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160 Research products

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  • 2013-2022
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sturdee, Miriam Amber; Alexander, Jason Mark; Coulton, Paul; Carpendale, Sheelagh;

    Almost all research output includes tables, diagrams, photographs and even sketches, and papers within HCI typically take advantage of including these figures in their files. However the space given to non-diagrammatical or tabular figures is often small, even in papers that primarily concern themselves with visual output. The reason for this might be the publishing models employed in most proceedings and journals: Despite moving to a digital format which is unhindered by page count or physical cost, there remains a somewhat arbitrary limitation on page count. Recent moves by ACM SIGCHI and others to remove references from the maximum page count suggest that there is movement on this, however images remain firmly within the limits of the text. We propose that images should be celebrated – not penalised – and call for not only the adoption of the Pictorials format in CHI, but for images to be removed from page counts in order to encourage greater transparency of process in HCI research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lancaster EPrintsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lancaster EPrintsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Madureira, Marlene; Sá, José Carlos; Lopes, Manuel Pereira; Ferreira, Luís Pinto; +1 Authors

    This study aims to design a new warehouse layout as a solution to the warehouse’s main problem: lack of space to store all the materials in stock. Besides the existing warehouse building, which currently presents an unsuitable layout for the storage of large volumes, there is a second area right next to the first to increase the storage area. The two buildings were re-dimensioned to accommodate a great quantity of stock, enabling one to transform the warehouse building into an industrial warehouse with appropriate storage methods. The final layout increased the storage area by 64%, from a total of 1.471,41 m2 to 2.414,22 m2 overall.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Repositório Científi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Repositório Científi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • Authors: Dusart, Jérémie; Habib, Michel; Corneil, Derek G.;

    Il s'agit d'une recherche sur les relations entre les graphes d'intervalles et les graphes de cocomparabilité; A cocomparability graph is a graph whose complement admits a transitive orientation. An interval graph is the intersection graph of a family of intervals on the real line. In this paper we investigate the relationships between interval and cocomparabil-ity graphs. This study is motivated by recent results [5, 13] that show that for some problems, the algorithm used on interval graphs can also be used with small modifications on cocomparability graphs. Many of these algorithms are based on graph searches that preserve cocomparability orderings. First we propose a characterization of cocomparability graphs via a lattice structure on the set of their maximal cliques. Using this characterization we can prove that every maximal interval subgraph of a cocomparability graph G is also a maximal chordal subgraph of G. Although the size of this lattice of maximal cliques can be exponential in the size of the graph, it can be used as a framework to design and prove algorithms on cocomparability graphs. In particular we show that a new graph search, namely Local Maximal Neighborhood Search (LocalMNS) leads to an O(n + mlogn) time algorithm to find a maximal interval subgraph of a cocomparability graph. Similarly we propose a linear time algorithm to compute all simplicial vertices in a cocomparability graph. In both cases we improve on the current state of knowledge.

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    Authors: Kapila, Sahil; Oni, Abayomi Olufemi; Kumar, Amit;

    The development of a cost structure for energy storage systems (ESS) has received limited attention. In this study, we developed data-intensive techno-economic models to assess the economic feasibility of ESS. The ESS here includes pump hydro storage (PHS) and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The costs were developed using data-intensive bottom-up models. Scale factors were developed for each component of the storage systems. The life cycle costs of energy storage were estimated for capacity ranges of 98-491 MW, 81-404 MW, and 60-298 MW for PHS, conventional CAES (C-CAES), and adiabatic CAES (A-CAES), respectively, to ensure a market-driven price can be achieved. For CAES systems, costs were developed for storage in salt caverns hard rock caverns, and porous formations. The results show that the annual life cycle storage cost is $220-400 for PHS, $215-265 for C-CAES, and $375-480 per kW-year for A-CAES. The levelised cost of electricity is $69-121 for PHS, $58-70 for C-CAES, and $96-121 per MWh for A-CAES. C-CAES is economically attractive at all capacities, PHS is economically attractive at higher capacities, and A-CAES is not attractive at all. The developed information is helpful in making investment decision related to large energy storage systems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Education and Resear...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Education and Resear...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • Authors: Malo, Lauren Douglas;

    Climate change is expected to have marked impacts on forest ecosystems. In Ontario forests, this includes changes in tree growth, stand composition and disturbance regimes, with expected impacts on many forest-dependent communities, the bioeconomy, and other environmental considerations. In response to climate change, renewable energy systems, such as forest bioenergy, are emerging as critical tools for carbon emissions reductions and climate change mitigation. However, these systems may also need to adapt to changing forest conditions. Therefore, the aim of this research was to estimate changes in forest growth and forest cover in response to anticipated climatic changes in the year 2100 in Ontario forests, to ultimately explore the sustainability of bioenergy in the future. Using the Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve in Ontario as a case study, this research used a spatial climate analog approach to match modeled Haliburton temperature and precipitation (via Fourth Canadian Regional Climate Model) to regions currently exhibiting similar climate (climate analogs). From there, current forest cover and growth rates of core species in Haliburton were compared to forests plots in analog regions from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA). This comparison used two different emission scenarios, corresponding to a high and a mid-range emission future. This research then explored how these changes in forests may influence bioenergy feasibility in the future. It examined possible volume availability and composition of bioenergy feedstock under future conditions. This research points to a potential decline of softwoods in the Haliburton region with a simultaneous expansion of pre-established hardwoods such as northern red oak and red maple, as well as a potential loss in sugar maple cover. From a bioenergy perspective, hardwood residues may be the most feasible feedstock in the future with minimal change in biomass availability for energy production; under these possible conditions, small scale combined heat and power (CHP) and residential pellet use may be the most viable and ecologically sustainable options. Ultimately, understanding the way in which forests may change is important in informing meaningful policy and management, allowing for improved forest bioenergy systems, now and in the future.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; +25 Authors

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14–52 km ozone and 17–40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and −0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14–52 km satellite and 0–14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1–7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25–52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007–2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from −5.0 ± 0.4% to −3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Ankita Nand;

    This is an example capsule for CoBE(https://www.pmcobe.ca) executable. The capsule is made using software, source code and data coming from public sources and other authors. Please find the original links for code/data in capsule description below: https://biodatamining.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13040-017-0129-5 https://github.com/LupienLab/VSE

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    Authors: Fletcher, Tamara L.; Warden, Lisa; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Brown, Kendrick J.; +3 Authors

    The mid-Pliocene is a valuable time interval for investigating equilibrium climate at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations because atmospheric CO2 concentrations are thought to have been comparable to the current day and yet the climate and distribution of ecosystems were quite different. One intriguing, but not fully understood, feature of the early to mid-Pliocene climate is the amplified Arctic temperature response and its impact on Arctic ecosystems. Only the most recent models appear to correctly estimate the degree of warming in the Pliocene Arctic and validation of the currently proposed feedbacks is limited by scarce terrestrial records of climate and environment. Here we reconstruct the summer temperature and fire regime from a subfossil fen-peat deposit on west–central Ellesmere Island, Canada, that has been chronologically constrained using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating to 3.9+1.5/-0.5 Ma. The estimate for average mean summer temperature is 15.4±0.8 ∘C using specific bacterial membrane lipids, i.e., branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. This is above the proposed threshold that predicts a substantial increase in wildfire in the modern high latitudes. Macro-charcoal was present in all samples from this Pliocene section with notably higher charcoal concentration in the upper part of the sequence. This change in charcoal was synchronous with a change in vegetation that included an increase in abundance of fire-promoting Pinus and Picea. Paleo-vegetation reconstructions are consistent with warm summer temperatures, relatively low summer precipitation and an incidence of fire comparable to fire-adapted boreal forests of North America and central Siberia. To our knowledge, this site provides the northernmost evidence of fire during the Pliocene. It suggests that ecosystem productivity was greater than in the present day, providing fuel for wildfires, and that the climate was conducive to the ignition of fire during this period. The results reveal that interactions between paleo-vegetation and paleoclimate were mediated by fire in the High Arctic during the Pliocene, even though CO2 concentrations were similar to modern values.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guscelli, Ella; Spicer, John I; Calosi, Piero;

    Inter‐individual variation in phenotypic traits has long been considered as "noise" rather than meaningful phenotypic variation, with biological studies almost exclusively generating and reporting average responses for populations and species' aver‐ age responses. Here, we compare the use of an individual approach in the investigation of extracellular acid-base regulation by the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus challenged with elevated pCO2 and temperature conditions, with a more traditional approach which generates and formally compares mean values. We detected a high level of inter‐individual variation in acid-base regulation parameters both within and between treatments. Comparing individual and mean values for the first (apparent) dissociation constant of the coelomic fluid for individual sea urchins resulted in substantially different (calculated) acid-base parameters, and models with stronger statistical support. While the approach using means showed that coelomic pCO2 was influenced by seawater pCO2 and temperature combined, the individual approach indicated that it was in fact seawater temperature in isolation that had a significant effect on coelomic pCO2. On the other hand, coelomic [HCO3−] appeared to be primarily affected by seawater pCO2, and less by seawater temperature, irrespective of the approach adopted. As a consequence, we suggest that individual variation in physiological traits needs to be considered, and where appropriate taken into ac‐ count, in global change biology studies. It could be argued that an approach reliant on mean values is a "procedural error." It produces an artefact, that is, a population's mean phenotype. While this may allow us to conduct relatively simple statistical analyses, it will not in all cases reflect, or take into account, the degree of (physiological) diversity present in natural populations.

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    Authors: Sturdee, Miriam Amber; Alexander, Jason Mark; Coulton, Paul; Carpendale, Sheelagh;

    Almost all research output includes tables, diagrams, photographs and even sketches, and papers within HCI typically take advantage of including these figures in their files. However the space given to non-diagrammatical or tabular figures is often small, even in papers that primarily concern themselves with visual output. The reason for this might be the publishing models employed in most proceedings and journals: Despite moving to a digital format which is unhindered by page count or physical cost, there remains a somewhat arbitrary limitation on page count. Recent moves by ACM SIGCHI and others to remove references from the maximum page count suggest that there is movement on this, however images remain firmly within the limits of the text. We propose that images should be celebrated – not penalised – and call for not only the adoption of the Pictorials format in CHI, but for images to be removed from page counts in order to encourage greater transparency of process in HCI research.

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    Authors: Madureira, Marlene; Sá, José Carlos; Lopes, Manuel Pereira; Ferreira, Luís Pinto; +1 Authors

    This study aims to design a new warehouse layout as a solution to the warehouse’s main problem: lack of space to store all the materials in stock. Besides the existing warehouse building, which currently presents an unsuitable layout for the storage of large volumes, there is a second area right next to the first to increase the storage area. The two buildings were re-dimensioned to accommodate a great quantity of stock, enabling one to transform the warehouse building into an industrial warehouse with appropriate storage methods. The final layout increased the storage area by 64%, from a total of 1.471,41 m2 to 2.414,22 m2 overall.

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    Authors: Léger-Daigle, Romy; Noisette, Fanny; Bélanger, Simon; Cusson, Mathieu; +1 Authors

    The dataset compiles pigment content, absorptance data, photosynthetic parameters and primary production data as proxies for summertime photoacclimation of the temperate intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina after a 25-day exposure to a natural light intensity gradient (6, 36, 74, 133, 355, 503 and 860 µmol photons/m²/s) under laboratory conditions at the Pointe-au-Père research station, East Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. The data bundle contains: 1) photosynthetic and total absorptance data at the end of the experiment, which respectively represent the fraction of incident visible light absorbed by the photosynthetic tissues corrected and not corrected for non-photosynthetic absorption; 2) pigment content at the end of the experiment, which includes chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids contents; 3) photosynthetic parameters obtained by Rapid Light Curves (RLC) on days 5 and 25, including photosynthetic apparatus efficiency (alpha), capacity (ETRmax) and saturation (Ek); 4) whole shoot primary production at the end of the experiment, which was calculated from oxygen fluxes under light and dark conditions, and normalized by leaf surface.

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  • Authors: Dusart, Jérémie; Habib, Michel; Corneil, Derek G.;

    Il s'agit d'une recherche sur les relations entre les graphes d'intervalles et les graphes de cocomparabilité; A cocomparability graph is a graph whose complement admits a transitive orientation. An interval graph is the intersection graph of a family of intervals on the real line. In this paper we investigate the relationships between interval and cocomparabil-ity graphs. This study is motivated by recent results [5, 13] that show that for some problems, the algorithm used on interval graphs can also be used with small modifications on cocomparability graphs. Many of these algorithms are based on graph searches that preserve cocomparability orderings. First we propose a characterization of cocomparability graphs via a lattice structure on the set of their maximal cliques. Using this characterization we can prove that every maximal interval subgraph of a cocomparability graph G is also a maximal chordal subgraph of G. Although the size of this lattice of maximal cliques can be exponential in the size of the graph, it can be used as a framework to design and prove algorithms on cocomparability graphs. In particular we show that a new graph search, namely Local Maximal Neighborhood Search (LocalMNS) leads to an O(n + mlogn) time algorithm to find a maximal interval subgraph of a cocomparability graph. Similarly we propose a linear time algorithm to compute all simplicial vertices in a cocomparability graph. In both cases we improve on the current state of knowledge.

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    Authors: Kapila, Sahil; Oni, Abayomi Olufemi; Kumar, Amit;

    The development of a cost structure for energy storage systems (ESS) has received limited attention. In this study, we developed data-intensive techno-economic models to assess the economic feasibility of ESS. The ESS here includes pump hydro storage (PHS) and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The costs were developed using data-intensive bottom-up models. Scale factors were developed for each component of the storage systems. The life cycle costs of energy storage were estimated for capacity ranges of 98-491 MW, 81-404 MW, and 60-298 MW for PHS, conventional CAES (C-CAES), and adiabatic CAES (A-CAES), respectively, to ensure a market-driven price can be achieved. For CAES systems, costs were developed for storage in salt caverns hard rock caverns, and porous formations. The results show that the annual life cycle storage cost is $220-400 for PHS, $215-265 for C-CAES, and $375-480 per kW-year for A-CAES. The levelised cost of electricity is $69-121 for PHS, $58-70 for C-CAES, and $96-121 per MWh for A-CAES. C-CAES is economically attractive at all capacities, PHS is economically attractive at higher capacities, and A-CAES is not attractive at all. The developed information is helpful in making investment decision related to large energy storage systems.

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  • Authors: Malo, Lauren Douglas;

    Climate change is expected to have marked impacts on forest ecosystems. In Ontario forests, this includes changes in tree growth, stand composition and disturbance regimes, with expected impacts on many forest-dependent communities, the bioeconomy, and other environmental considerations. In response to climate change, renewable energy systems, such as forest bioenergy, are emerging as critical tools for carbon emissions reductions and climate change mitigation. However, these systems may also need to adapt to changing forest conditions. Therefore, the aim of this research was to estimate changes in forest growth and forest cover in response to anticipated climatic changes in the year 2100 in Ontario forests, to ultimately explore the sustainability of bioenergy in the future. Using the Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve in Ontario as a case study, this research used a spatial climate analog approach to match modeled Haliburton temperature and precipitation (via Fourth Canadian Regional Climate Model) to regions currently exhibiting similar climate (climate analogs). From there, current forest cover and growth rates of core species in Haliburton were compared to forests plots in analog regions from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA). This comparison used two different emission scenarios, corresponding to a high and a mid-range emission future. This research then explored how these changes in forests may influence bioenergy feasibility in the future. It examined possible volume availability and composition of bioenergy feedstock under future conditions. This research points to a potential decline of softwoods in the Haliburton region with a simultaneous expansion of pre-established hardwoods such as northern red oak and red maple, as well as a potential loss in sugar maple cover. From a bioenergy perspective, hardwood residues may be the most feasible feedstock in the future with minimal change in biomass availability for energy production; under these possible conditions, small scale combined heat and power (CHP) and residential pellet use may be the most viable and ecologically sustainable options. Ultimately, understanding the way in which forests may change is important in informing meaningful policy and management, allowing for improved forest bioenergy systems, now and in the future.

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    Authors: Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; +25 Authors

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14–52 km ozone and 17–40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and −0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14–52 km satellite and 0–14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1–7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25–52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007–2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from −5.0 ± 0.4% to −3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

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  • Authors: Ankita Nand;

    This is an example capsule for CoBE(https://www.pmcobe.ca) executable. The capsule is made using software, source code and data coming from public sources and other authors. Please find the original links for code/data in capsule description below: https://biodatamining.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13040-017-0129-5 https://github.com/LupienLab/VSE

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