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  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LUMINOUS (686764), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Henk J M M Mutsaerts; Jan Petr; Paul F. C. Groot; Pieter Vandemaele; Silvia Ingala; Andrew D. Robertson; Lena Václavů; Inge Rasmus Groote; Hugo J. Kuijf; Fernando Zelaya; +33 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium
    Project: EC | CDS-QUAMRI (634541)

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has undergone significant development since its inception, with a focus on improving standardization and reproducibility of its acquisition and quantification. In a community-wide effort towards robust and reproducible clinical ASL image processing, we developed the software package ExploreASL, allowing standardized analyses across centers and scanners. The procedures used in ExploreASL capitalize on published image processing advancements and address the challenges of multi-center datasets with scanner-specific processing and artifact reduction to limit patient exclusion. ExploreASL is self-contained, written in MATLAB and based on Statistical Parameter Mapping (SPM) and runs on multiple operating systems. To facilitate collaboration and data-exchange, the toolbox follows several standards and recommendations for data structure, provenance, and best analysis practice. ExploreASL was iteratively refined and tested in the analysis of >10,000 ASL scans using different pulse-sequences in a variety of clinical populations, resulting in four processing modules: Import, Structural, ASL, and Population that perform tasks, respectively, for data curation, structural and ASL image processing and quality control, and finally preparing the results for statistical analyses on both single-subject and group level. We illustrate ExploreASL processing results from three cohorts: perinatally HIV-infected children, healthy adults, and elderly at risk for neurodegenerative disease. We show the reproducibility for each cohort when processed at different centers with different operating systems and MATLAB versions, and its effects on the quantification of gray matter cerebral blood flow. ExploreASL facilitates the standardization of image processing and quality control, allowing the pooling of cohorts which may increase statistical power and discover between-group perfusion differences. Ultimately, this workflow may advance ASL for wider adoption in clinical studies, trials, and practice.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jason L. Stein; Miguel E. Rentería; Alejandro Arias-Vasquez; Sylvane Desrivières; Neda Jahanshad; Roberto Toro; Katharina Wittfeld; Benjamin S. Aribisala; Manon Bernard; Marco P. Boks; +196 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, Canada, Netherlands, United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Ireland, Belgium ...

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Domenico Bongiovanni; Yi Hu; Benjamin Wetzel; Raul A. Robles; Gregorio Mendoza Gonzalez; Erwin A. Martí-Panameño; Zhigang Chen; Roberto Morandotti;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    We report the experimental observation of energetically confined self-accelerating optical beams propagating along various convex trajectories. We show that, under an appropriate transverse compression of their spatial spectra, these self-accelerating beams can exhibit a dramatic enhancement of their peak intensity and a significant decrease of their transverse expansion, yet retaining both the expected acceleration profile and the intrinsic self-healing properties. We found our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We expect further applications in such contexts where power budget and optimal spatial confinement can be important limiting factors.

  • Publication . Article . Report . Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Grigore Tarna; Maximiliano Sioli; Steven Robertson; D. Duschinger; John Parsons; J. Maneira; Kiyotomo Kawagoe; Pavol Strizenec; Claudia Bertella; Marcel Vos; +260 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Argentina, Poland, Portugal, Germany, Russian Federation, Denmark, Portugal, Turkey, Italy ...
    Project: NSERC

    The observation of Higgs boson production in association with a top quark pair ($t\bar{t}H$), based on the analysis of proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, is presented. Using data corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 79.8 f$^{−1}$ , and considering Higgs boson decays into $b\bar{b}, WW^⁎ , τ^+ τ^− , γγ$ , and $ZZ^⁎$ , the observed significance is 5.8 standard deviations, compared to an expectation of 4.9 standard deviations. Combined with the $t\bar{t}H$ searches using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb$^{−1}$ at 7 TeV and 20.3 fb$^{−1}$ at 8 TeV, the observed (expected) significance is 6.3 (5.1) standard deviations. Assuming Standard Model branching fractions, the total $t\bar{t}H$ production cross section at 13 TeV is measured to be 670 ± 90 (stat.)$_{−100}^{+110}$ (syst.) fb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. Physics letters / B 784, 173 - 191 (2018). doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2018.07.035 Published by North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    SNO Collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; +122 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Germany
    Project: NSERC

    Author(s): Aharmim, B; Ahmed, SN; Anthony, AE; Barros, N; Beier, EW; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, SD; Bonventre, R; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, MG; Cai, B; Callaghan, EJ; Caravaca, J; Chan, YD; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, BT; Cox, GA; Dai, X; Deng, H; Descamps, FB; Detwiler, JA; Doe, PJ; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Dunford, M; Elliott, SR; Evans, HC; Ewan, GT; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, RJ; Formaggio, JA; Gagnon, N; Gilje, K; Goon, JTM; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, RL; Hallin, AL; Hallman, ED; Harvey, PJ; Hazama, R; Heintzelman, WJ; Heise, J; Helmer, RL; Hime, A; Howard, C; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, NA; Jerkins, M; Keeter, KJ; Klein, JR; Kormos, LL; Kos, M; Kruger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, CB; Kutter, T; Kyba, CCM; Land, BJ; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, IT; Lesko, KT; Leslie, JR; Levine, I; Loach, JC; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, HB; Maneira, J; Martin, RD; Mastbaum, A; McCauley, N; McDonald, AB; McGee, SR; Miller, ML; Monreal, B | Abstract: Neutron production in GeV-scale neutrino interactions is a poorly studied process. We have measured the neutron multiplicities in atmospheric neutrino interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment and compared them to the prediction of a Monte Carlo simulation using GENIE and a minimally modified version of GEANT4. We analyzed 837 days of exposure corresponding to Phase I, using pure heavy water, and Phase II, using a mixture of Cl in heavy water. Neutrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions were identified with an efficiency of $15.3\%$ and $44.3\%$, for Phase I and II respectively. The neutron production is measured as a function of the visible energy of the neutrino interaction and, for charged current quasi-elastic interaction candidates, also as a function of the neutrino energy. This study is also performed classifying the complete sample into two pairs of event categories: charged current quasi-elastic and non charged current quasi-elastic, and $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_e$. Results show good overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo for both phases, with some small tension with a statistical significance below $2\sigma$ for some intermediate energies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Benjamin K. Sovacool; Götz Walter; Thijs Van de Graaf; Nathan Andrews;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Belgium

    Transnational standards for disclosure have become a defining feature of global governance and sound economic development, yet little is known about their effectiveness. This study statistically explores the efficacy of such standards for the important case of the\ud Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), an international non-governmental organization which maintains a voluntary standard for revenue transparency in the extractive industries. As of November 2015, 31 countries were ‘‘EITI Compliant” and another 49 were\ud ‘‘EITI Candidates.” In total, 49 countries had disclosed payments and revenues worth some $1.67 trillion in more than 200 ‘‘EITI Reports”, and over 90 major companies involved in oil, gas, and mining are committed to supporting the EITI. The EITI has also received support\ud from 84 global investment institutions that collectively manage about $16 trillion in energy infrastructural assets. Moreover, the European Union, African Union, G8 and G20, and the United Nations have all endorsed the EITI. This article provides the first broad empirical\ud examination of the EITI’s effectiveness in improving governance and economic development outcomes in its member countries using non-parametric tests, regression analysis, and data from the World Bank. We analyze the performance of the first 16 countries to attain\ud EITI Compliance Status over the period of 1996–2014. We find, interestingly, that in most metrics EITI countries do not perform better during EITI compliance than before it, and that they do not outperform other countries. We postulate four possible explanations behind the relative weakness of the EITI: a limited mandate, its voluntary nature, stakeholder resistance, and dependence on strong civil society.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. N. Ahmed; A. E. Anthony; E. W. Beier; Alain Bellerive; S. D. Biller; J. Boger; M.G. Boulay; M. G. Bowler; T. J. Bowles; S. J. Brice; +124 more
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    Data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory have been used to constrain the lifetime for nucleon decay to ``invisible'' modes, such as n -> 3 nu. The analysis was based on a search for gamma-rays from the de-excitation of the residual nucleus that would result from the disappearance of either a proton or neutron from O16. A limit of tau_inv > 2 x 10^{29} years is obtained at 90% confidence for either neutron or proton decay modes. This is about an order of magnitude more stringent than previous constraints on invisible proton decay modes and 400 times more stringent than similar neutron modes. Update includes missing efficiency factor (limits change by factor of 2) Submitted to Physical Review Letters

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peggy L. St. Jacques; Cheryl L. Grady; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Tiffany W. Chow;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affects emotional evaluation, but less is known regarding the patients' ability to remember emotional stimuli. Here, bvFTD patients and age-matched controls studied positive, negative, and neutral pictures followed by a recognition memory test. Compared to controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction in emotional evaluation of negative scenes, but not of positive or neutral scenes. Additionally, the patients showed an overall reduction in recognition memory accuracy, due to impaired recollection in the face of relatively preserved familiarity. These results show that bvFTD reduces the emotional evaluation of negative scenes and impairs overall recognition memory accuracy and recollection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hualong Bao; Andrew Cooper; Sai T. Chu; Dave J. Moss; Roberto Morandotti; Brent E. Little; Marco Peccianti; Alessia Pasquazi;
    Publisher: Optical Society of America
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | TIMING (725046)

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of highly coherent Type-II micro-combs based on a microresonator nested in a fiber cavity loop, known as the filter-driven four wave mixing (FD-FWM) laser scheme. In this system, the frequency spacing of the comb can be adjusted to integer multiples of the free-spectral range (FSR) of the nested micro-resonator by properly tuning the fiber cavity length. Sub-comb lines with single FSR spacing around the primary comb lines can be generated. Such a spectral emission is known as a “Type-II comb.” Our system achieves a fully coherent output. This behavior is verified by numerical simulations. This study represents an important step forward in controlling and manipulating the dynamics of an FD-FWM laser.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
431 Research products, page 1 of 44
  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tim Bayne; Anil K. Seth; Marcello Massimini;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LUMINOUS (686764), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907), EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory input nor able to be expressed by motor output. This Opinion paper considers conditions in which such islands might occur, including ex cranio brains, hemispherotomy, and in cerebral organoids. We examine possible methods for detecting islands of awareness, and consider their implications for ethics and for the nature of consciousness.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Henk J M M Mutsaerts; Jan Petr; Paul F. C. Groot; Pieter Vandemaele; Silvia Ingala; Andrew D. Robertson; Lena Václavů; Inge Rasmus Groote; Hugo J. Kuijf; Fernando Zelaya; +33 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium
    Project: EC | CDS-QUAMRI (634541)

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has undergone significant development since its inception, with a focus on improving standardization and reproducibility of its acquisition and quantification. In a community-wide effort towards robust and reproducible clinical ASL image processing, we developed the software package ExploreASL, allowing standardized analyses across centers and scanners. The procedures used in ExploreASL capitalize on published image processing advancements and address the challenges of multi-center datasets with scanner-specific processing and artifact reduction to limit patient exclusion. ExploreASL is self-contained, written in MATLAB and based on Statistical Parameter Mapping (SPM) and runs on multiple operating systems. To facilitate collaboration and data-exchange, the toolbox follows several standards and recommendations for data structure, provenance, and best analysis practice. ExploreASL was iteratively refined and tested in the analysis of >10,000 ASL scans using different pulse-sequences in a variety of clinical populations, resulting in four processing modules: Import, Structural, ASL, and Population that perform tasks, respectively, for data curation, structural and ASL image processing and quality control, and finally preparing the results for statistical analyses on both single-subject and group level. We illustrate ExploreASL processing results from three cohorts: perinatally HIV-infected children, healthy adults, and elderly at risk for neurodegenerative disease. We show the reproducibility for each cohort when processed at different centers with different operating systems and MATLAB versions, and its effects on the quantification of gray matter cerebral blood flow. ExploreASL facilitates the standardization of image processing and quality control, allowing the pooling of cohorts which may increase statistical power and discover between-group perfusion differences. Ultimately, this workflow may advance ASL for wider adoption in clinical studies, trials, and practice.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jason L. Stein; Miguel E. Rentería; Alejandro Arias-Vasquez; Sylvane Desrivières; Neda Jahanshad; Roberto Toro; Katharina Wittfeld; Benjamin S. Aribisala; Manon Bernard; Marco P. Boks; +196 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, Canada, Netherlands, United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Ireland, Belgium ...

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Domenico Bongiovanni; Yi Hu; Benjamin Wetzel; Raul A. Robles; Gregorio Mendoza Gonzalez; Erwin A. Martí-Panameño; Zhigang Chen; Roberto Morandotti;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    We report the experimental observation of energetically confined self-accelerating optical beams propagating along various convex trajectories. We show that, under an appropriate transverse compression of their spatial spectra, these self-accelerating beams can exhibit a dramatic enhancement of their peak intensity and a significant decrease of their transverse expansion, yet retaining both the expected acceleration profile and the intrinsic self-healing properties. We found our experimental results to be in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. We expect further applications in such contexts where power budget and optimal spatial confinement can be important limiting factors.

  • Publication . Article . Report . Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Grigore Tarna; Maximiliano Sioli; Steven Robertson; D. Duschinger; John Parsons; J. Maneira; Kiyotomo Kawagoe; Pavol Strizenec; Claudia Bertella; Marcel Vos; +260 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Argentina, Poland, Portugal, Germany, Russian Federation, Denmark, Portugal, Turkey, Italy ...
    Project: NSERC

    The observation of Higgs boson production in association with a top quark pair ($t\bar{t}H$), based on the analysis of proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, is presented. Using data corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 79.8 f$^{−1}$ , and considering Higgs boson decays into $b\bar{b}, WW^⁎ , τ^+ τ^− , γγ$ , and $ZZ^⁎$ , the observed significance is 5.8 standard deviations, compared to an expectation of 4.9 standard deviations. Combined with the $t\bar{t}H$ searches using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb$^{−1}$ at 7 TeV and 20.3 fb$^{−1}$ at 8 TeV, the observed (expected) significance is 6.3 (5.1) standard deviations. Assuming Standard Model branching fractions, the total $t\bar{t}H$ production cross section at 13 TeV is measured to be 670 ± 90 (stat.)$_{−100}^{+110}$ (syst.) fb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction. Physics letters / B 784, 173 - 191 (2018). doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2018.07.035 Published by North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    SNO Collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; +122 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Germany
    Project: NSERC

    Author(s): Aharmim, B; Ahmed, SN; Anthony, AE; Barros, N; Beier, EW; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, SD; Bonventre, R; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, MG; Cai, B; Callaghan, EJ; Caravaca, J; Chan, YD; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, BT; Cox, GA; Dai, X; Deng, H; Descamps, FB; Detwiler, JA; Doe, PJ; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Dunford, M; Elliott, SR; Evans, HC; Ewan, GT; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, RJ; Formaggio, JA; Gagnon, N; Gilje, K; Goon, JTM; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, RL; Hallin, AL; Hallman, ED; Harvey, PJ; Hazama, R; Heintzelman, WJ; Heise, J; Helmer, RL; Hime, A; Howard, C; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, NA; Jerkins, M; Keeter, KJ; Klein, JR; Kormos, LL; Kos, M; Kruger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, CB; Kutter, T; Kyba, CCM; Land, BJ; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, IT; Lesko, KT; Leslie, JR; Levine, I; Loach, JC; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, HB; Maneira, J; Martin, RD; Mastbaum, A; McCauley, N; McDonald, AB; McGee, SR; Miller, ML; Monreal, B | Abstract: Neutron production in GeV-scale neutrino interactions is a poorly studied process. We have measured the neutron multiplicities in atmospheric neutrino interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment and compared them to the prediction of a Monte Carlo simulation using GENIE and a minimally modified version of GEANT4. We analyzed 837 days of exposure corresponding to Phase I, using pure heavy water, and Phase II, using a mixture of Cl in heavy water. Neutrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions were identified with an efficiency of $15.3\%$ and $44.3\%$, for Phase I and II respectively. The neutron production is measured as a function of the visible energy of the neutrino interaction and, for charged current quasi-elastic interaction candidates, also as a function of the neutrino energy. This study is also performed classifying the complete sample into two pairs of event categories: charged current quasi-elastic and non charged current quasi-elastic, and $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_e$. Results show good overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo for both phases, with some small tension with a statistical significance below $2\sigma$ for some intermediate energies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Benjamin K. Sovacool; Götz Walter; Thijs Van de Graaf; Nathan Andrews;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Belgium

    Transnational standards for disclosure have become a defining feature of global governance and sound economic development, yet little is known about their effectiveness. This study statistically explores the efficacy of such standards for the important case of the\ud Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), an international non-governmental organization which maintains a voluntary standard for revenue transparency in the extractive industries. As of November 2015, 31 countries were ‘‘EITI Compliant” and another 49 were\ud ‘‘EITI Candidates.” In total, 49 countries had disclosed payments and revenues worth some $1.67 trillion in more than 200 ‘‘EITI Reports”, and over 90 major companies involved in oil, gas, and mining are committed to supporting the EITI. The EITI has also received support\ud from 84 global investment institutions that collectively manage about $16 trillion in energy infrastructural assets. Moreover, the European Union, African Union, G8 and G20, and the United Nations have all endorsed the EITI. This article provides the first broad empirical\ud examination of the EITI’s effectiveness in improving governance and economic development outcomes in its member countries using non-parametric tests, regression analysis, and data from the World Bank. We analyze the performance of the first 16 countries to attain\ud EITI Compliance Status over the period of 1996–2014. We find, interestingly, that in most metrics EITI countries do not perform better during EITI compliance than before it, and that they do not outperform other countries. We postulate four possible explanations behind the relative weakness of the EITI: a limited mandate, its voluntary nature, stakeholder resistance, and dependence on strong civil society.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. N. Ahmed; A. E. Anthony; E. W. Beier; Alain Bellerive; S. D. Biller; J. Boger; M.G. Boulay; M. G. Bowler; T. J. Bowles; S. J. Brice; +124 more
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NSERC

    Data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory have been used to constrain the lifetime for nucleon decay to ``invisible'' modes, such as n -> 3 nu. The analysis was based on a search for gamma-rays from the de-excitation of the residual nucleus that would result from the disappearance of either a proton or neutron from O16. A limit of tau_inv > 2 x 10^{29} years is obtained at 90% confidence for either neutron or proton decay modes. This is about an order of magnitude more stringent than previous constraints on invisible proton decay modes and 400 times more stringent than similar neutron modes. Update includes missing efficiency factor (limits change by factor of 2) Submitted to Physical Review Letters

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peggy L. St. Jacques; Cheryl L. Grady; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Tiffany W. Chow;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affects emotional evaluation, but less is known regarding the patients' ability to remember emotional stimuli. Here, bvFTD patients and age-matched controls studied positive, negative, and neutral pictures followed by a recognition memory test. Compared to controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction in emotional evaluation of negative scenes, but not of positive or neutral scenes. Additionally, the patients showed an overall reduction in recognition memory accuracy, due to impaired recollection in the face of relatively preserved familiarity. These results show that bvFTD reduces the emotional evaluation of negative scenes and impairs overall recognition memory accuracy and recollection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hualong Bao; Andrew Cooper; Sai T. Chu; Dave J. Moss; Roberto Morandotti; Brent E. Little; Marco Peccianti; Alessia Pasquazi;
    Publisher: Optical Society of America
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | TIMING (725046)

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of highly coherent Type-II micro-combs based on a microresonator nested in a fiber cavity loop, known as the filter-driven four wave mixing (FD-FWM) laser scheme. In this system, the frequency spacing of the comb can be adjusted to integer multiples of the free-spectral range (FSR) of the nested micro-resonator by properly tuning the fiber cavity length. Sub-comb lines with single FSR spacing around the primary comb lines can be generated. Such a spectral emission is known as a “Type-II comb.” Our system achieves a fully coherent output. This behavior is verified by numerical simulations. This study represents an important step forward in controlling and manipulating the dynamics of an FD-FWM laser.