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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aghanoori, MohamadReza;

    Background: There is impaired neurotrophic growth factor signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes exhibiting diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in diabetes drives depression of AMPK activity and mitochondrial function, both contributing to development of DSPN. Methods: Age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats with/without IGF-1 therapy or insulin implants were used for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, adult DRG neurons derived from control or STZ-diabetic rats were cultured under defined conditions and treated with/without IGF-1 or insulin. Activators or inhibitors targeting components of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways were used to unravel the mechanism of insulin/IGF-1 action in DRG neurons. Results: Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth, and augmented mitochondrial function in DRG cultures derived from control or type 1 diabetic rats. In STZ-diabetic rats insulin implants reversed thermal sensitivity, increased dermal nerve density and restored the expression/activity of respiratory chain proteins in DRG. Decreased expression of mRNAs for IGF-1, AMPKα2 and ATP5a1 (subunit of ATPase) occurred in DRG of diabetic vs. control rats. IGF-1 up-regulated mRNA levels of these genes in cultured DRG neurons from control or diabetic rats. IGF-1 elevation of mitochondrial function, mtDNA and neurite outgrowth was suppressed by inhibition of AMPK (via siRNA). IGF-1 therapy in diabetic rats reversed thermal hypoalgesia, raised corneal nerve density and prevented tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway metabolite build-up in the sciatic nerve. Endogenous IGF-1 gene expression in neurons of the DRG was suppressed by hyperglycemia and rescued by treatment with IGF-1 or the aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil. Transcription factors NFAT1 and CEBP-β bound to the IGF-1 promoter in DRG tissue at higher levels in control vs diabetic rats. Inhibition of endogenous IGF-1 down-regulated Akt S473 phosphorylation and background neurite outgrowth in cultured DRG neurons. Conclusions: Insulin/IGF-1 therapy elevates mitochondrial function via AMPK to drive axonal repair in DSPN. Downregulation of endogenous IGF-1 in DRG neurons in diabetes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DSPN.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Singh, Gurankit;

    There are numerous properties of biomaterials, existing in the nature which are still unknown to the scientific community. Different modifications to the biomaterials can unlock new properties of these materials. This leads to the development of whole new type of material which can be used as an alternative to the existing materials and contribute to wide range of new applications. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are one of the best strategies for controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering and biosensing based applications. Here in we report, a novel pH-sensitive and biodegradable hydrogel systems based on the carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The mechanical property of CMC changes from acidic to basic medium. This property is the reversible sol-gel conversion (solution phase to gel phase) of CMC solution based on the pH changes, and it was used in this work to synthesize peel-able onion like multimembrane hydrogels for a controlled fluorescein drug delivery model to intestine in gastro-intestine systems. Dissolution rates of the hydrogels was altered by using different concentrations of CMC and different number of hydrogels layers. Furthermore, CMC was used as a novel 3D printable bioink for potential biomaterial-based applications. The resulting CMC 3D printed structures were further used as a real-time wireless biosensor and for designing microfluidic channels. The mechanical properties and characterization of the CMC were studied by using rheology tests, FT-IR and 1H NMR.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Semnani, Mohammad;

    A new method for efficient calibration of complex hydrological models that combines Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) global optimization algorithm with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) methods is introduced. This approach, which is called sensitivity-informed DDS, utilizes sensitivity indices to increase the probability of perturbation for the most sensitive parameters, while giving low chance to least sensitive ones. This feature improves the efficiency and effectiveness of optimization by finding good quality solutions in a shorter time. Three different implementations of sensitivity-informed DDS are considered. The first approach is named as GSA↔DDS, in which GSA toolboxes (Morris or Sobol) are performed initially and throughout the optimization process to constantly update the sensitivity information. The second approach is called GSA→DDS. In this method, the GSA methods are only performed initially to include the results of GSA within optimization process. The final implementation is called VARS→DDS. In this method, to enhance the efficiency of sensitivity analysis and optimization, VARS toolbox is performed outside the optimization to provide the sensitivity information. The performances of GSA↔DDS, GSA→DDS and VARS→DDS are compared with original DDS by solving various optimization problems (test functions and model calibration case studies). According to the results, when calibrating complex hydrological models with enough computational budget, VARS→DDS is significantly more efficient and effective than original DDS. However, the results also show that GSA→DDS and GSA↔DDS methods do not substantially improve the convergence rate and the final best solution compared to DDS. Thus, VARS→DDS is the recommended approach for sensitivity-informed DDS in calibration of distributed and semi-distributed models, when enough computational resources are available.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marin Jimenez, Astrid Patricia;

    Cette recherche doctorale a exploré la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif. Plus spécifiquement, elle a exploré cette activité pédagogique créative pour diversifier les approches pédagogiques qualifiées de créatives qui ont été documentées jusqu'à présent en musique, notamment en contexte extrascolaire. Pour ce faire, ce projet doctoral a été structuré autour de quatre objectifs : 1) documenter les activités mises en place et réalisées durant le processus de co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif avec un groupe de jeunes musiciens apprenant un instrument de musique en contexte extrascolaire; 2) décrire les habitudes créatives (Lucas, 2016) qui ont été sollicitées par les participants tout au long du processus de création de leur jeu musical éducatif; 3) décrire, à partir des 8 facteurs proposés par O'Neill (2013), l'engagement perçu et manifesté par les participants durant la co-création de leur jeu musical éducatif; et 4) porter un regard critique, basé sur les trois composantes d'une pédagogie créative (Lin, 2011), envers l'approche pédagogique créative que la chercheure a mis en œuvre pour réussir cette activité d'apprentissage avec les participants. Un total de sept jeunes musiciens apprenant divers instruments musicaux (ex. : piano, guitare, violon, violoncelle) ont participé aux dix séances animées par la chercheure pour co-créer leur jeu musical éducatif. Différents outils de collecte de données ont été utilisés pour documenter ce projet : des enregistrements vidéo des séances, des observations, un questionnaire sur l'engagement envers l'activité réalisée (O'Neill, 2013), et un entretien de groupe pour approfondir la compréhension de l'activité d'apprentissage étudiée. Les résultats issus de ce projet de recherche ont mis en lumière que l'activité de co-création du jeu musical éducatif réalisé par les participants a fait appel aux trois composantes de la pédagogie créative de Lin (2011), soit l'enseignement créatif et l'enseignement pour la créativité dans la pédagogie de la chercheure, et l'apprentissage créatif des participants. Concernant leur apprentissage créatif, nos résultats ont mis en évidence que chacune des phases liées à la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif (orientation, création, gameplay) ont fait appel aux cinq dimensions créatives suggérées par Lucas (2016) (ex. : être collaboratif, être imaginatif, être discipliné, être persistant, et être curieux), mais de façon différente selon le type d'activités réalisées et de la phase de co-création à laquelle les participants travaillaient. Quant à l'engagement des participants, nos résultats ont permis de relever que les 8 facteurs proposés par O'Neill (2013) ont soutenu, à des degrés divers toutefois, l'engagement perçu par nos participants. À ce titre, le facteur en lien avec les défis perçus durant la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif a été celui qui a le plus contribué à soutenir leur engagement envers cette activité d'apprentissage. Nos observations des enregistrements vidéo ainsi que l'entretien de groupe réalisé à la fin du projet ont permis d'identifier et de décrire les moments où les participants ont manifesté leur engagement durant la création de leur jeu, c'est-à-dire lorsqu'ils restaient concentrés sur la tâche qu'ils réalisaient, lorsqu'ils manifestaient leur appréciation envers la tâche réalisée et les apprentissages acquis, ou lorsqu'ils persévéraient face à des difficultés, entre autres exemples. Par ailleurs, les réflexions critiques de la chercheure sur sa pédagogie ont fait ressortir que ses expériences précédentes en tant qu'enseignante du violon et d'auxiliaire de recherche ont possiblement influencé ses choix d'alignement d'apprentissages (Jones, 2005) tout au long du processus de co-création avec les participants, notamment en démontrant une préférence envers des approches pédagogiques moins hiérarchiques (midwife, fellow traveller). De plus, sa réflexion a relevé que les stratégies pédagogiques qui ont été plus efficaces pour co-créer le jeu musical éducatif ont été celles qui reflétaient une interconnexion entre les trois composantes de la pédagogie créative (Lin, 2011). À titre d'exemple, cette interconnexion se manifestait lorsque l'activité réalisée faisait appel à la créativité des participants (enseignement créatif), à l'aide d'une attitude ouverte et flexible de sa part (enseignement pour la créativité), laquelle entraîne à une expérience d'apprentissage créatif des participants. Finalement, l'intervention pédagogique implémentée par la chercheure a permis d'identifier les aspects liés aux modèles éducatifs, opérationnels et conceptuels utilisés pour mener son intervention éducative. Ces modèles ont été nécessaires pour établir les fondements pédagogiques qui se sont avérés pertinents pour structurer son activité d'apprentissage autour de la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif. This doctoral research explored the co-creation of an educational music game as a pedagogical activity that could diversify the creative pedagogy approaches (Lin, 2011) documented to date in music, particularly in out-of-school settings. To that end, this research project was structured around four objectives: 1) to document, supported by the Creative and Playful Learning model (Kangas, 2010), the activities that were necessary to successfully complete the process of co-creating a music learning game with a group of young musicians (10-14 years old); 2) to describe the creative dimensions (Lucas, 2016) that were called upon by the participants throughout the process; 3) to describe, based on O'Neill's (2013) eight factors of engagement, the perceived and demonstrated engagement of the participants during the co-creation of their music learning game; and 4) to take a critical look, based on the three components of a creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011), towards the creative pedagogical approach the researcher implemented to successfully complete this learning activity with the participants. A total of seven young musicians learning a musical instrument (e.g., piano, guitar, violin, or cello) in an out-of-school context participated in ten music-learning-game-co-creation sessions facilitated by the researcher. Various data collection tools were used, including video recordings of the sessions, observations, an engagement questionnaire (O'Neill, 2013), and a group interview. The findings from this research project highlighted that the process of co-creating a music learning game put into action the three components of a creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011), notably creative teaching and teaching for creativity (in the researcher), and creative learning (in the participants). In relation to creative learning our results highlight that each of the phases related to co-creating an educational music game (i.e., orientation, creation, gameplay) called upon participants' five creative dimensions (e.g., being collaborative, being imaginative, being disciplined, being persistent, and being curious) (Lucas, 2016) in particular ways, depending on the type of activities performed during each phase. Regarding participants' engagement, our results allowed us to identify the eight factors (O'Neill, 2013) that contributed, to varying degrees, to sustaining participants' perceived engagement. As an example, the factor related to the perceived challenges during the co-creation of a music learning game was the factor that contributed the most to sustaining participants' engagement towards this learning activity. In contrast, the lack of perceived support from a teammate as well as the participants' instrument teachers was the factor that least supported participants engagement in this activity. Also, our observations and the group interview allowed us to identify and describe the moments where participants seemed to manifest their engagement during the creation of their game. For example, by remaining focused on the task, by verbally showing an appreciation for the task and the learning acquired, by persevering during difficulties and challenges, among other examples. In addition, the researcher's critical reflections noted that her previous experiences as a violin teacher and research assistant may have influenced her choices of learning alignments (Jones, 2005) throughout the co-creation process with the participants, notably a preference for less hierarchical pedagogical approaches (i.e., midwife, fellow traveler). Also, her reflection noted that the most effective pedagogical strategies were those that reflected an interconnectedness between the three components of creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011). Specifically, when the activity being conducted called upon students' creativity (creative teaching) and was well supported by an open and flexible attitude on her part (teaching for creativity), this resulted in a creative learning experience for the participants. In contrast, the less effective strategies were those that reflected a lack of connection among these components, either when she adopted an invasive attitude that did not respect the autonomy of the participants (i.e., less effective teaching for creativity that affects creative learning) or when the way that an activity was carried out did not maximize the intended opportunities for creative expression (i.e.: less effective creative teaching that results in less creative learning). Finally, the pedagogical intervention implemented by the researcher allowed us to identify the set of educational, operational, and conceptual models (e.g., Jones, 2005; Lin, 2011; Lucas, 2016 and O'Neill, 2013) that allowed us to establish the pedagogical foundations to structure a learning activity based on the co-creation of music learning games.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CorpusULarrow_drop_down
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    Other ORP type . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CorpusULarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lescouët, Emmanuelle;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Martin, Joris;

    L'avènement du monde numérique a sans nul doute, constitué l'une des avancées les plus incroyable et les plus soudaine que notre monde n'ait jamais rencontrée. Les avancées technologiques ont en effet permis une multitude de bienfaits, que ce soit au niveau de l'accès aux soins médicaux, afin d'accéder à la culture, de nous connecter avec les autres, de découvrir le monde... Néanmoins, certains acteurs ont profité de ce bouleversement, et des transformations, que le numérique a apporté, sur notre mode consommation, d'interaction, et plus généralement, de notre mode de vie, dans l'optique de générer des profits. En effet, qui dit transformation du monde, induit nouvelles opportunités financières et pécuniaires, pour qui sauront les saisir. C'est le cas de certains nouveaux acteurs issus de ce monde numérique, qu'il est désormais courant de nommer les GAFA. En effet, la progressive digitalisation de notre monde provoque de façon mécanique un basculement de nos habitudes de vie, sur supports numériques. Dès lors, notre passage sur le digital se verra être jonché de traces que nous laissons, que se soit dans le cadre d'une recherche internet, d'un achat sur un site de e-commerce, ou encore par le bais de nos outils qui nécessitent le recours à une connexion internet, plus communément appelés les nouveaux objets connectés. Néanmoins, cette réalité pose un problème de taille, celui de la vie privée, et de sa protection. En effet, le basculement sur ce nouveau monde numérique plein de promesses, va de pair avec une mise à disposition de nos données personnelles, données qui traduisent qui nous sommes, et ce que nous faisons. Dès lors, certains de ces nouveaux acteurs économiques issus du monde numérique ont pris pleinement conscience du potentiel économique que ces données personnelles revêtent, incitant même certaines de ces entreprises à mettre en place un système économique intégralement basé sur leur exploitation. Ces différentes pratiques sont souvent qualifiées d'attentatoires pour notre vie privée, et ont poussés certains penseurs et acteurs du numérique à considérer que nos cadres juridiques en la matière étaient devenus quelque peu obsolètes. À cet effet, une partie de la doctrine estime que nos données personnelles devraient être entièrement sous notre contrôle, par le biais d'un régime juridique mieux adapté à notre époque, en l'espèce le régime de la patrimonialisation des données personnelles, qu'il conviendra d'analyser dans le cadre de ce mémoire de recherche.

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    CorpusUL
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    Authors: Lasuik, Jordan;

    For over a century the complicated nature of cosmic rays has provided mankind with many unanswered questions. Due to the non linear nature of turbulent magnetic fields and their interaction with charged particles there has been a mathematical struggle in the scientific community to find answers to some of these questions. In this thesis, the fundamental equation of cosmic ray propagation (the Fokker-Planck equation) is examined alongside its properties. The solution to this equation is found numerically, as well as approximated analytically, and the most popular models for the undetermined, Fokker-Planck scattering coefficient, are examined. As well, the perpendicular diffusion coefficients that drive the nature of cosmic ray propagation are examined by using the most contemporary theoretical model, time dependent UNLT theory. This theory demands assumptions for both the magnetic correlation tensor and the particle distribution function, therefore the most commonly made assumptions for each are explored.

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    Authors: Sobowale, Omotuyole Regina;

    River restoration projects aim to address issues arising from river degradation. Through selecting two river restoration cases in Nairobi, the purpose of this research was to examine the public participation and social learning needs and outcomes of such undertakings. Following a qualitative approach, data were gathered through document reviews, river walks, 35 semi-structured interviews and a workshop. Data from both cases showed strong public support for restoration due to expected ecological and scenic improvements. Findings also revealed public participation process strengths, such as the inclusion of community groups and communication of project information. Cognitive enhancement including increased knowledge on recycling, waste management and the benefit of river restoration. However, opportunities for individual and group learning outcomes in the Nairobi River Basin Rehabilitation and Restoration Program were limited, mostly due to the poor quality of consultations undertaken, lack of access to information and limited public involvement in planning.

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    Authors: Karpa, Jane;

    Notoriously known as the ‘silent epidemic’, Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) has reached worldwide epidemic proportions. While ABIs are manifested in individuals, families’ lives are dramatically affected by ABIs. These post ABI changes can directly impact individuals’ and families’ experiences and include a sense of loss. To date, the majority of evidence on how ABI affects families has been provided by examining individual family members who present their views of the “family perspective”. The science on ABI and families is limited in examining the family group perspective of their experiences living with ABI. The purpose of this research study was to examine families’ experiences living with ABI. This narrative inquiry study, informed by the life-stage approach of Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach and Zilber, and the narrative analysis model by Riessman, and guided by ambiguous loss theory, used a research approach that included both the affected individual family member and the family together as a family group. Transactional data were collected through individual family group face-to face interviews with six different families. Data were also collected through ethnographic methods. Data analysis included an in-depth within case analysis and an across case analysis to identify themes that reflected families’ experiences living with ABI. Centered on the life stages of before the ABI event, now living with the ABI, and the future, thematic findings included: Families, a grounding force; Losses, individual and family; Family adaptive capacities; Experiences with the health care system-hospital to home; and A patchwork future-entering the unknown. The thematic findings from this study affirmed the significant impacts of ABI on individual and family members and acknowledged ABI as an ambiguous loss event. However, the findings also illuminated families’ strengths and resiliencies in coping with living with ABI. The study findings suggest minimal supports exist for families impacted by ABI and health care professionals need to acknowledge and attend to the entire family system and not just the individual and primary care giver. The study results suggest by THINKING FAMILY health care professionals can contribute towards a health care model that focuses on ‘family’ as the central unit of care.

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    Authors: University Advancement & Communications, University of Regina;

    Public safety personnel (PSP) work hard every day to protect Canadians, and provide safe, secure, strong, and resilient communities for all. They are often exposed to potentially traumatic incidents on the job. On any given day, PSP could be responding to a violent shooting, a fatal accident, a natural disaster, or any other emergency situation. Staff no

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    oURspace
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5,617 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aghanoori, MohamadReza;

    Background: There is impaired neurotrophic growth factor signaling, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes exhibiting diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in diabetes drives depression of AMPK activity and mitochondrial function, both contributing to development of DSPN. Methods: Age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats with/without IGF-1 therapy or insulin implants were used for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, adult DRG neurons derived from control or STZ-diabetic rats were cultured under defined conditions and treated with/without IGF-1 or insulin. Activators or inhibitors targeting components of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways were used to unravel the mechanism of insulin/IGF-1 action in DRG neurons. Results: Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth, and augmented mitochondrial function in DRG cultures derived from control or type 1 diabetic rats. In STZ-diabetic rats insulin implants reversed thermal sensitivity, increased dermal nerve density and restored the expression/activity of respiratory chain proteins in DRG. Decreased expression of mRNAs for IGF-1, AMPKα2 and ATP5a1 (subunit of ATPase) occurred in DRG of diabetic vs. control rats. IGF-1 up-regulated mRNA levels of these genes in cultured DRG neurons from control or diabetic rats. IGF-1 elevation of mitochondrial function, mtDNA and neurite outgrowth was suppressed by inhibition of AMPK (via siRNA). IGF-1 therapy in diabetic rats reversed thermal hypoalgesia, raised corneal nerve density and prevented tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway metabolite build-up in the sciatic nerve. Endogenous IGF-1 gene expression in neurons of the DRG was suppressed by hyperglycemia and rescued by treatment with IGF-1 or the aldose reductase inhibitor, sorbinil. Transcription factors NFAT1 and CEBP-β bound to the IGF-1 promoter in DRG tissue at higher levels in control vs diabetic rats. Inhibition of endogenous IGF-1 down-regulated Akt S473 phosphorylation and background neurite outgrowth in cultured DRG neurons. Conclusions: Insulin/IGF-1 therapy elevates mitochondrial function via AMPK to drive axonal repair in DSPN. Downregulation of endogenous IGF-1 in DRG neurons in diabetes may contribute to the pathogenesis of DSPN.

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    Authors: Singh, Gurankit;

    There are numerous properties of biomaterials, existing in the nature which are still unknown to the scientific community. Different modifications to the biomaterials can unlock new properties of these materials. This leads to the development of whole new type of material which can be used as an alternative to the existing materials and contribute to wide range of new applications. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are one of the best strategies for controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering and biosensing based applications. Here in we report, a novel pH-sensitive and biodegradable hydrogel systems based on the carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The mechanical property of CMC changes from acidic to basic medium. This property is the reversible sol-gel conversion (solution phase to gel phase) of CMC solution based on the pH changes, and it was used in this work to synthesize peel-able onion like multimembrane hydrogels for a controlled fluorescein drug delivery model to intestine in gastro-intestine systems. Dissolution rates of the hydrogels was altered by using different concentrations of CMC and different number of hydrogels layers. Furthermore, CMC was used as a novel 3D printable bioink for potential biomaterial-based applications. The resulting CMC 3D printed structures were further used as a real-time wireless biosensor and for designing microfluidic channels. The mechanical properties and characterization of the CMC were studied by using rheology tests, FT-IR and 1H NMR.

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    Authors: Semnani, Mohammad;

    A new method for efficient calibration of complex hydrological models that combines Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) global optimization algorithm with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) methods is introduced. This approach, which is called sensitivity-informed DDS, utilizes sensitivity indices to increase the probability of perturbation for the most sensitive parameters, while giving low chance to least sensitive ones. This feature improves the efficiency and effectiveness of optimization by finding good quality solutions in a shorter time. Three different implementations of sensitivity-informed DDS are considered. The first approach is named as GSA↔DDS, in which GSA toolboxes (Morris or Sobol) are performed initially and throughout the optimization process to constantly update the sensitivity information. The second approach is called GSA→DDS. In this method, the GSA methods are only performed initially to include the results of GSA within optimization process. The final implementation is called VARS→DDS. In this method, to enhance the efficiency of sensitivity analysis and optimization, VARS toolbox is performed outside the optimization to provide the sensitivity information. The performances of GSA↔DDS, GSA→DDS and VARS→DDS are compared with original DDS by solving various optimization problems (test functions and model calibration case studies). According to the results, when calibrating complex hydrological models with enough computational budget, VARS→DDS is significantly more efficient and effective than original DDS. However, the results also show that GSA→DDS and GSA↔DDS methods do not substantially improve the convergence rate and the final best solution compared to DDS. Thus, VARS→DDS is the recommended approach for sensitivity-informed DDS in calibration of distributed and semi-distributed models, when enough computational resources are available.

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    Authors: Marin Jimenez, Astrid Patricia;

    Cette recherche doctorale a exploré la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif. Plus spécifiquement, elle a exploré cette activité pédagogique créative pour diversifier les approches pédagogiques qualifiées de créatives qui ont été documentées jusqu'à présent en musique, notamment en contexte extrascolaire. Pour ce faire, ce projet doctoral a été structuré autour de quatre objectifs : 1) documenter les activités mises en place et réalisées durant le processus de co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif avec un groupe de jeunes musiciens apprenant un instrument de musique en contexte extrascolaire; 2) décrire les habitudes créatives (Lucas, 2016) qui ont été sollicitées par les participants tout au long du processus de création de leur jeu musical éducatif; 3) décrire, à partir des 8 facteurs proposés par O'Neill (2013), l'engagement perçu et manifesté par les participants durant la co-création de leur jeu musical éducatif; et 4) porter un regard critique, basé sur les trois composantes d'une pédagogie créative (Lin, 2011), envers l'approche pédagogique créative que la chercheure a mis en œuvre pour réussir cette activité d'apprentissage avec les participants. Un total de sept jeunes musiciens apprenant divers instruments musicaux (ex. : piano, guitare, violon, violoncelle) ont participé aux dix séances animées par la chercheure pour co-créer leur jeu musical éducatif. Différents outils de collecte de données ont été utilisés pour documenter ce projet : des enregistrements vidéo des séances, des observations, un questionnaire sur l'engagement envers l'activité réalisée (O'Neill, 2013), et un entretien de groupe pour approfondir la compréhension de l'activité d'apprentissage étudiée. Les résultats issus de ce projet de recherche ont mis en lumière que l'activité de co-création du jeu musical éducatif réalisé par les participants a fait appel aux trois composantes de la pédagogie créative de Lin (2011), soit l'enseignement créatif et l'enseignement pour la créativité dans la pédagogie de la chercheure, et l'apprentissage créatif des participants. Concernant leur apprentissage créatif, nos résultats ont mis en évidence que chacune des phases liées à la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif (orientation, création, gameplay) ont fait appel aux cinq dimensions créatives suggérées par Lucas (2016) (ex. : être collaboratif, être imaginatif, être discipliné, être persistant, et être curieux), mais de façon différente selon le type d'activités réalisées et de la phase de co-création à laquelle les participants travaillaient. Quant à l'engagement des participants, nos résultats ont permis de relever que les 8 facteurs proposés par O'Neill (2013) ont soutenu, à des degrés divers toutefois, l'engagement perçu par nos participants. À ce titre, le facteur en lien avec les défis perçus durant la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif a été celui qui a le plus contribué à soutenir leur engagement envers cette activité d'apprentissage. Nos observations des enregistrements vidéo ainsi que l'entretien de groupe réalisé à la fin du projet ont permis d'identifier et de décrire les moments où les participants ont manifesté leur engagement durant la création de leur jeu, c'est-à-dire lorsqu'ils restaient concentrés sur la tâche qu'ils réalisaient, lorsqu'ils manifestaient leur appréciation envers la tâche réalisée et les apprentissages acquis, ou lorsqu'ils persévéraient face à des difficultés, entre autres exemples. Par ailleurs, les réflexions critiques de la chercheure sur sa pédagogie ont fait ressortir que ses expériences précédentes en tant qu'enseignante du violon et d'auxiliaire de recherche ont possiblement influencé ses choix d'alignement d'apprentissages (Jones, 2005) tout au long du processus de co-création avec les participants, notamment en démontrant une préférence envers des approches pédagogiques moins hiérarchiques (midwife, fellow traveller). De plus, sa réflexion a relevé que les stratégies pédagogiques qui ont été plus efficaces pour co-créer le jeu musical éducatif ont été celles qui reflétaient une interconnexion entre les trois composantes de la pédagogie créative (Lin, 2011). À titre d'exemple, cette interconnexion se manifestait lorsque l'activité réalisée faisait appel à la créativité des participants (enseignement créatif), à l'aide d'une attitude ouverte et flexible de sa part (enseignement pour la créativité), laquelle entraîne à une expérience d'apprentissage créatif des participants. Finalement, l'intervention pédagogique implémentée par la chercheure a permis d'identifier les aspects liés aux modèles éducatifs, opérationnels et conceptuels utilisés pour mener son intervention éducative. Ces modèles ont été nécessaires pour établir les fondements pédagogiques qui se sont avérés pertinents pour structurer son activité d'apprentissage autour de la co-création d'un jeu musical éducatif. This doctoral research explored the co-creation of an educational music game as a pedagogical activity that could diversify the creative pedagogy approaches (Lin, 2011) documented to date in music, particularly in out-of-school settings. To that end, this research project was structured around four objectives: 1) to document, supported by the Creative and Playful Learning model (Kangas, 2010), the activities that were necessary to successfully complete the process of co-creating a music learning game with a group of young musicians (10-14 years old); 2) to describe the creative dimensions (Lucas, 2016) that were called upon by the participants throughout the process; 3) to describe, based on O'Neill's (2013) eight factors of engagement, the perceived and demonstrated engagement of the participants during the co-creation of their music learning game; and 4) to take a critical look, based on the three components of a creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011), towards the creative pedagogical approach the researcher implemented to successfully complete this learning activity with the participants. A total of seven young musicians learning a musical instrument (e.g., piano, guitar, violin, or cello) in an out-of-school context participated in ten music-learning-game-co-creation sessions facilitated by the researcher. Various data collection tools were used, including video recordings of the sessions, observations, an engagement questionnaire (O'Neill, 2013), and a group interview. The findings from this research project highlighted that the process of co-creating a music learning game put into action the three components of a creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011), notably creative teaching and teaching for creativity (in the researcher), and creative learning (in the participants). In relation to creative learning our results highlight that each of the phases related to co-creating an educational music game (i.e., orientation, creation, gameplay) called upon participants' five creative dimensions (e.g., being collaborative, being imaginative, being disciplined, being persistent, and being curious) (Lucas, 2016) in particular ways, depending on the type of activities performed during each phase. Regarding participants' engagement, our results allowed us to identify the eight factors (O'Neill, 2013) that contributed, to varying degrees, to sustaining participants' perceived engagement. As an example, the factor related to the perceived challenges during the co-creation of a music learning game was the factor that contributed the most to sustaining participants' engagement towards this learning activity. In contrast, the lack of perceived support from a teammate as well as the participants' instrument teachers was the factor that least supported participants engagement in this activity. Also, our observations and the group interview allowed us to identify and describe the moments where participants seemed to manifest their engagement during the creation of their game. For example, by remaining focused on the task, by verbally showing an appreciation for the task and the learning acquired, by persevering during difficulties and challenges, among other examples. In addition, the researcher's critical reflections noted that her previous experiences as a violin teacher and research assistant may have influenced her choices of learning alignments (Jones, 2005) throughout the co-creation process with the participants, notably a preference for less hierarchical pedagogical approaches (i.e., midwife, fellow traveler). Also, her reflection noted that the most effective pedagogical strategies were those that reflected an interconnectedness between the three components of creative pedagogy (Lin, 2011). Specifically, when the activity being conducted called upon students' creativity (creative teaching) and was well supported by an open and flexible attitude on her part (teaching for creativity), this resulted in a creative learning experience for the participants. In contrast, the less effective strategies were those that reflected a lack of connection among these components, either when she adopted an invasive attitude that did not respect the autonomy of the participants (i.e., less effective teaching for creativity that affects creative learning) or when the way that an activity was carried out did not maximize the intended opportunities for creative expression (i.e.: less effective creative teaching that results in less creative learning). Finally, the pedagogical intervention implemented by the researcher allowed us to identify the set of educational, operational, and conceptual models (e.g., Jones, 2005; Lin, 2011; Lucas, 2016 and O'Neill, 2013) that allowed us to establish the pedagogical foundations to structure a learning activity based on the co-creation of music learning games.

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    Authors: Lescouët, Emmanuelle;
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    Authors: Martin, Joris;

    L'avènement du monde numérique a sans nul doute, constitué l'une des avancées les plus incroyable et les plus soudaine que notre monde n'ait jamais rencontrée. Les avancées technologiques ont en effet permis une multitude de bienfaits, que ce soit au niveau de l'accès aux soins médicaux, afin d'accéder à la culture, de nous connecter avec les autres, de découvrir le monde... Néanmoins, certains acteurs ont profité de ce bouleversement, et des transformations, que le numérique a apporté, sur notre mode consommation, d'interaction, et plus généralement, de notre mode de vie, dans l'optique de générer des profits. En effet, qui dit transformation du monde, induit nouvelles opportunités financières et pécuniaires, pour qui sauront les saisir. C'est le cas de certains nouveaux acteurs issus de ce monde numérique, qu'il est désormais courant de nommer les GAFA. En effet, la progressive digitalisation de notre monde provoque de façon mécanique un basculement de nos habitudes de vie, sur supports numériques. Dès lors, notre passage sur le digital se verra être jonché de traces que nous laissons, que se soit dans le cadre d'une recherche internet, d'un achat sur un site de e-commerce, ou encore par le bais de nos outils qui nécessitent le recours à une connexion internet, plus communément appelés les nouveaux objets connectés. Néanmoins, cette réalité pose un problème de taille, celui de la vie privée, et de sa protection. En effet, le basculement sur ce nouveau monde numérique plein de promesses, va de pair avec une mise à disposition de nos données personnelles, données qui traduisent qui nous sommes, et ce que nous faisons. Dès lors, certains de ces nouveaux acteurs économiques issus du monde numérique ont pris pleinement conscience du potentiel économique que ces données personnelles revêtent, incitant même certaines de ces entreprises à mettre en place un système économique intégralement basé sur leur exploitation. Ces différentes pratiques sont souvent qualifiées d'attentatoires pour notre vie privée, et ont poussés certains penseurs et acteurs du numérique à considérer que nos cadres juridiques en la matière étaient devenus quelque peu obsolètes. À cet effet, une partie de la doctrine estime que nos données personnelles devraient être entièrement sous notre contrôle, par le biais d'un régime juridique mieux adapté à notre époque, en l'espèce le régime de la patrimonialisation des données personnelles, qu'il conviendra d'analyser dans le cadre de ce mémoire de recherche.

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