search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
155,170 Research products, page 1 of 15,517

  • Canada
  • Publications
  • CN
  • DE
  • CZ

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Authors: 
    Donald G. Fleming; Mee Shelley; Donald J. Arseneau; Masayoshi Senba; James J. Pan; Emil Roduner;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    The adsorption and dynamical behavior of the muonated cyclohexadienyl radical (C6H6Mu) in NaY zeolite, formed by muonium (Mu) addition on adsorbed benzene, was investigated by the muon spin resonance (μSR) technique, primarily at loadings of 2−3 C6H6 molecules per supercage of NaY. The dynamics of this radical are expected to be the same as its isotopic analogue, C6H7, for which there are no similar data available. Both TF-μSR and ALC-μSR spectra were recorded, with the most detailed information provided by the positions and line widths of the avoided level crossing resonances. In concert with 2H NMR, neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics studies of the parent benzene molecule, as well as current theoretical calculations, the dominant adsorption site for the C6H6Mu radical is believed to be the SII Na cation, within a supercage, which gives rise to three observed ALC lines, corresponding to two different orientations for the muon (proton) of the CHMu methylene group: pointing toward (endo) and away ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ian Bentley; Stephen Atkins; Christopher James Edmundson; John Metcalfe; Jonathan Kenneth Sinclair;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of these acute changes.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marc Bohner; Gamal Baroud; Anke Bernstein; Nicola Döbelin; Laetitia Galea; Bernhard Hesse; Roman Heuberger; Sylvain Meille; Pascal Michel; Brigitte von Rechenberg; +2 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: France

    International audience; Although bone formation around and within implants has been intensively studied, the role of pores and pore geometry is still debated. Notwithstanding studies reporting the formation of bone and bone components within pores as small as a few micrometers ('micropores'), bone ingrowth is believed to only occur in pores larger than 100 mu m ('macropores'). A thorough analysis of 10 different porous beta-tricalcium phosphate cylinders (empty set: 8 mm; L: 13 mm) implanted for 2-24 weeks in an ovine model demonstrates ingrowth of mineralized tissue (MT) in pores as small as 1 mu m. This tissue contained calcium phosphate, collagen, and interconnected cells. It formed within the first 3-4 weeks of implantation, extended over several hundred micrometers within the ceramic, and contributed to the majority of the early MT formation (including bone) in the defect. The indentation stiffness of the MT-ceramic composite was significantly higher than that of bone and MT-free ceramic. The presented results substantiate the importance of micropores for optimal bone healing, particularly at early implantation times

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; Hashim U. Ahmed; Jelle O. Barentsz; T.E. Bjerklund Johansen; Maurizio Brausi; Mark Emberton; Ferdinand Frauscher; D. Greene; Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Karin Haustermans; +12 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: To establish a consensus in relation to case selection, conduct of therapy, and outcomes that are associated with focal therapy for men with localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urologic surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and histopathologists from North America and Europe participated in a consensus workshop on focal therapy for prostate cancer. The consensus process was face to face within a structured meeting, in which pertinent clinical issues were raised, discussed, and agreement sought. Where no agreement was possible, this was acknowledged, and the nature of the disagreement noted. RESULTS: Candidates for focal treatment should have unilateral low- to intermediate-risk disease with clinical stage

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
155,170 Research products, page 1 of 15,517
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fangong Kong; Shoujuan Wang; Weijue Gao; Pedram Fatehi;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Project: NSERC

    Kraft lignin (KL) produced in kraft pulping process has a low molecular weight and solubility, which limits its application in industry. For the first time, KL was polymerized with acrylic acid (AA) in an acidic aqueous suspension system to produce a water soluble lignin–AA polymer with a high molecular weight in this work. The polymerization reaction was carried out using K2S2O8 as an initiator, and the influence of reaction conditions on the carboxylate group content and molecular weight of resultant lignin polymers was systematically investigated. The mechanism of polymerization of KL and AA was discussed fundamentally. The resulting lignin–AA polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and elemental analyses. The results showed that the phenolic hydroxyl group (Ph-OH) content of KL promoted the polymerization under an acidic environment. Under the conditions of 1.5 wt% of initiator, 3.5 of pH, 10.0 of AA/lignin molar ratio, 0.15 mol L−1 of lignin concentration, 3 h and 80 °C, the carboxylate group content and the molecular weight of the polymer were 7.37 mmol g−1 and 7.4 × 105 g mol−1, respectively. The lignin–AA polymer was water soluble at a 10 g L−1 concentration and a pH higher than 4.5. Furthermore, the flocculation performance of lignin–AA polymer in an aluminium oxide suspension was evaluated. Compared with polyAA, the lignin–AA polymer was a more efficient flocculant for aluminium oxide suspension, which shows its potential to be used as a green flocculant in industry.

  • Authors: 
    Donald G. Fleming; Mee Shelley; Donald J. Arseneau; Masayoshi Senba; James J. Pan; Emil Roduner;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    The adsorption and dynamical behavior of the muonated cyclohexadienyl radical (C6H6Mu) in NaY zeolite, formed by muonium (Mu) addition on adsorbed benzene, was investigated by the muon spin resonance (μSR) technique, primarily at loadings of 2−3 C6H6 molecules per supercage of NaY. The dynamics of this radical are expected to be the same as its isotopic analogue, C6H7, for which there are no similar data available. Both TF-μSR and ALC-μSR spectra were recorded, with the most detailed information provided by the positions and line widths of the avoided level crossing resonances. In concert with 2H NMR, neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics studies of the parent benzene molecule, as well as current theoretical calculations, the dominant adsorption site for the C6H6Mu radical is believed to be the SII Na cation, within a supercage, which gives rise to three observed ALC lines, corresponding to two different orientations for the muon (proton) of the CHMu methylene group: pointing toward (endo) and away ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ian Bentley; Stephen Atkins; Christopher James Edmundson; John Metcalfe; Jonathan Kenneth Sinclair;
    Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of these acute changes.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Tingting Yu; Yishuai Xu; Yifan Liu; Puren Ouyang; M.M. Gupta; W.J. Zhang; W.J. Zhang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    This paper reports a work on developing a novel charge control circuit for control of the piezoelectric actuator to overcome its hysteresis nonlinearity when the actuator is driven at high voltage (as opposed to low voltage reported in literature). The charge control circuit also includes a balancing resistor. A test-bed for a piezoelectric actuator was established and an experiment was conducted. The result showed that the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator was reduced by 82% under the proposed charge control circuit. This charge control circuit can be used for control of piezoelectric inertia-friction actuator, in which the piezoelectric actuator is part of the whole actuator system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marc Bohner; Gamal Baroud; Anke Bernstein; Nicola Döbelin; Laetitia Galea; Bernhard Hesse; Roman Heuberger; Sylvain Meille; Pascal Michel; Brigitte von Rechenberg; +2 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: France

    International audience; Although bone formation around and within implants has been intensively studied, the role of pores and pore geometry is still debated. Notwithstanding studies reporting the formation of bone and bone components within pores as small as a few micrometers ('micropores'), bone ingrowth is believed to only occur in pores larger than 100 mu m ('macropores'). A thorough analysis of 10 different porous beta-tricalcium phosphate cylinders (empty set: 8 mm; L: 13 mm) implanted for 2-24 weeks in an ovine model demonstrates ingrowth of mineralized tissue (MT) in pores as small as 1 mu m. This tissue contained calcium phosphate, collagen, and interconnected cells. It formed within the first 3-4 weeks of implantation, extended over several hundred micrometers within the ceramic, and contributed to the majority of the early MT formation (including bone) in the defect. The indentation stiffness of the MT-ceramic composite was significantly higher than that of bone and MT-free ceramic. The presented results substantiate the importance of micropores for optimal bone healing, particularly at early implantation times

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Restricted
    Authors: 
    Verena J. Schuenemann; Pushpendra Singh; Tom A. Mendum; Ben Krause-Kyora; Günter Jäger; Kirsten I. Bos; Alexander Herbig; Christos Economou; Andrej Benjak; Philippe Busso; +17 more
    Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Countries: Denmark, Switzerland
    Project: EC | APGREID (310920), SSHRC

    Leprosy: Ancient and Modern In medieval Europe, leprosy was greatly feared: Sufferers had to wear bells and were shunned and kept isolated from society. Although leprosy largely disappeared from Europe in the 16th century, elsewhere in the world almost a quarter of a million cases are still reported annually, despite the availability of effective drugs. Schuenemann et al. (p. 179 , published online 13 June; see the 14 June News story by Gibbons , p. 1278 ) probed the origins of leprosy bacilli by using a genomic capture-based approach on DNA obtained from skeletal remains from the 10th to 14th centuries. Because the unique mycolic acids of this mycobacterium protect its DNA, for one Danish sample over 100-fold, coverage of the genome was possible. Sequencing suggests a link between the middle-eastern and medieval European strains, which falls in line with social historical expectations that the returning expeditionary forces of antiquity originally spread the pathogen. Subsequently, Europeans took the bacterium westward to the Americas. Overall, ancient and modern strains remain remarkably similar, with no apparent loss of virulence genes, indicating it was most probably improvements in social conditions that led to leprosy's demise in Europe.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; Hashim U. Ahmed; Jelle O. Barentsz; T.E. Bjerklund Johansen; Maurizio Brausi; Mark Emberton; Ferdinand Frauscher; D. Greene; Mukesh G. Harisinghani; Karin Haustermans; +12 more
    Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: To establish a consensus in relation to case selection, conduct of therapy, and outcomes that are associated with focal therapy for men with localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urologic surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and histopathologists from North America and Europe participated in a consensus workshop on focal therapy for prostate cancer. The consensus process was face to face within a structured meeting, in which pertinent clinical issues were raised, discussed, and agreement sought. Where no agreement was possible, this was acknowledged, and the nature of the disagreement noted. RESULTS: Candidates for focal treatment should have unilateral low- to intermediate-risk disease with clinical stage

  • Authors: 
    Jinli Zhang; Ning Nie; Yuanyuan Liu; Jiao Wang; Feng Yu; Junjie Gu; Wei Li;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)

    An evolutionary composite of LiFePO4 with nitrogen and boron codoped carbon layers was prepared by processing hydrothermal-synthesized LiFePO4. This novel codoping method is successfully applied to LiFePO4 for commercial use, and it achieved excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance can be improved through single nitrogen doping (LiFePO4/C-N) or boron doping (LiFePO4/C-B). When modifying the LiFePO4/C-B with nitrogen (to synthesis LiFePO4/C-B+N) the undesired nonconducting N-B configurations (190.1 and 397.9 eV) are generated. This decreases the electronic conductivity from 2.56×10(-2) to 1.30×10(-2) S cm(-1) resulting in weak electrochemical performance. Nevertheless, using the opposite order to decorate LiFePO4/C-N with boron (to obtain LiFePO4/C-N+B) not only eliminates the nonconducting N-B impurity, but also promotes the conductive C-N (398.3, 400.3, and 401.1 eV) and C-B (189.5 eV) configurations-this markedly improves the electronic conductivity to 1.36×10(-1) S cm(-1). Meanwhile the positive doping strategy leads to synergistic electrochemical activity distinctly compared with single N- or B-doped materials (even much better than their sum capacity at 20 C). Moreover, due to the electron and hole-type carriers donated by nitrogen and boron atoms, the N+B codoped carbon coating tremendously enhances the electrochemical property: at the rate of 20 C, the codoped sample can elevate the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 121.6 mAh g(-1), and the codoped product based on commercial LiFePO4/C shows a discharge capacity of 78.4 mAh g(-1) rather than 48.1 mAh g(-1). Nevertheless, the B+N codoped sample decreases the discharge capacity of LFP/C from 101.1 mAh g(-1) to 95.4 mAh g(-1), while the commercial LFP/C changes from 48.1 mAh g(-1) to 40.6 mAh g(-1).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brett Plouffe; Tamara Van Hooren; Michelle Barton; Michelle Barton; Nancy Nashid; Erkan Demirkaya; Erkan Demirkaya; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; Kambiz Norozi; +8 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Canada

    Renal infarction is a rare finding in children. Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infections and thromboembolic events including renal infarcts have been described in adults. Although a similar association in children has not yet been described with this pandemic, the pediatric literature is still evolving with the recognition of new manifestations including the post-infectious Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We report the rare event of multiple renal infarcts in a 6-year-old boy manifesting several features of MIS-C 9 weeks following a self-limiting febrile illness characteristic of COVID-19. An underlying Factor V Leiden mutation was identified in this child but felt to be insufficient on its own to explain his clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 testing was delayed, the failure to identify viral RNA or antibodies may not exclude the virus' potential role in precipitating the infarct in this host. Given that renal infarcts have been described in adult patients with COVID-19, reporting this perplexing case where SARS-CoV-2 may have played a role, may help identify this potential complication.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.