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  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arvind Rajamani; Ashwin Subramaniam; Kiran Shekar; Jumana Haji; Jinghang Luo; Shailesh Bihari; Wai Tat Wong; Navya Gullapalli; Markus Renner; Claudia Maria Alcancia; +2 more
    Country: Australia

    Abstract Background There has been a surge in coronavirus disease 2019 admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) in Asia-Pacific countries. Because ICU healthcare workers are exposed to aerosol-generating procedures, ensuring optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) preparedness is important. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate PPE preparedness across ICUs in six Asia-Pacific countries during the initial phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which is defined by the World Health Organization as guideline adherence, training healthcare workers, procuring stocks, and responding appropriately to suspected cases. Methods A cross-sectional Web-based survey was circulated to 633 level II/III ICUs of Australia, New Zealand (NZ), Singapore, Hong Kong (HK), India, and the Philippines. Findings Two hundred sixty-three intensivists responded, representing 231 individual ICUs eligible for analysis. Response rates were 68–100% in all countries except India, where it was 24%. Ninety-seven percent of ICUs either conformed to or exceeded World Health Organization recommendations for PPE practice. Fifty-nine percent ICUs used airborne precautions irrespective of aerosol generation procedures. There were variations in negative-pressure room use (highest in HK/Singapore), training (best in NZ), and PPE stock awareness (best in HK/Singapore/NZ). High-flow nasal oxygenation and noninvasive ventilation were not options in most HK (66.7% and 83.3%, respectively) and Singapore ICUs (50% and 80%, respectively), but were considered in other countries to a greater extent. Thirty-eight percent ICUs reported not having specialised airway teams. Showering and “buddy systems” were underused. Clinical waste disposal training was suboptimal (38%). Conclusions Many ICUs in the Asia-Pacific reported suboptimal PPE preparedness in several domains, particularly related to PPE training, practice, and stock awareness, which requires remediation. Adoption of low-cost approaches such as buddy systems should be encouraged. The complete avoidance of high-flow nasal oxygenation reported by several intensivists needs reconsideration. Consideration must be given to standardise PPE guidelines to minimise practice variations. Urgent research to evaluate PPE preparedness and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission is required.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; +13 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Summary Healthcare workers involved in aerosol‐generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID‐19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use, and subsequent provider health status was collected via self‐reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory‐confirmed COVID‐19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring self‐isolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure‐related factors, and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow‐up of 32 (18–48 [0–116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14 and 21 days of the first tracheal intubation episode was 3.6%, 6.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The risk of the primary endpoint varied by country and was higher in females, but was not associated with other factors. Around 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 subsequently reported a COVID‐19 outcome. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID‐19 transmission.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Qi Zhang; Miao Gui; Xuefeng Niu; Shihua He; Ruoke Wang; Yupeng Feng; Andrea Kroeker; Yanan Zuo; Hua Wang; Ying Wang; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Ebola virus infections cause a deadly hemorrhagic disease for which no vaccines or therapeutics has received regulatory approval. Here we show isolation of three (Q206, Q314 and Q411) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus identified in West Africa in 2014 through sequential immunization of Chinese rhesus macaques and antigen-specific single B cell sorting. These mAbs demonstrated potent neutralizing activities against both pseudo and live Ebola virus independent of complement. Biochemical, single particle EM, and mutagenesis analysis suggested Q206 and Q411 recognized novel epitopes in the head while Q314 targeted the glycan cap in the GP1 subunit. Q206 and Q411 appeared to influence GP binding to its receptor NPC1. Treatment with these mAbs provided partial but significant protection against disease in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection. These novel mAbs could serve as promising candidates for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric A. Coomes; Humaid O. Al-Shamsi; Brandon M. Meyers; Waleed Alhazzani; Ahmad Alhuraiji; Roy F. Chemaly; Meshari Almuhanna; Robert A. Wolff; Nuhad K. Ibrahim; Melvin L.K. Chua; +6 more
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    This letter to the editor remarks on additional considerations for the management of febrile neutropenia during the COVID-19 pandemic, in response to the letter by Boutayeb et al.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fulian Yin; Xinyu Xia; Nan Song; Lingyao Zhu; Jianhong Wu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Project: NSERC

    BackgroudEffective communication of accurate information through social media constitutes an important component of public health interventions in modern time, when traditional public health approaches such as contact tracing, quarantine and isolation are among the few options for the containing the disease spread in the population. The success of control of COVID-19 outbreak started from Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province of China relies heavily on the resilience of residents to follow public health interventions which induce substantial interruption of social-economic activities, and evidence shows that opinion leaders have been playing significant roles in the propagation of epidemic information and public health policy and implementations.MethodsWe design a mathematical model to quantify the roles of information superspreaders in single specific information which outbreaks rapidly and usually has a short duration period, and to examine the information propagation dynamics in the Chinese Sina-microblog. Our opinion-leader susceptible-forwarding-immune (OL-SFI) model is formulated to track the temporal evolution of forwarding quantities generated by opinion leaders and normal users.ResultsData fitting from the real data of COVID-19 obtained from Chinese Sina-microblog can identify the different contact rates and forwarding probabilities (and hence calculate the basic information forwarding reproduction number of superspreaders), and can be used to evaluate the roles of opinion leaders in different stages of the information propagation and the outbreak unfolding.ConclusionsThe parameterized model can be used to nearcast the information propagation trend, and the model-based sensitivity analysis can help to explore important factors for the roles of opinion leaders.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michelle K. McGuire; Antti Seppo; Ameena Ebrahim Goga; Danilo Buonsenso; Maria Carmen Collado; Sharon M. Donovan; Janis A. Müller; Gaston Ofman; Michele Monroy-Valle; Deborah L O'Connor; +2 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers
    Country: Spain

    In addition to providing life-giving nutrients and other substances to the breastfed infant, human milk can also represent a vehicle of pathogen transfer. As such, when an infectious disease outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic occurs—particularly when it is associated with a novel pathogen—the question will naturally arise as to whether the pathogen can be transmitted through breastfeeding. Until high-quality data are generated to answer this question, abandonment of breastfeeding due to uncertainty can result. The COVID-19 pandemic, which was in full swing at the time this document was written, is an excellent example of this scenario. During these times of uncertainty, it is critical for investigators conducting research to assess the possible transmission of pathogens through milk, whether by transfer through the mammary gland or contamination from respiratory droplets, skin, breast pumps, and milk containers, and/or close contact between mother and infant. To promote the most rigorous science, it is critical to outline optimal methods for milk collection, handling, storage, and analysis in these situations, and investigators should openly share their methods in published materials. Otherwise, the risks of inconsistent test results from preanalytical and analytical variation, false positives, and false negatives are unacceptably high and the ability to provide public health guidance poor. In this study, we provide ‘‘best practices’’ for collecting human milk samples for COVID-19 research with the intention that this will also be a useful guide for future pandemics. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robert Marten; Fadi El-Jardali; Assad Hafeez; Johanna Hanefeld; Gabriel M. Leung; Abdul Ghaffar;
    Publisher: BMJ
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada, Germany

    The covid-19 response is creating the opportunity for an accelerated and inclusive shift towards co-production for policy making It has brought a focus to three cross cutting issues: building on established structures; working together to co-produce research; and disseminating research and engaging communities. The covid-19 pandemic has forced policy makers to rethink the formal and informal structures of how, where, when, and with whom they collaborate, including with researchers as well as the broader public, patients, and communities. Unprecedented levels of public attention during the covid-19 pandemic have posed new challenges to evidence based policy making, particularly in terms of communicating sometimes complicated science and dealing with an overabundance of information.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,272 Research products, page 1 of 128
  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Angela M. Caliendo; David N. Gilbert; Christine C. Ginocchio; Kimberly E. Hanson; Larissa S May; Thomas C. Quinn; Fred C. Tenover; David Alland; Anne J. Blaschke; Robert A. Bonomo; +8 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arvind Rajamani; Ashwin Subramaniam; Kiran Shekar; Jumana Haji; Jinghang Luo; Shailesh Bihari; Wai Tat Wong; Navya Gullapalli; Markus Renner; Claudia Maria Alcancia; +2 more
    Country: Australia

    Abstract Background There has been a surge in coronavirus disease 2019 admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) in Asia-Pacific countries. Because ICU healthcare workers are exposed to aerosol-generating procedures, ensuring optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) preparedness is important. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate PPE preparedness across ICUs in six Asia-Pacific countries during the initial phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which is defined by the World Health Organization as guideline adherence, training healthcare workers, procuring stocks, and responding appropriately to suspected cases. Methods A cross-sectional Web-based survey was circulated to 633 level II/III ICUs of Australia, New Zealand (NZ), Singapore, Hong Kong (HK), India, and the Philippines. Findings Two hundred sixty-three intensivists responded, representing 231 individual ICUs eligible for analysis. Response rates were 68–100% in all countries except India, where it was 24%. Ninety-seven percent of ICUs either conformed to or exceeded World Health Organization recommendations for PPE practice. Fifty-nine percent ICUs used airborne precautions irrespective of aerosol generation procedures. There were variations in negative-pressure room use (highest in HK/Singapore), training (best in NZ), and PPE stock awareness (best in HK/Singapore/NZ). High-flow nasal oxygenation and noninvasive ventilation were not options in most HK (66.7% and 83.3%, respectively) and Singapore ICUs (50% and 80%, respectively), but were considered in other countries to a greater extent. Thirty-eight percent ICUs reported not having specialised airway teams. Showering and “buddy systems” were underused. Clinical waste disposal training was suboptimal (38%). Conclusions Many ICUs in the Asia-Pacific reported suboptimal PPE preparedness in several domains, particularly related to PPE training, practice, and stock awareness, which requires remediation. Adoption of low-cost approaches such as buddy systems should be encouraged. The complete avoidance of high-flow nasal oxygenation reported by several intensivists needs reconsideration. Consideration must be given to standardise PPE guidelines to minimise practice variations. Urgent research to evaluate PPE preparedness and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission is required.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kariem El-Boghdadly; Danny J.N. Wong; Ruth Owen; Mark D. Neuman; Stuart J. Pocock; J. B. Carlisle; C. Johnstone; P. Andruszkiewicz; Paul A. Baker; Bruce M Biccard; +13 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Summary Healthcare workers involved in aerosol‐generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID‐19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use, and subsequent provider health status was collected via self‐reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory‐confirmed COVID‐19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring self‐isolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure‐related factors, and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow‐up of 32 (18–48 [0–116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14 and 21 days of the first tracheal intubation episode was 3.6%, 6.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. The risk of the primary endpoint varied by country and was higher in females, but was not associated with other factors. Around 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 subsequently reported a COVID‐19 outcome. This has human resource implications for institutional capacity to deliver essential healthcare services, and wider societal implications for COVID‐19 transmission.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Qi Zhang; Miao Gui; Xuefeng Niu; Shihua He; Ruoke Wang; Yupeng Feng; Andrea Kroeker; Yanan Zuo; Hua Wang; Ying Wang; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Ebola virus infections cause a deadly hemorrhagic disease for which no vaccines or therapeutics has received regulatory approval. Here we show isolation of three (Q206, Q314 and Q411) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus identified in West Africa in 2014 through sequential immunization of Chinese rhesus macaques and antigen-specific single B cell sorting. These mAbs demonstrated potent neutralizing activities against both pseudo and live Ebola virus independent of complement. Biochemical, single particle EM, and mutagenesis analysis suggested Q206 and Q411 recognized novel epitopes in the head while Q314 targeted the glycan cap in the GP1 subunit. Q206 and Q411 appeared to influence GP binding to its receptor NPC1. Treatment with these mAbs provided partial but significant protection against disease in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection. These novel mAbs could serve as promising candidates for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eric A. Coomes; Humaid O. Al-Shamsi; Brandon M. Meyers; Waleed Alhazzani; Ahmad Alhuraiji; Roy F. Chemaly; Meshari Almuhanna; Robert A. Wolff; Nuhad K. Ibrahim; Melvin L.K. Chua; +6 more
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    This letter to the editor remarks on additional considerations for the management of febrile neutropenia during the COVID-19 pandemic, in response to the letter by Boutayeb et al.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evelien Dekker; Han-Mo Chiu; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar; Luis E. Caro; Jason A. Dominitz; Stephen P Halloran; Cesare Hassan; Julia Ismael; Rodrigo Jover; Michal F. Kaminski; +13 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fulian Yin; Xinyu Xia; Nan Song; Lingyao Zhu; Jianhong Wu;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Project: NSERC

    BackgroudEffective communication of accurate information through social media constitutes an important component of public health interventions in modern time, when traditional public health approaches such as contact tracing, quarantine and isolation are among the few options for the containing the disease spread in the population. The success of control of COVID-19 outbreak started from Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province of China relies heavily on the resilience of residents to follow public health interventions which induce substantial interruption of social-economic activities, and evidence shows that opinion leaders have been playing significant roles in the propagation of epidemic information and public health policy and implementations.MethodsWe design a mathematical model to quantify the roles of information superspreaders in single specific information which outbreaks rapidly and usually has a short duration period, and to examine the information propagation dynamics in the Chinese Sina-microblog. Our opinion-leader susceptible-forwarding-immune (OL-SFI) model is formulated to track the temporal evolution of forwarding quantities generated by opinion leaders and normal users.ResultsData fitting from the real data of COVID-19 obtained from Chinese Sina-microblog can identify the different contact rates and forwarding probabilities (and hence calculate the basic information forwarding reproduction number of superspreaders), and can be used to evaluate the roles of opinion leaders in different stages of the information propagation and the outbreak unfolding.ConclusionsThe parameterized model can be used to nearcast the information propagation trend, and the model-based sensitivity analysis can help to explore important factors for the roles of opinion leaders.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michelle K. McGuire; Antti Seppo; Ameena Ebrahim Goga; Danilo Buonsenso; Maria Carmen Collado; Sharon M. Donovan; Janis A. Müller; Gaston Ofman; Michele Monroy-Valle; Deborah L O'Connor; +2 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers
    Country: Spain

    In addition to providing life-giving nutrients and other substances to the breastfed infant, human milk can also represent a vehicle of pathogen transfer. As such, when an infectious disease outbreak, epidemic, or pandemic occurs—particularly when it is associated with a novel pathogen—the question will naturally arise as to whether the pathogen can be transmitted through breastfeeding. Until high-quality data are generated to answer this question, abandonment of breastfeeding due to uncertainty can result. The COVID-19 pandemic, which was in full swing at the time this document was written, is an excellent example of this scenario. During these times of uncertainty, it is critical for investigators conducting research to assess the possible transmission of pathogens through milk, whether by transfer through the mammary gland or contamination from respiratory droplets, skin, breast pumps, and milk containers, and/or close contact between mother and infant. To promote the most rigorous science, it is critical to outline optimal methods for milk collection, handling, storage, and analysis in these situations, and investigators should openly share their methods in published materials. Otherwise, the risks of inconsistent test results from preanalytical and analytical variation, false positives, and false negatives are unacceptably high and the ability to provide public health guidance poor. In this study, we provide ‘‘best practices’’ for collecting human milk samples for COVID-19 research with the intention that this will also be a useful guide for future pandemics. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Robert Marten; Fadi El-Jardali; Assad Hafeez; Johanna Hanefeld; Gabriel M. Leung; Abdul Ghaffar;
    Publisher: BMJ
    Countries: United Kingdom, Canada, Germany

    The covid-19 response is creating the opportunity for an accelerated and inclusive shift towards co-production for policy making It has brought a focus to three cross cutting issues: building on established structures; working together to co-produce research; and disseminating research and engaging communities. The covid-19 pandemic has forced policy makers to rethink the formal and informal structures of how, where, when, and with whom they collaborate, including with researchers as well as the broader public, patients, and communities. Unprecedented levels of public attention during the covid-19 pandemic have posed new challenges to evidence based policy making, particularly in terms of communicating sometimes complicated science and dealing with an overabundance of information.