero which words on the screen correspond with which bibliographic fields. Computers are stupid; translators make them smart. Most users who know about the citation capture feature are enthralled by it and want more. The Zotero forums receive multiple requests daily from users hoping their favourite site will be given this capability. Unfortunately, there just aren't enough Zotero programmers around to keep up with the demand for translators, and more intensive coding-projects take priority. Luckily, Zotero translators are fairly easy to create (as far as computer programming goes). This guide seeks to help take some of that load away from the Zotero staff by teaching the community of Zotero users how to create their own translators and to share them with others.