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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederic Fovet;
    Publisher: Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies
    Country: Canada

    Sustainability in Higher Education is usually interpreted as a concept applying solely to operations management and energy policy. Though the applicability of the concept to social justice is immediately tangible, few campuses have found organic and pragmatic ways to extend principles of sustainability to their equity, diversity or inclusion practices, or to convince their community of the need to do so. This study examines the unique experience of North American campus having attempted this progressive osmosis between the two concepts. Access has represented the opportunity for this rethink. As individual, retroactive accommodations become increasingly obsolete when it comes to providing access to learning to large number of students with specific needs entering post-secondary education, sustainability has become an increasingly appealing lens with which to devise a new framework for inclusion seeking systemic change in pedagogical practices. The North American campus in question implemented a proactive drive for the implementation of Universal Design for Learning from 2011 and this paper presents the analysis of the various and complex ways access and sustainability have become entwined in campus policies. The outcomes are particularly relevant for the Global South in that it may encourage Higher Education institutions in developing countries to avoid the temporary appeal of medical model based measures of inclusion and the precedents set in the Global North over the last two decades, and to focus instead on social model based policies that seek the development of sustainable and inclusive teaching practices from the onset. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Littlemore, Richard;
    Country: Canada

    Hope is often credited as an inspiration for action and, in difficult circumstances, a protection against despair. But ill-considered hope can be an unreliable helper. If people choose only to hope for a happy outcome, rather than acting in their own interest, they risk losing the opportunity to improve their situation. Putting faith in hope alone, they may also find that, after crossing a critical marker, hope’s protection evaporates, suddenly and at great emotional cost. In that context and in the face of the gathering threat of climate change, this thesis records the search for a strategy that is better than hope – more active, robust and resilient. The search, including interviews with five high-profile and highly accomplished exemplars, suggests there might be value in simply recognizing the full extent of the threat and then embracing action in pursuit of a goal that is worthy, irrespective of a hoped-for result.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander, Don;
    Country: Canada

    In the past fifty years, various concepts have emerged that have the potential to assist societies in achieving greater sustainability. In this article I will briefly review the evolution of the bioregion and biosphere reserve concepts, look at definitional issues, at their similarities and differences, and at their relative strengths and weaknesses as vehicles for promoting the greater sustainability of human societies. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/5436/Bioregions.pdf?sequence=4

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Susan Morrissey Wyse; Runa Das; Christina E. Hoicka; Yuxu Zhao; Maria-Louise McMaster;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Country: Canada

    The diffusion of low-carbon innovations, including innovative products and services, is required to accelerate a low-carbon energy transition. These innovations also have the potential to alleviate and perpetuate existing social inequities, calling into question their “justness.” Energy justice is a useful analytical tool for framing justice questions related to energy. In this paper, we ask whether demand-side low-carbon energy innovations are meeting energy justice criteria. To address this question, this study develops four indicators from existing energy justice frameworks and applies them to a range of demand-side innovations offered to energy users in Ontario. The indicators are used to assess innovation availability, affordability, information, and involvement. Innovations were identified using surveys and desk research across Ontario's energy technology innovation system (ETIS). One hundred twenty-two innovations are analyzed for these four indicators, and according to intended innovation users and innovation providers. Findings suggest that three of the four indicators—availability, affordability and information are broadly being addressed, while involvement was more difficult to establish. However, the ETIS may be perpetuating inequities through an over emphasis of innovations for particular energy users, such as private businesses, alongside under-emphasis on potentially marginalized actors, such as low-income households and renters. Furthermore, government-delivered, publicly owned or regulated innovation providers place a greater emphasis on energy justice, including the provision of innovations for marginalized actors. This study aids our understanding of energy justice in low-carbon energy innovations and is critical given that in the context of funding cuts to public services, there may be an increased reliance on decentralized actors. The consideration of justice gaps that emerge through such decentralization should not be overlooked. Our findings suggest that within Ontario's ETIS, who provides innovations matters. Given the insights presented in this study, this research approach and the developed indicators could be applied to other contexts and socio-technical systems. The application of energy justice indicators, derived from existing scholarship, therefore presents an important opportunity to address current and understudied practical energy challenges. Citation: Wyse SM, Das RR, Hoicka CE, Zhao Y and McMaster M-L (2021) Investigating Energy Justice in Demand-Side Low-Carbon Innovations in Ontario. Front. Sustain. Cities 3:633122. doi: 10.3389/frsc.2021.633122 Copyright © 2021 Wyse, Das, Hoicka, Zhao and McMaster. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0). First publication by Frontiers Media. The definitive version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.3389/frsc.2021.633122

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Doan-Prévost, Julie;
    Country: Canada

    Several regulatory policies have been implemented in the past five years on methane mitigation and oil sands industry emission in Alberta, Canada; however, most effective technologies in methane reduction remain to be explored in the context of these new policies in the Alberta oil sands industry. The purpose of this research was to determine the most effective technologies, based on economic and environmental criteria, to mitigate methane emissions from Alberta’s upstream oil sands processes. This was achieved through qualitative analysis of current technologies, and the development and application of a qualitative risk analysis and quantitative cost-benefit analysis considering economic and environmental factors. I concluded that high risk technologies have the lowest ratio of cost to environmental benefit and suggest that more effective technologies incur a greater risk to the industry; conversely, precise emission inventories need to be completed in order to identify areas of high emissions in individual cases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hethey, Robin;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Consumers are increasingly conscious of the toll that plastic has had on the environment, and packaging waste in particular is now under global scrutiny for its devastating effects. Although considered a scientific wonder for most of the last century and unquestioningly tied to modernity and convenience, many consumers are grappling with their plastic consumption as they come to terms with the extent of the environmental crisis. Increasingly, consumers worldwide are looking at their own behaviours and resolving to do what they can, including efforts to reduce and refuse plastic packaging. This study explores my experiences with plastic-free shopping by learning new behaviours, in an effort to develop lasting habits. Using a social practice theory approach, this autoethnographic account of my experience of a 30-day challenge, shares the complexities of trying to change my grocery shopping behaviours and how the ripple effects of these new behaviours were experienced in other areas of life. This research suggests that plastic-free shopping has the potential to be a driver of social change, but it exists within larger societal practices that present interesting challenges for individual sustainability. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/23538/Hethey.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tugaine, Annet;
    Country: Canada

    Energy is the dominant climate change contributor accounting for around 60% of total global gas emissions. Given the growing concerns and complexities associated with climate change, most countries worldwide have committed to delivering clean energy. One way to attain this is to invest in energy-efficient technologies such as efficient light bulb technologies. This study’s question was; what determines households’ energy efficiency light bulb adoption in Kiwatule? The main objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour and attitudes of households adopting energy-efficient light bulbs in Kiwatule. The research findings indicated financial motivation as the major determinant of efficient light bulb adoption. To facilitate this, the study suggested that the Ugandan government enacts the current energy light bulb bill and also extends efficient light bulb subsidies to all households. Keywords: Energy efficiency, efficient light bulbs, determinants, adoption, household

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lee, Jonathan Raymond;
    Country: Canada

    Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) frequently use anaerobic digestion (AD) to break down organics to reduce the total volume of biosolids produced. As population increases, cost of biosolids disposal increases while regulatory limits tighten. Bioaugmentation is an innovative process that enhances the biological activity within AD systems to improve performance through the addition of biocatalytic compounds (BC). Currently there is a knowledge gap regarding how the routine use of BCs, containing a consortium of bacteria and enzymes, applied directly within the AD system can affect the system’s performance and its by-products (biogas and biosolids). This study reviews the impact of routine bioaugmentation applications using a commercial grade BC on an AD system. An analysis of two full-scale AD systems inoculated with said BC has been completed to determine impacts on biosolids, and biogas production. This study provides significant information substantiating the claim that bioaugmentation enhances AD performance and long-term economic viability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Silva, Lisa Shiranthi;
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand the perspectives of the environment among Indo-Canadian, Sri Lankan-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian immigrant communities who reside in Surrey, British Columbia. Environmental perception has commonly been defined as awareness of, or feelings about, the environment, or “the way in which an individual perceives the environment; the process of evaluating and storing information received about the environment” (Oxford Reference, 2019). By identifying key stakeholders within these communities, I explored perspectives of environmentalism and concerns for the improvement of the health of the environment, through a series of open-ended semi-structured interviews. The participants in this research demonstrated a willingness to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment. In addition, they acknowledged their lack of awareness regarding consequences of environmentally harmful activities that were occurring during their childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. The findings help identify the issues that prevent inclusive environmentalism in Surrey in these targeted immigrant populations. They could also assist policy makers and environmental programs to implement more effective approaches for raising awareness and promoting more environmentalism among the three diasporas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nelson, Bryan Jeffrey;
    Country: Canada

    As a consequence of climate change, many populations of sockeye salmon in the U. S. Pacific Northwest are now experiencing significantly warmer river conditions during their spawning migration from the ocean to their freshwater spawning grounds compared to the 30 year average. The Columbia River witnessed an extended heat wave in 2015 and low flows pushed water temperatures to 21° C, which ended up killing 90 percent of the adult sockeye salmon returning to spawn in their natal streams in the summer months. Fish passage delays at hydro-electric dams potentially compounded this effect. The purpose of this study was to determine if water temperatures had a delay effect on run-timing and potential returning sockeye salmon population mortality in the Snake River in the Columbia Basin. Run timing and delays in migration patterns were examined over the years 2014-2018 in order to notice any trends in migration patterns. Results indicated that, as water temperatures increased, so did the travel time of returning adult sockeye salmon migrating between Bonneville Dam and Lower Granite Dam. Increased water temperatures were associated with migration delays, increasing them by as much as ten days more than the average in some years. Qualitative observations of fish vigor on migrating fish through fish windows also yielded signs of fungal disease on a small number of sockeye salmon during warmer water temperature outbreaks.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
23 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frederic Fovet;
    Publisher: Indonesian Journal of Disability Studies
    Country: Canada

    Sustainability in Higher Education is usually interpreted as a concept applying solely to operations management and energy policy. Though the applicability of the concept to social justice is immediately tangible, few campuses have found organic and pragmatic ways to extend principles of sustainability to their equity, diversity or inclusion practices, or to convince their community of the need to do so. This study examines the unique experience of North American campus having attempted this progressive osmosis between the two concepts. Access has represented the opportunity for this rethink. As individual, retroactive accommodations become increasingly obsolete when it comes to providing access to learning to large number of students with specific needs entering post-secondary education, sustainability has become an increasingly appealing lens with which to devise a new framework for inclusion seeking systemic change in pedagogical practices. The North American campus in question implemented a proactive drive for the implementation of Universal Design for Learning from 2011 and this paper presents the analysis of the various and complex ways access and sustainability have become entwined in campus policies. The outcomes are particularly relevant for the Global South in that it may encourage Higher Education institutions in developing countries to avoid the temporary appeal of medical model based measures of inclusion and the precedents set in the Global North over the last two decades, and to focus instead on social model based policies that seek the development of sustainable and inclusive teaching practices from the onset. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Littlemore, Richard;
    Country: Canada

    Hope is often credited as an inspiration for action and, in difficult circumstances, a protection against despair. But ill-considered hope can be an unreliable helper. If people choose only to hope for a happy outcome, rather than acting in their own interest, they risk losing the opportunity to improve their situation. Putting faith in hope alone, they may also find that, after crossing a critical marker, hope’s protection evaporates, suddenly and at great emotional cost. In that context and in the face of the gathering threat of climate change, this thesis records the search for a strategy that is better than hope – more active, robust and resilient. The search, including interviews with five high-profile and highly accomplished exemplars, suggests there might be value in simply recognizing the full extent of the threat and then embracing action in pursuit of a goal that is worthy, irrespective of a hoped-for result.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander, Don;
    Country: Canada

    In the past fifty years, various concepts have emerged that have the potential to assist societies in achieving greater sustainability. In this article I will briefly review the evolution of the bioregion and biosphere reserve concepts, look at definitional issues, at their similarities and differences, and at their relative strengths and weaknesses as vehicles for promoting the greater sustainability of human societies. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/5436/Bioregions.pdf?sequence=4

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Susan Morrissey Wyse; Runa Das; Christina E. Hoicka; Yuxu Zhao; Maria-Louise McMaster;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Country: Canada

    The diffusion of low-carbon innovations, including innovative products and services, is required to accelerate a low-carbon energy transition. These innovations also have the potential to alleviate and perpetuate existing social inequities, calling into question their “justness.” Energy justice is a useful analytical tool for framing justice questions related to energy. In this paper, we ask whether demand-side low-carbon energy innovations are meeting energy justice criteria. To address this question, this study develops four indicators from existing energy justice frameworks and applies them to a range of demand-side innovations offered to energy users in Ontario. The indicators are used to assess innovation availability, affordability, information, and involvement. Innovations were identified using surveys and desk research across Ontario's energy technology innovation system (ETIS). One hundred twenty-two innovations are analyzed for these four indicators, and according to intended innovation users and innovation providers. Findings suggest that three of the four indicators—availability, affordability and information are broadly being addressed, while involvement was more difficult to establish. However, the ETIS may be perpetuating inequities through an over emphasis of innovations for particular energy users, such as private businesses, alongside under-emphasis on potentially marginalized actors, such as low-income households and renters. Furthermore, government-delivered, publicly owned or regulated innovation providers place a greater emphasis on energy justice, including the provision of innovations for marginalized actors. This study aids our understanding of energy justice in low-carbon energy innovations and is critical given that in the context of funding cuts to public services, there may be an increased reliance on decentralized actors. The consideration of justice gaps that emerge through such decentralization should not be overlooked. Our findings suggest that within Ontario's ETIS, who provides innovations matters. Given the insights presented in this study, this research approach and the developed indicators could be applied to other contexts and socio-technical systems. The application of energy justice indicators, derived from existing scholarship, therefore presents an important opportunity to address current and understudied practical energy challenges. Citation: Wyse SM, Das RR, Hoicka CE, Zhao Y and McMaster M-L (2021) Investigating Energy Justice in Demand-Side Low-Carbon Innovations in Ontario. Front. Sustain. Cities 3:633122. doi: 10.3389/frsc.2021.633122 Copyright © 2021 Wyse, Das, Hoicka, Zhao and McMaster. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0). First publication by Frontiers Media. The definitive version of record is available at https://doi.org/10.3389/frsc.2021.633122

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Doan-Prévost, Julie;
    Country: Canada

    Several regulatory policies have been implemented in the past five years on methane mitigation and oil sands industry emission in Alberta, Canada; however, most effective technologies in methane reduction remain to be explored in the context of these new policies in the Alberta oil sands industry. The purpose of this research was to determine the most effective technologies, based on economic and environmental criteria, to mitigate methane emissions from Alberta’s upstream oil sands processes. This was achieved through qualitative analysis of current technologies, and the development and application of a qualitative risk analysis and quantitative cost-benefit analysis considering economic and environmental factors. I concluded that high risk technologies have the lowest ratio of cost to environmental benefit and suggest that more effective technologies incur a greater risk to the industry; conversely, precise emission inventories need to be completed in order to identify areas of high emissions in individual cases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hethey, Robin;
    Publisher: Electronic version published by Vancouver Island University
    Country: Canada

    Consumers are increasingly conscious of the toll that plastic has had on the environment, and packaging waste in particular is now under global scrutiny for its devastating effects. Although considered a scientific wonder for most of the last century and unquestioningly tied to modernity and convenience, many consumers are grappling with their plastic consumption as they come to terms with the extent of the environmental crisis. Increasingly, consumers worldwide are looking at their own behaviours and resolving to do what they can, including efforts to reduce and refuse plastic packaging. This study explores my experiences with plastic-free shopping by learning new behaviours, in an effort to develop lasting habits. Using a social practice theory approach, this autoethnographic account of my experience of a 30-day challenge, shares the complexities of trying to change my grocery shopping behaviours and how the ripple effects of these new behaviours were experienced in other areas of life. This research suggests that plastic-free shopping has the potential to be a driver of social change, but it exists within larger societal practices that present interesting challenges for individual sustainability. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/23538/Hethey.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tugaine, Annet;
    Country: Canada

    Energy is the dominant climate change contributor accounting for around 60% of total global gas emissions. Given the growing concerns and complexities associated with climate change, most countries worldwide have committed to delivering clean energy. One way to attain this is to invest in energy-efficient technologies such as efficient light bulb technologies. This study’s question was; what determines households’ energy efficiency light bulb adoption in Kiwatule? The main objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour and attitudes of households adopting energy-efficient light bulbs in Kiwatule. The research findings indicated financial motivation as the major determinant of efficient light bulb adoption. To facilitate this, the study suggested that the Ugandan government enacts the current energy light bulb bill and also extends efficient light bulb subsidies to all households. Keywords: Energy efficiency, efficient light bulbs, determinants, adoption, household

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lee, Jonathan Raymond;
    Country: Canada

    Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) frequently use anaerobic digestion (AD) to break down organics to reduce the total volume of biosolids produced. As population increases, cost of biosolids disposal increases while regulatory limits tighten. Bioaugmentation is an innovative process that enhances the biological activity within AD systems to improve performance through the addition of biocatalytic compounds (BC). Currently there is a knowledge gap regarding how the routine use of BCs, containing a consortium of bacteria and enzymes, applied directly within the AD system can affect the system’s performance and its by-products (biogas and biosolids). This study reviews the impact of routine bioaugmentation applications using a commercial grade BC on an AD system. An analysis of two full-scale AD systems inoculated with said BC has been completed to determine impacts on biosolids, and biogas production. This study provides significant information substantiating the claim that bioaugmentation enhances AD performance and long-term economic viability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Silva, Lisa Shiranthi;
    Country: Canada

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand the perspectives of the environment among Indo-Canadian, Sri Lankan-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian immigrant communities who reside in Surrey, British Columbia. Environmental perception has commonly been defined as awareness of, or feelings about, the environment, or “the way in which an individual perceives the environment; the process of evaluating and storing information received about the environment” (Oxford Reference, 2019). By identifying key stakeholders within these communities, I explored perspectives of environmentalism and concerns for the improvement of the health of the environment, through a series of open-ended semi-structured interviews. The participants in this research demonstrated a willingness to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment. In addition, they acknowledged their lack of awareness regarding consequences of environmentally harmful activities that were occurring during their childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. The findings help identify the issues that prevent inclusive environmentalism in Surrey in these targeted immigrant populations. They could also assist policy makers and environmental programs to implement more effective approaches for raising awareness and promoting more environmentalism among the three diasporas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nelson, Bryan Jeffrey;
    Country: Canada

    As a consequence of climate change, many populations of sockeye salmon in the U. S. Pacific Northwest are now experiencing significantly warmer river conditions during their spawning migration from the ocean to their freshwater spawning grounds compared to the 30 year average. The Columbia River witnessed an extended heat wave in 2015 and low flows pushed water temperatures to 21° C, which ended up killing 90 percent of the adult sockeye salmon returning to spawn in their natal streams in the summer months. Fish passage delays at hydro-electric dams potentially compounded this effect. The purpose of this study was to determine if water temperatures had a delay effect on run-timing and potential returning sockeye salmon population mortality in the Snake River in the Columbia Basin. Run timing and delays in migration patterns were examined over the years 2014-2018 in order to notice any trends in migration patterns. Results indicated that, as water temperatures increased, so did the travel time of returning adult sockeye salmon migrating between Bonneville Dam and Lower Granite Dam. Increased water temperatures were associated with migration delays, increasing them by as much as ten days more than the average in some years. Qualitative observations of fish vigor on migrating fish through fish windows also yielded signs of fungal disease on a small number of sockeye salmon during warmer water temperature outbreaks.