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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: James M. M. Lane; Julio F. Navarro; Azadeh Fattahi; Kyle A. Oman; +1 Authors

    The Ophiuchus stream is a short arc-like stellar feature of uncertain origin located $\sim 5$ kpc North of the Galactic centre. New proper motions from the second $Gaia$ data release reconcile the direction of motion of stream members with the stream arc, resolving a puzzling mismatch reported in earlier work. We use N-body simulations to show that the stream is likely only on its second pericentric passage, and thus was formed recently. The simulations suggest that the entire disrupted progenitor is visible in the observed stream today, and that little further tidal debris lies beyond the ends of the stream. The luminosity, length, width, and velocity dispersion of the stream suggest a globular cluster (GC) progenitor substantially fainter and of lower surface brightness than estimated in previous work, and unlike any other known globulars in the Galaxy. This result suggests the existence of clusters that would extend the known GC population to fainter and more weakly bound systems than hitherto known. How such a weakly-bound cluster of old stars survived until it was disrupted so recently, however, remains a mystery. Integrating backwards in time, we find that the orbits of Sagittarius and Ophiuchus passed within $\sim 5$ kpc of each other about $\sim 100$ Myrs ago, an interaction that might help resolve this puzzle. Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, submitted to MNRAS

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Durham Research Onli...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Durham Research Onli...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Laziyan Mahemuti; Qixuan Chen; Melanie C Coughlan; Cunye Qiao; +9 Authors

    Experimental and/or epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may delay fetal lung development and maturation and increase the susceptibility to childhood respiratory disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In our previous study with cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLF), we demonstrated that 24-h exposure to 1 and 100 µM BPA increased GPR30 protein in the nuclear fraction. Exposure to 100 μM BPA had no effects on cell viability, but increased cytoplasmic expression of ERβ and release of GDF-15, as well as decreased release of IL-6, ET-1, and IP-10 through suppression of NFκB phosphorylation. By performing global gene expression and pathway analysis in this study, we identified molecular pathways, gene networks, and key molecules that were affected by 100, but not 0.01 and 1 µM BPA in HFLF. Using multiple genomic and proteomic tools, we confirmed these changes at both gene and protein levels. Our data suggest that 100 μM BPA increased CYP1B1 and HSD17B14 gene and protein expression and release of endogenous estradiol, which was associated with increased ROS production and DNA double-strand breaks, upregulation of genes and/or proteins in steroid synthesis and metabolism, and activation of Nrf2-regulated stress response pathways. In addition, BPA activated ATM-p53 signaling pathway, resulting in increased cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, senescence and autophagy, and decreased cell proliferation in HFLF. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA at certain concentrations may affect fetal lung development and maturation, and thereby affecting susceptibility to childhood respiratory diseases.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archives of Toxicolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archives of Toxicolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chelsea L. Voinorosky; Katherine J. Stewart;

    Abstract Herbicide use on boreal transmission line rights-of-way has been relatively limited compared to more temperate regions and therefore challenges exist in estimating and communicating the associated risks. Herbicides directly enter the ecosystem through deposition on vegetation and soils and can be a vector of contamination to browsing herbivores. Triclopyr drift and foliage concentrations were quantified following basal bark (Garlon RTU) and low-volume foliar (Garlon XRT) field treatments to aspen (Populus tremuloides) saplings and willow (Salix bebbiana) shrubs, respectively. Greater drift concentrations localized at the stem base were observed following basal bark treatments. Conversely, concentrations in foliage following the low-volume foliar treatment (DT50 = 5.7 days and DT90 = 34.6 days) were much higher than following basal bark treatment, which also required two days to translocate into the leaves. However, dissipation was rapid from both application methods and triclopyr in foliage was less than 20 μg g−1 a year following application. A risk assessment revealed an acceptable level of risk for acute toxicity to wildlife browsing on contaminated leaves from the residues detected in this study; however, an unacceptable level of risk for chronic toxicity to long-term browsing moose. Site-specific data regarding browsing behaviour on herbicide treated rights-of-ways and species-specific reference values are needed to improve confidence in the tier-two risk assessment. Basal bark application is ideal when stem density is lower and toxic effects for herbivores is of concern and low-volume foliar applications are best suited in areas with higher stem density when off-target herbicide deposition is less acceptable.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Environme...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Environme...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jennifer R. Sedgewick; Abby Holtslander; Lorin J. Elias;

    When leaning toward a partner for a kiss, the direction that individuals turn their head when planting the kiss is found to vary based on the kiss’s context; romantic kissing between adult couples is consistently directed rightward, though recently, a non-romantic kiss between parent–child couples was observed to be leftward. The current study further examines the lateral head-turning direction between non-romantic couples using a novel context: a first kiss between strangers. Observing strangers kissing was feasible due to a unique social media phenomenon; since 2014, 23 “First Kiss” online videos have emerged which depict kisses facilitated by the video’s director between consenting strangers. The turning direction of 230 kissing couples were coded from the 23 First Kiss videos, and the proportion of right to left turns were almost equal; 51% of couples displayed a right-turn kiss, and 49% conveyed a left-turn kiss. Further, the proportion of right and left turns observed from our sample of strangers kissing were compared to Gunturkun’s (in Nature 421:711, https://doi.org/10.1038/421711a , 2003) original study that examined authentic kissing between adult couples. A significantly different turning bias was exhibited. Because the kissing criterion was parallel between these studies, our study demonstrates that the context influenced the direction of bias, namely, that of a non-romantic kiss. We discuss the potential role of context and emotional lateralization on kissing laterality, and propose future directions to test these predictions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Nonverbal...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Nonverbal...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
      Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mark T. McDermott; Yong Cao;

    <div> <div> <div> <p>Small-molecule (micro)arrays were developed to measure three metabolites simultaneously by surface plasmon resonance imaging for the first time. To tackle the low sensitivity challenge associated with small molecule detection, antibodies were employed as the signal amplifiers. This work demonstrates both inhibition and displacement formats are applicable for sensitive multiplex metabolites detection. </p> </div> </div> </div>

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kévin Lamy; Thierry Portafaix; Béatrice Josse; Colette Brogniez; +33 Authors

    We have derived values of the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) at solar noon using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet Model (TUV) driven by ozone, temperature and aerosol fields from climate simulations of the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). Since clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate projections, we simulated only the clear-sky UVI. We compared the modelled UVI climatologies against present-day climatological values of UVI derived from both satellite data (the OMI-Aura OMUVBd product) and ground-based measurements (from the NDACC network). Depending on the region, relative differences between the UVI obtained from CCMI/TUV calculations and the ground-based measurements ranged between −5.9% and 10.6%. We then calculated the UVI evolution throughout the 21st century for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5). Compared to 1960s values, we found an average increase in the UVI in 2100 (of 2–4%) in the tropical belt (30°N-30°S). For the mid-latitudes, we observed a 1.8 to 3.4 % increase in the Southern Hemisphere for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0, and found a 2.3% decrease in RCP 8.5. Higher increases in UVI are projected in the Northern Hemisphere except for RCP 8.5. At high latitudes, ozone recovery is well identified and induces a complete return of mean UVI levels to 1960 values for RCP 8.5 in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, UVI levels in 2100 are higher by 0.5 to 5.5% for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0 and they are lower by 7.9% for RCP 8.5. We analysed the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) on UVI from 1960 by comparing CCMI sensitivity simulations (1960–2100) with fixed GHGs or ODSs at their respective 1960 levels. As expected with ODS fixed at their 1960 levels, there is no large decrease in ozone levels and consequently no sudden increase in UVI levels. With fixed GHG, we observed a delayed return of ozone to 1960 values, with a corresponding pattern of change observed on UVI, and looking at the UVI difference between 2090s values and 1960s values, we found an 8 % increase in the tropical belt during the summer of each hemisphere. Finally we show that, while in the Southern Hemisphere the UVI is mainly driven by total ozone column, in the Northern Hemisphere both total ozone column and aerosol optical depth drive UVI levels, with aerosol optical depth having twice as much influence on the UVI as total ozone column does.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://acp.copernicus.org/art...
    Preprint
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Forough Mahdavinezhad; Parinaz Kazemi; Parisa Fathalizadeh; Fatemeh Sarmadi; +4 Authors

    Background: While mammalian embryos can adapt to their environments, their sensitivity overshadows their adaptability in suboptimal in vitro conditions. Therefore, the environment in which the gametes are fertilized or to which the embryo is exposed can greatly affect the quality of the embryo and consequently its implantation potential. Objectives: Since providing an optimal culture condition needs a deep understanding of the environmental effects, and regarding the fact that normal morphology fails to be a reliable indicator of natural embryo development, the current study aimed at comparing in vivo- and in vitro-derived blastocysts at the molecular level. Materials and Methods: In vivo and in vitro mouse blastocysts were obtained by flushing the uterine horns and in vitro fertilization/culture, respectively. Normal blastocysts of both groups were evaluated in terms of hatching rate and expression of three lineage-differentiation-, apoptosis-, and implantation-related genes. Results: The hatching rate was lower in In vitro fertilization (IVF)-produced blastocysts in comparison with that of the in vivo counterparts. More importantly, the study results indicated significant changes in the expression levels of eight out of ten selected genes, especially Mmp-9 (about -10.7-fold). The expression of Mmp-9 in trophoblast cells is required for successful implantation and trophoblast invasion. Conclusions: The current study, in addition to confirming that the altered gene expression pattern of in vitro-produced embryos resulted in normal morphology, provided a possible reason for lower implantation rate of in vitro-produced blastocysts regarding the Mmp-9 expression.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Iranian Journal of B...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • Authors: Jeremy D. Kratz; Mark E. Burkard; Tess O'Meara; Lajos Pusztai; +2 Authors

    Metastatic breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease. Recent advances in genomic sequencing have revealed genetic diversity between patients and across distinct subclonal cell populations within the same patient that may evolve across metastatic tumor sites and during treatment. With the increasing availability of commercial and laboratory-developed tests that can detect genomic alterations from patient tumor and blood samples, translating this knowledge into improved clinical care remains a challenge. The goals of this review are to outline the clinical relevance of tumor genomic heterogeneity and clonal evolution, to help clinicians understand how to interpret genomic testing reports, and to provide an overview of recurrent genomic alterations that may be relevant for clinical trials with investigational drug treatments.

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    Authors: Shireen Mohammad; Sura Al Zoubi; Sura Al Zoubi; Debora Collotta; +28 Authors

    Frontiers in immunology 12, 701275 (2021). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.701275 Published by Frontiers Media, Lausanne

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    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: George de Barros; Clayton V. Deutsch;

    Abstract In geostatistical simulation, a realization represents one possible outcome of the spatial uncertainty model. Tens to hundreds of realizations are generated in order to understand response property variation. There are ways to summarize local uncertainty, but visualizing all realizations is important to understand joint uncertainty between multiple locations. There is no straightforward manner to visualize all realizations at the same time or in sequence. This paper presents a new method to sequentially display multiple geostatistical realizations. The proposed algorithm performs an ordering of the visible portion of the realizations (images), according to the distance between realizations. The concept of distance corresponds to the differences computed cell by cell for every realization pair or to the differences computed from a moving window filtering applied to each realization. To define an optimal sequence of realizations, the shortest path route through the realizations is established by a simulated annealing technique. The gradual transition between realizations is enhanced by an image morphing technique where intermediate images are introduced between the original images. The final result consists of an animation that shows the sequence of realizations and allows better understanding of the uncertainty model.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: James M. M. Lane; Julio F. Navarro; Azadeh Fattahi; Kyle A. Oman; +1 Authors

    The Ophiuchus stream is a short arc-like stellar feature of uncertain origin located $\sim 5$ kpc North of the Galactic centre. New proper motions from the second $Gaia$ data release reconcile the direction of motion of stream members with the stream arc, resolving a puzzling mismatch reported in earlier work. We use N-body simulations to show that the stream is likely only on its second pericentric passage, and thus was formed recently. The simulations suggest that the entire disrupted progenitor is visible in the observed stream today, and that little further tidal debris lies beyond the ends of the stream. The luminosity, length, width, and velocity dispersion of the stream suggest a globular cluster (GC) progenitor substantially fainter and of lower surface brightness than estimated in previous work, and unlike any other known globulars in the Galaxy. This result suggests the existence of clusters that would extend the known GC population to fainter and more weakly bound systems than hitherto known. How such a weakly-bound cluster of old stars survived until it was disrupted so recently, however, remains a mystery. Integrating backwards in time, we find that the orbits of Sagittarius and Ophiuchus passed within $\sim 5$ kpc of each other about $\sim 100$ Myrs ago, an interaction that might help resolve this puzzle. Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, submitted to MNRAS

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    Authors: Laziyan Mahemuti; Qixuan Chen; Melanie C Coughlan; Cunye Qiao; +9 Authors

    Experimental and/or epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may delay fetal lung development and maturation and increase the susceptibility to childhood respiratory disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In our previous study with cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLF), we demonstrated that 24-h exposure to 1 and 100 µM BPA increased GPR30 protein in the nuclear fraction. Exposure to 100 μM BPA had no effects on cell viability, but increased cytoplasmic expression of ERβ and release of GDF-15, as well as decreased release of IL-6, ET-1, and IP-10 through suppression of NFκB phosphorylation. By performing global gene expression and pathway analysis in this study, we identified molecular pathways, gene networks, and key molecules that were affected by 100, but not 0.01 and 1 µM BPA in HFLF. Using multiple genomic and proteomic tools, we confirmed these changes at both gene and protein levels. Our data suggest that 100 μM BPA increased CYP1B1 and HSD17B14 gene and protein expression and release of endogenous estradiol, which was associated with increased ROS production and DNA double-strand breaks, upregulation of genes and/or proteins in steroid synthesis and metabolism, and activation of Nrf2-regulated stress response pathways. In addition, BPA activated ATM-p53 signaling pathway, resulting in increased cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, senescence and autophagy, and decreased cell proliferation in HFLF. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA at certain concentrations may affect fetal lung development and maturation, and thereby affecting susceptibility to childhood respiratory diseases.

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    Authors: Chelsea L. Voinorosky; Katherine J. Stewart;

    Abstract Herbicide use on boreal transmission line rights-of-way has been relatively limited compared to more temperate regions and therefore challenges exist in estimating and communicating the associated risks. Herbicides directly enter the ecosystem through deposition on vegetation and soils and can be a vector of contamination to browsing herbivores. Triclopyr drift and foliage concentrations were quantified following basal bark (Garlon RTU) and low-volume foliar (Garlon XRT) field treatments to aspen (Populus tremuloides) saplings and willow (Salix bebbiana) shrubs, respectively. Greater drift concentrations localized at the stem base were observed following basal bark treatments. Conversely, concentrations in foliage following the low-volume foliar treatment (DT50 = 5.7 days and DT90 = 34.6 days) were much higher than following basal bark treatment, which also required two days to translocate into the leaves. However, dissipation was rapid from both application methods and triclopyr in foliage was less than 20 μg g−1 a year following application. A risk assessment revealed an acceptable level of risk for acute toxicity to wildlife browsing on contaminated leaves from the residues detected in this study; however, an unacceptable level of risk for chronic toxicity to long-term browsing moose. Site-specific data regarding browsing behaviour on herbicide treated rights-of-ways and species-specific reference values are needed to improve confidence in the tier-two risk assessment. Basal bark application is ideal when stem density is lower and toxic effects for herbivores is of concern and low-volume foliar applications are best suited in areas with higher stem density when off-target herbicide deposition is less acceptable.

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