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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    All set for college summer arts festival -- Choir in concert -- Open reading on Thursday -- Captain Cook film, lectures on Saturday -- New sawmill training program -- Salt Lake choir on Sunday -- Lunchtime theatre finale -- Man of la mancha starts -- Treat for gourmets -- New books here -- Revised gymnasium hours -- Fitness week April 17-22 -- New student council -- Art show extensive -- Beddows a winner -- Meet the artist - Jo Merrill https://viuspace.viu.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/636/MainlyMalApr10-78.pdf?sequence=3

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ VIUSpacearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    VIUSpace
    2013
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ VIUSpacearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      VIUSpace
      2013
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  • Authors: Li, Yihu;

    IEEE 802.11n Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) employ Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO), which significantly boosts the raw data rate at the Physical layer (PHY). But the potential of enhancing Medium Access Control (MAC) layer efficiencies by MIMO is still in its early stage and is the aim of the research in this thesis. Many existing works in this field mainly employ distributed MIMO spatial multiplexing/Multi-User Detection (MUD) technique and stream sharing to enable multiple simultaneous transmissions. Most works require synchronization among multiple transmissions, split the channel, and aim for single-hop networks. In this thesis, a novel Hybrid Carrier Sense (HCS) framework is proposed, mainly at the MAC layer to exploit the power of MIMO. HCS senses the channel availability jointly by the virtual carrier sense and physical carrier sense. HCS does not require synchronization among nodes; each node independently and locally determines when to start its transmission. HCS not only shares the channel, but also exploits the bi-directional handshakes of the wireless transmissions and increases the number of simultaneous stream transmissions. For a network with M antennas in each node, HCS can accommodate 2x(M-1) streams instead of M streams achieved by all other existing works. Moreover, HCS is aimed for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, in which the hidden terminal, exposed terminal, and deafness problems greatly degrade network performance. The HCS framework incorporates solutions to these problems. HCS is implemented in an NS2 network simulator and the performance evaluation shows that HCS significantly outperforms MIMO-enabled IEEE 802.11 (in which MIMO is only used for enhancing the raw data rate in the physical layer), resulting in higher aggregate throughput, packet delivery ratio and fairness in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. The HCS framework will be in wide use in the future generation of wireless networks and opens up more research possibilities. Some ideas in the HCS framework can be applied not only for MIMO, but also for many other techniques surveyed in this thesis; or we may combine them with HCS to further boost the network performance.

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    Other ORP type . 2013
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      Other ORP type . 2013
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  • Authors: Lougheed, Scott;
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    Other ORP type . 2015
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      Other ORP type . 2015
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  • Authors: Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada.;
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    Other ORP type . 2014
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      Other ORP type . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aghanoori, MohamadReza;

    Background: There is impaired neurotrophic growth factor signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes exhibiting diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in diabetes drives depression of AMPK activity and mitochondrial function, both contributing to development of DSPN. Methods: Age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats with/without IGF-1 therapy or insulin implants were used for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, adult DRG neurons derived from control or STZ-diabetic rats were cultured under defined conditions and treated with/without IGF-1 or insulin. Activators or inhibitors targeting components of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways were used to unravel the mechanism of insulin/IGF-1 action in DRG neurons. Results: Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth, and augmented mitochondrial function in DRG cultures derived from control or type 1 diabetic rats. In STZ-diabetic rats insulin implants reversed thermal sensitivity, increased dermal nerve density and restored the expression/activity of respiratory chain proteins in DRG. Decreased expression of mRNAs for IGF-1, AMPKα2 and ATP5a1 (subunit of ATPase) occurred in DRG of diabetic vs. control rats. IGF-1 up-regulated mRNA levels of these genes in cultured DRG neurons from control or diabetic rats. IGF-1 elevation of mitochondrial function, mtDNA and neurite outgrowth was suppressed by inhibition of AMPK (via siRNA). IGF-1 therapy in diabetic rats reversed thermal hypoalgesia, raised corneal nerve density and prevented tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway metabolite build-up in the sciatic nerve. Endogenous IGF-1 gene expression in neurons of the DRG was suppressed by hyperglycemia and rescued by treatment with IGF-1 or the aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil. Transcription factors NFAT1 and CEBP-β bound to the IGF-1 promoter in DRG tissue at higher levels in control vs diabetic rats. Inhibition of endogenous IGF-1 down-regulated Akt S473 phosphorylation and background neurite outgrowth in cultured DRG neurons. Conclusions: Insulin/IGF-1 therapy elevates mitochondrial function via AMPK to drive axonal repair in DSPN. Downregulation of endogenous IGF-1 in DRG neurons in diabetes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DSPN.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Singh, Gurankit;

    There are numerous properties of biomaterials, existing in the nature which are still unknown to the scientific community. Different modifications to the biomaterials can unlock new properties of these materials. This leads to the development of whole new type of material which can be used as an alternative to the existing materials and contribute to wide range of new applications. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are one of the best strategies for controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering and biosensing based applications. Here in we report, a novel pH-sensitive and biodegradable hydrogel systems based on the carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The mechanical property of CMC changes from acidic to basic medium. This property is the reversible sol-gel conversion (solution phase to gel phase) of CMC solution based on the pH changes, and it was used in this work to synthesize peel-able onion like multimembrane hydrogels for a controlled fluorescein drug delivery model to intestine in gastro-intestine systems. Dissolution rates of the hydrogels was altered by using different concentrations of CMC and different number of hydrogels layers. Furthermore, CMC was used as a novel 3D printable bioink for potential biomaterial-based applications. The resulting CMC 3D printed structures were further used as a real-time wireless biosensor and for designing microfluidic channels. The mechanical properties and characterization of the CMC were studied by using rheology tests, FT-IR and 1H NMR.

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  • Authors: Loukes, Keira;

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar by French Jesuit and agricultural scientist Fr. Henri de Laulanie in the 1980s has since been propagated to over 50 countries worldwide. By transplanting younger seedlings, increasing the spacing between individual plants, irrigating intermittently and consistently aerating the soil, SRI promises to increase global rice production to twice the 3.7 t/ha currently experienced (Uphoff, 2003). Notwithstanding regional variance (Uphoff, 2003) and contestation of the results (Sheehy et al., 2005), SRI advocates in various countries posit SRI as an agro-ecological innovation that is an alternative to top-down, input-intensive agriculture, yet can greatly expand yields and farm incomes. These properties are argued to be particularly important in a world of rising temperatures and increased demand for foodstuffs. In projecting SRI as a singular solution to current and future constraints upon rice production, however, little attention has been given to its translation and embedding within diverse socio-ecological settings. Given that socio-ecological and political climates vary greatly from region to region, my broad research question uses political agronomy as a theoretical framework to ask: what social realities are silenced in order to craft a narrative in which SRI can become a universal driver of agricultural development? Through ten weeks of participatory observation and interviews with farmers, NGO representatives, researchers and extension officers directly involved in SRI in two districts in Nepal’s Terai, (Chitwan and Morang), I was able to observe how SRI is enacted in unique settings. The aim of this project was to understand how SRI practices are institutionalized on the ground and whether broad characteristics lead specific types of farmers to gravitate towards, or be selected for, the adoption of SRI (such as land holdings or access to water and institutional channels such as bank credit and agricultural extension). In asking these questions, this research aims to more adequately assess SRI's suitability as a global agricultural innovation.

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    Other ORP type . 2015
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      Other ORP type . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Malaspina collaborates with U. of A. on muscle oxygenation research -- Inge Bolin, applied anthropologist, making a difference -- House lotto & tree fest could earn $100,000 -- Malaspina launches governance website -- What's cooking in Cowichan? The cookbook -- Malaspina dental assistant program receives highest certification status -- Parksville/Qualicum contract report -- Malaspina people -- Ed tech: Media services + instructional computing = ETC -- Diesel finds a home -- Powell River campus opens golf season witha new fundraiser -- Free public lecture series -- Lecture by renowned ethnobotanist Wade Davis, Nanaimo campus theatre, Saturday February 15, 7:30 p.m. -- Malaspina diary -- McLotto winners https://viuspace.viu.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/918/MainlyMalJan%3aFeb-97.pdf?sequence=3

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    VIUSpace
    2013
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      VIUSpace
      2013
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: External Relations, University of Regina;

    What looks like a one-person dune buggy, has a 10 horsepower engine and can hit speeds of 65 kilometres-an-hour? It’s the Cougar Motorsports team vehicle, and in only its second year, the team, and the car have put together some impressive results. Staff no

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    oURspace
    Other ORP type . 2012
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      Other ORP type . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Semnani, Mohammad;

    A new method for efficient calibration of complex hydrological models that combines Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) global optimization algorithm with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) methods is introduced. This approach, which is called sensitivity-informed DDS, utilizes sensitivity indices to increase the probability of perturbation for the most sensitive parameters, while giving low chance to least sensitive ones. This feature improves the efficiency and effectiveness of optimization by finding good quality solutions in a shorter time. Three different implementations of sensitivity-informed DDS are considered. The first approach is named as GSA↔DDS, in which GSA toolboxes (Morris or Sobol) are performed initially and throughout the optimization process to constantly update the sensitivity information. The second approach is called GSA→DDS. In this method, the GSA methods are only performed initially to include the results of GSA within optimization process. The final implementation is called VARS→DDS. In this method, to enhance the efficiency of sensitivity analysis and optimization, VARS toolbox is performed outside the optimization to provide the sensitivity information. The performances of GSA↔DDS, GSA→DDS and VARS→DDS are compared with original DDS by solving various optimization problems (test functions and model calibration case studies). According to the results, when calibrating complex hydrological models with enough computational budget, VARS→DDS is significantly more efficient and effective than original DDS. However, the results also show that GSA→DDS and GSA↔DDS methods do not substantially improve the convergence rate and the final best solution compared to DDS. Thus, VARS→DDS is the recommended approach for sensitivity-informed DDS in calibration of distributed and semi-distributed models, when enough computational resources are available.

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32,409 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    All set for college summer arts festival -- Choir in concert -- Open reading on Thursday -- Captain Cook film, lectures on Saturday -- New sawmill training program -- Salt Lake choir on Sunday -- Lunchtime theatre finale -- Man of la mancha starts -- Treat for gourmets -- New books here -- Revised gymnasium hours -- Fitness week April 17-22 -- New student council -- Art show extensive -- Beddows a winner -- Meet the artist - Jo Merrill https://viuspace.viu.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/636/MainlyMalApr10-78.pdf?sequence=3

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    VIUSpace
    2013
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  • Authors: Li, Yihu;

    IEEE 802.11n Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) employ Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO), which significantly boosts the raw data rate at the Physical layer (PHY). But the potential of enhancing Medium Access Control (MAC) layer efficiencies by MIMO is still in its early stage and is the aim of the research in this thesis. Many existing works in this field mainly employ distributed MIMO spatial multiplexing/Multi-User Detection (MUD) technique and stream sharing to enable multiple simultaneous transmissions. Most works require synchronization among multiple transmissions, split the channel, and aim for single-hop networks. In this thesis, a novel Hybrid Carrier Sense (HCS) framework is proposed, mainly at the MAC layer to exploit the power of MIMO. HCS senses the channel availability jointly by the virtual carrier sense and physical carrier sense. HCS does not require synchronization among nodes; each node independently and locally determines when to start its transmission. HCS not only shares the channel, but also exploits the bi-directional handshakes of the wireless transmissions and increases the number of simultaneous stream transmissions. For a network with M antennas in each node, HCS can accommodate 2x(M-1) streams instead of M streams achieved by all other existing works. Moreover, HCS is aimed for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, in which the hidden terminal, exposed terminal, and deafness problems greatly degrade network performance. The HCS framework incorporates solutions to these problems. HCS is implemented in an NS2 network simulator and the performance evaluation shows that HCS significantly outperforms MIMO-enabled IEEE 802.11 (in which MIMO is only used for enhancing the raw data rate in the physical layer), resulting in higher aggregate throughput, packet delivery ratio and fairness in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. The HCS framework will be in wide use in the future generation of wireless networks and opens up more research possibilities. Some ideas in the HCS framework can be applied not only for MIMO, but also for many other techniques surveyed in this thesis; or we may combine them with HCS to further boost the network performance.

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  • Authors: Lougheed, Scott;
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  • Authors: Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada.;
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    Authors: Aghanoori, MohamadReza;

    Background: There is impaired neurotrophic growth factor signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes exhibiting diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in diabetes drives depression of AMPK activity and mitochondrial function, both contributing to development of DSPN. Methods: Age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats with/without IGF-1 therapy or insulin implants were used for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, adult DRG neurons derived from control or STZ-diabetic rats were cultured under defined conditions and treated with/without IGF-1 or insulin. Activators or inhibitors targeting components of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways were used to unravel the mechanism of insulin/IGF-1 action in DRG neurons. Results: Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth, and augmented mitochondrial function in DRG cultures derived from control or type 1 diabetic rats. In STZ-diabetic rats insulin implants reversed thermal sensitivity, increased dermal nerve density and restored the expression/activity of respiratory chain proteins in DRG. Decreased expression of mRNAs for IGF-1, AMPKα2 and ATP5a1 (subunit of ATPase) occurred in DRG of diabetic vs. control rats. IGF-1 up-regulated mRNA levels of these genes in cultured DRG neurons from control or diabetic rats. IGF-1 elevation of mitochondrial function, mtDNA and neurite outgrowth was suppressed by inhibition of AMPK (via siRNA). IGF-1 therapy in diabetic rats reversed thermal hypoalgesia, raised corneal nerve density and prevented tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway metabolite build-up in the sciatic nerve. Endogenous IGF-1 gene expression in neurons of the DRG was suppressed by hyperglycemia and rescued by treatment with IGF-1 or the aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil. Transcription factors NFAT1 and CEBP-β bound to the IGF-1 promoter in DRG tissue at higher levels in control vs diabetic rats. Inhibition of endogenous IGF-1 down-regulated Akt S473 phosphorylation and background neurite outgrowth in cultured DRG neurons. Conclusions: Insulin/IGF-1 therapy elevates mitochondrial function via AMPK to drive axonal repair in DSPN. Downregulation of endogenous IGF-1 in DRG neurons in diabetes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DSPN.

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    Authors: Singh, Gurankit;

    There are numerous properties of biomaterials, existing in the nature which are still unknown to the scientific community. Different modifications to the biomaterials can unlock new properties of these materials. This leads to the development of whole new type of material which can be used as an alternative to the existing materials and contribute to wide range of new applications. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are one of the best strategies for controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering and biosensing based applications. Here in we report, a novel pH-sensitive and biodegradable hydrogel systems based on the carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The mechanical property of CMC changes from acidic to basic medium. This property is the reversible sol-gel conversion (solution phase to gel phase) of CMC solution based on the pH changes, and it was used in this work to synthesize peel-able onion like multimembrane hydrogels for a controlled fluorescein drug delivery model to intestine in gastro-intestine systems. Dissolution rates of the hydrogels was altered by using different concentrations of CMC and different number of hydrogels layers. Furthermore, CMC was used as a novel 3D printable bioink for potential biomaterial-based applications. The resulting CMC 3D printed structures were further used as a real-time wireless biosensor and for designing microfluidic channels. The mechanical properties and characterization of the CMC were studied by using rheology tests, FT-IR and 1H NMR.

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  • Authors: Loukes, Keira;

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar by French Jesuit and agricultural scientist Fr. Henri de Laulanie in the 1980s has since been propagated to over 50 countries worldwide. By transplanting younger seedlings, increasing the spacing between individual plants, irrigating intermittently and consistently aerating the soil, SRI promises to increase global rice production to twice the 3.7 t/ha currently experienced (Uphoff, 2003). Notwithstanding regional variance (Uphoff, 2003) and contestation of the results (Sheehy et al., 2005), SRI advocates in various countries posit SRI as an agro-ecological innovation that is an alternative to top-down, input-intensive agriculture, yet can greatly expand yields and farm incomes. These properties are argued to be particularly important in a world of rising temperatures and increased demand for foodstuffs. In projecting SRI as a singular solution to current and future constraints upon rice production, however, little attention has been given to its translation and embedding within diverse socio-ecological settings. Given that socio-ecological and political climates vary greatly from region to region, my broad research question uses political agronomy as a theoretical framework to ask: what social realities are silenced in order to craft a narrative in which SRI can become a universal driver of agricultural development? Through ten weeks of participatory observation and interviews with farmers, NGO representatives, researchers and extension officers directly involved in SRI in two districts in Nepal’s Terai, (Chitwan and Morang), I was able to observe how SRI is enacted in unique settings. The aim of this project was to understand how SRI practices are institutionalized on the ground and whether broad characteristics lead specific types of farmers to gravitate towards, or be selected for, the adoption of SRI (such as land holdings or access to water and institutional channels such as bank credit and agricultural extension). In asking these questions, this research aims to more adequately assess SRI's suitability as a global agricultural innovation.