search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
107,853 Research products, page 1 of 10,786

  • Canada
  • Publications
  • FR
  • NL
  • MY

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Mark S. Ackerman; Marlene Huysman; John M. Carroll; Barry Wellman; Giorgio DeMichelis; Volker Wulf;
    Country: Netherlands

    Communities are social entities whose actors share common needs, interests, or practices: they constitute the basic units of social experience. With regard to communities, social capital captures the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of the relationships among their members. Social capital is defined as a set of properties of a social entity (e.g. norms, level of trust, and intensive social networking) which enables joint activities and cooperation for mutual benefit. It can be understood as the glue which holds communities together. On this panel we will discuss whether and how information technology can strengthen communities by fostering social capital.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maimoona A. Zariwala; Heon Yung Gee; Małgorzata Kurkowiak; Dalal A. Al-Mutairi; Margaret W. Leigh; Toby W. Hurd; Rim Hjeij; Sharon D. Dell; Moumita Chaki; Gerard W. Dougherty; +48 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Croatia, Germany
    Project: NIH | Novel genetics, pathobiol... (5R01DK068306-17), NIH | Identifying all Meckel-li... (1RC4DK090917-01), NIH | Genetic Disorder of Mucoc... (5U54HL096458-14), NIH | Pathogenesis of PCD Lung ... (5R01HL071798-04), WT , NIH | Colorado Clinical and Tra... (3UL1TR000154-05S1)

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the recently identified LRRC6 in 13 families. We show that ZMYND10 and LRRC6 interact and that certain ZMYND10 and LRRC6 mutations abrogate the interaction between the LRRC6 CS domain and the ZMYND10 C-terminal domain. Additionally, ZMYND10 and LRRC6 colocalize with the centriole markers SAS6 and PCM1. Mutations in ZMYND10 result in the absence of the axonemal protein components DNAH5 and DNALI1 from respiratory cilia. Animal models support the association between ZMYND10 and human PCD, given that zmynd10 knockdown in zebrafish caused ciliary paralysis leading to cystic kidneys and otolith defects and that knockdown in Xenopus interfered with ciliogenesis. Our findings suggest that a cytoplasmic protein complex containing ZMYND10 and LRRC6 is necessary for motile ciliary function. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leclère, Brice; Buckeridge, David L.; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Astagneau, Pascal; Lepelletier, Didier;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; ObjectivesSeveral automated algorithms for epidemiological surveillance in hospitals have been proposed. However, the usefulness of these methods to detect nosocomial outbreaks remains unclear. The goal of this review was to describe outbreak detection algorithms that have been tested within hospitals, consider how they were evaluated, and synthesize their results.MethodsWe developed a search query using keywords associated with hospital outbreak detection and searched the MEDLINE database. To ensure the highest sensitivity, no limitations were initially imposed on publication languages and dates, although we subsequently excluded studies published before 2000. Every study that described a method to detect outbreaks within hospitals was included, without any exclusion based on study design. Additional studies were identified through citations in retrieved studies.ResultsTwenty-nine studies were included. The detection algorithms were grouped into 5 categories: simple thresholds (n = 6), statistical process control (n = 12), scan statistics (n = 6), traditional statistical models (n = 6), and data mining methods (n = 4). The evaluation of the algorithms was often solely descriptive (n = 15), but more complex epidemiological criteria were also investigated (n = 10). The performance measures varied widely between studies: e.g., the sensitivity of an algorithm in a real world setting could vary between 17 and 100%.ConclusionEven if outbreak detection algorithms are useful complementary tools for traditional surveillance, the heterogeneity in results among published studies does not support quantitative synthesis of their performance. A standardized framework should be followed when evaluating outbreak detection methods to allow comparison of algorithms across studies and synthesis of results.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Fergus J. Couch; Kyriaki Michailidou; Marjanka K. Schmidt; Mark N. Brook; Nick Orr; Suhn K. Rhie; Elio Riboli; Heather Spencer Feigelson; Loic Le Marchand; +207 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098233-06), NIH | Discovery Expansion and R... (5U19CA148065-04), NIH | Breast &prostate cancer &... (1U01CA098216-01), NIH | Breast &Prostate Cancer &... (1U01CA098758-01), WT , EC | COGS (223175), NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098710-06), NIH | Genetic epidemiology of c... (3R01CA122340-03S1)

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a metaanalysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P= 2.1 x 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 x 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 x 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P> 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    SEYED MOHAMMAD REZA HASHEMIAN; Hernan Aguirre-Bermeo; John Laffey; Arnaud FOLLIN; Shreedhar Kulkarni; Gustavo A. Plotnikow; Giuseppe Foti; Philip Hopkins; Michael Lanspa; Philippe Michel; +55 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Italy, Netherlands

    IMPORTANCE: Limited information exists about the epidemiology, recognition, management, and outcomes of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intensive care unit (ICU) incidence and outcome of ARDS and to assess clinician recognition, ventilation management, and use of adjuncts-for example prone positioning-in routine clinical practice for patients fulfilling the ARDS Berlin Definition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure (LUNG SAFE) was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients undergoing invasive or noninvasive ventilation, conducted during 4 consecutive weeks in the winter of 2014 in a convenience sample of 459 ICUs from 50 countries across 5 continents. EXPOSURES: Acute respiratory distress syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was ICU incidence of ARDS. Secondary outcomes included assessment of clinician recognition of ARDS, the application of ventilatory management, the use of adjunctive interventions in routine clinical practice, and clinical outcomes from ARDS. RESULTS: Of 29,144 patients admitted to participating ICUs, 3022 (10.4%) fulfilled ARDS criteria. Of these, 2377 patients developed ARDS in the first 48 hours and whose respiratory failure was managed with invasive mechanical ventilation. The period prevalence of mild ARDS was 30.0% (95% CI, 28.2%-31.9%); of moderate ARDS, 46.6% (95% CI, 44.5%-48.6%); and of severe ARDS, 23.4% (95% CI, 21.7%-25.2%). ARDS represented 0.42 cases per ICU bed over 4 weeks and represented 10.4% (95% CI, 10.0%-10.7%) of ICU admissions and 23.4% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinical recognition of ARDS ranged from 51.3% (95% CI, 47.5%-55.0%) in mild to 78.5% (95% CI, 74.8%-81.8%) in severe ARDS. Less than two-thirds of patients with ARDS received a tidal volume 8 of mL/kg or less of predicted body weight. Plateau pressure was measured in 40.1% (95% CI, 38.2-42.1), whereas 82.6% (95% CI, 81.0%-84.1%) received a positive end-expository pressure (PEEP) of less than 12 cm H2O. Prone positioning was used in 16.3% (95% CI, 13.7%-19.2%) of patients with severe ARDS. Clinician recognition of ARDS was associated with higher PEEP, greater use of neuromuscular blockade, and prone positioning. Hospital mortality was 34.9% (95% CI, 31.4%-38.5%) for those with mild, 40.3% (95% CI, 37.4%-43.3%) for those with moderate, and 46.1% (95% CI, 41.9%-50.4%) for those with severe ARDS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among ICUs in 50 countries, the period prevalence of ARDS was 10.4% of ICU admissions. This syndrome appeared to be underrecognized and undertreated and associated with a high mortality rate. These findings indicate the potential for improvement in the management of patients with ARDS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02010073.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Axel S. Merseburger; Daniel Castellano; Thomas Powles; Yohann Loriot; Margitta Retz; Jens Voortman; Robert Huddart; Craig Gedye; Michiel S. van der Heijden; Howard Gurney; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: Atezolizumab is an established treatment option for pretreated urothelial carcinoma, demonstrating efficacy in phase II/III trials. The SAUL study enrolled a broader patient population to determine safety and efficacy in underrepresented subgroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic urinary tract carcinoma received atezolizumab 1,200 mg every 3 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, loss of clinical benefit, or patient/physician decision. The primary endpoint was safety. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Analyses by programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) status, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) and renal impairment were prespecified; post hoc analyses explored outcomes by tumor location. RESULTS: A total of 1,004 patients were enrolled. Subgroup analyses in patients with older age, renal impairment, or upper tract urothelial carcinoma showed safety and efficacy similar to those in patients without these characteristics. Patients with ECOG PS 2 had clinical features typically associated with aggressive disease; median overall survival was 2.3 months versus 10.0 months in patients with ECOG PS0/1. Patients with PD-L1 expression on ≥5% of tumor-infiltrating immune cells tended to have better outcomes than those with <5% PD-L1 expression, although conclusions on the relative efficacy of atezolizumab cannot be drawn from this single-arm study. CONCLUSIONS: The understudied populations included in the SAUL study had similar outcomes to those in more selected populations included in phase II/III trials of atezolizumab, except for those with ECOG PS 2. Age ≥80 years and/or creatinine clearance <30 ml/minute does not preclude administration of atezolizumab; however, treatment risk versus benefit must be carefully assessed in patients with ECOG PS 2.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marie-Eve Naud; Étienne Artigau; Lison Malo; Loïc Albert; René Doyon; David Lafrenière; Jonathan Gagné; Didier Saumon; Caroline V. Morley; France Allard; +4 more
    Publisher: American Astronomical Society
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | PEPS (247060), NSERC

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE. 18 p., 10 fig., published in ApJ. May 20th, 2014: Small corrections compared to the journal version: 1) addition of the an important reference to 1RSX 1609-2105b from Lafreni\`ere et al. 2008, 2010, 2) update of the url for Andrew Mann metallicity calibration, 3) correction of a few factual mistakes in section 2.2.4), 4) aesthetic reformatting of urls

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Suzan Bsat; Saber Amin Yavari; Maximilian Munsch; Edward R. Valstar; Amir A. Zadpoor;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Netherlands

    Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM), can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH) treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M) and immersion times (6, 24 h) of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. Aaltonen; Ronen Alon; S. Amerio; A. Anastassov; Alberto Annovi; Giorgio Apollinari; J. A. Appel; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; A. Aurisano; +207 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Italy
    Project: EC | TAUKITFORNEWPHYSICS (302103), SNSF | Measurements of Higgs bos... (153664), NSERC

    This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the A. P. Sloan Foundation; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany; the Korean World Class University Program, the National Research Foundation of Korea; the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Royal Society, United Kingdom; the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, and Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Spain; the Slovak R&D Agency; the Academy of Finland; the Australian Research Council (ARC); and the EU community Marie Curie Fellowship Contract No. 302103. This work was also supported by the Shrum Foundation, the Weizman Institute of Science and the Israel Science Foundation. Results of a study of the substructure of the highest transverse momentum (pT) jets observed by the CDF Collaboration are presented. Events containing at least one jet with pT>400 GeV/c in a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb−1, collected in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, are selected. A study of the jet mass, angularity, and planar-flow distributions is presented, and the measurements are compared with predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. A search for boosted top-quark production is also described, leading to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 38 fb on the production cross section of top quarks with pT>400 GeV/c. Peer Reviewed et al.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Kuo-Ting Chen; Jim Nieuwenhuizen; Maryana Handula; Yann Seimbille;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Country: Netherlands

    We herein describe the development of a novel dual-modality optical/radio-imaging agent for general and site-specific labeling of biovectors through a 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT)/1,2-aminothiol click reaction. The CBT-based multifunctional single-attachment-point (MSAP) agent enables a single-step synthesis of various dual-modality probes characterized by rapid conjugation, high labeling yields, metabolically stable products and applicability to orthogonal two-step labeling of sensitive biomolecules. In addition, the two-step radiolabeling protocol and click reaction were optimized by using CBT scavengers to improve the reaction rate and molar activity of the imaging probes. Our methodology allows for a simple and efficient synthetic route to produce a variety of dual-modality imaging agents for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
107,853 Research products, page 1 of 10,786
  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Mark S. Ackerman; Marlene Huysman; John M. Carroll; Barry Wellman; Giorgio DeMichelis; Volker Wulf;
    Country: Netherlands

    Communities are social entities whose actors share common needs, interests, or practices: they constitute the basic units of social experience. With regard to communities, social capital captures the structural, relational and cognitive aspects of the relationships among their members. Social capital is defined as a set of properties of a social entity (e.g. norms, level of trust, and intensive social networking) which enables joint activities and cooperation for mutual benefit. It can be understood as the glue which holds communities together. On this panel we will discuss whether and how information technology can strengthen communities by fostering social capital.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maimoona A. Zariwala; Heon Yung Gee; Małgorzata Kurkowiak; Dalal A. Al-Mutairi; Margaret W. Leigh; Toby W. Hurd; Rim Hjeij; Sharon D. Dell; Moumita Chaki; Gerard W. Dougherty; +48 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Croatia, Germany
    Project: NIH | Novel genetics, pathobiol... (5R01DK068306-17), NIH | Identifying all Meckel-li... (1RC4DK090917-01), NIH | Genetic Disorder of Mucoc... (5U54HL096458-14), NIH | Pathogenesis of PCD Lung ... (5R01HL071798-04), WT , NIH | Colorado Clinical and Tra... (3UL1TR000154-05S1)

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the recently identified LRRC6 in 13 families. We show that ZMYND10 and LRRC6 interact and that certain ZMYND10 and LRRC6 mutations abrogate the interaction between the LRRC6 CS domain and the ZMYND10 C-terminal domain. Additionally, ZMYND10 and LRRC6 colocalize with the centriole markers SAS6 and PCM1. Mutations in ZMYND10 result in the absence of the axonemal protein components DNAH5 and DNALI1 from respiratory cilia. Animal models support the association between ZMYND10 and human PCD, given that zmynd10 knockdown in zebrafish caused ciliary paralysis leading to cystic kidneys and otolith defects and that knockdown in Xenopus interfered with ciliogenesis. Our findings suggest that a cytoplasmic protein complex containing ZMYND10 and LRRC6 is necessary for motile ciliary function. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leclère, Brice; Buckeridge, David L.; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Astagneau, Pascal; Lepelletier, Didier;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; ObjectivesSeveral automated algorithms for epidemiological surveillance in hospitals have been proposed. However, the usefulness of these methods to detect nosocomial outbreaks remains unclear. The goal of this review was to describe outbreak detection algorithms that have been tested within hospitals, consider how they were evaluated, and synthesize their results.MethodsWe developed a search query using keywords associated with hospital outbreak detection and searched the MEDLINE database. To ensure the highest sensitivity, no limitations were initially imposed on publication languages and dates, although we subsequently excluded studies published before 2000. Every study that described a method to detect outbreaks within hospitals was included, without any exclusion based on study design. Additional studies were identified through citations in retrieved studies.ResultsTwenty-nine studies were included. The detection algorithms were grouped into 5 categories: simple thresholds (n = 6), statistical process control (n = 12), scan statistics (n = 6), traditional statistical models (n = 6), and data mining methods (n = 4). The evaluation of the algorithms was often solely descriptive (n = 15), but more complex epidemiological criteria were also investigated (n = 10). The performance measures varied widely between studies: e.g., the sensitivity of an algorithm in a real world setting could vary between 17 and 100%.ConclusionEven if outbreak detection algorithms are useful complementary tools for traditional surveillance, the heterogeneity in results among published studies does not support quantitative synthesis of their performance. A standardized framework should be followed when evaluating outbreak detection methods to allow comparison of algorithms across studies and synthesis of results.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Fergus J. Couch; Kyriaki Michailidou; Marjanka K. Schmidt; Mark N. Brook; Nick Orr; Suhn K. Rhie; Elio Riboli; Heather Spencer Feigelson; Loic Le Marchand; +207 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098233-06), NIH | Discovery Expansion and R... (5U19CA148065-04), NIH | Breast &prostate cancer &... (1U01CA098216-01), NIH | Breast &Prostate Cancer &... (1U01CA098758-01), WT , EC | COGS (223175), NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098710-06), NIH | Genetic epidemiology of c... (3R01CA122340-03S1)

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a metaanalysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P= 2.1 x 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 x 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 x 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P&gt; 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    SEYED MOHAMMAD REZA HASHEMIAN; Hernan Aguirre-Bermeo; John Laffey; Arnaud FOLLIN; Shreedhar Kulkarni; Gustavo A. Plotnikow; Giuseppe Foti; Philip Hopkins; Michael Lanspa; Philippe Michel; +55 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Italy, Netherlands

    IMPORTANCE: Limited information exists about the epidemiology, recognition, management, and outcomes of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intensive care unit (ICU) incidence and outcome of ARDS and to assess clinician recognition, ventilation management, and use of adjuncts-for example prone positioning-in routine clinical practice for patients fulfilling the ARDS Berlin Definition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure (LUNG SAFE) was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients undergoing invasive or noninvasive ventilation, conducted during 4 consecutive weeks in the winter of 2014 in a convenience sample of 459 ICUs from 50 countries across 5 continents. EXPOSURES: Acute respiratory distress syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was ICU incidence of ARDS. Secondary outcomes included assessment of clinician recognition of ARDS, the application of ventilatory management, the use of adjunctive interventions in routine clinical practice, and clinical outcomes from ARDS. RESULTS: Of 29,144 patients admitted to participating ICUs, 3022 (10.4%) fulfilled ARDS criteria. Of these, 2377 patients developed ARDS in the first 48 hours and whose respiratory failure was managed with invasive mechanical ventilation. The period prevalence of mild ARDS was 30.0% (95% CI, 28.2%-31.9%); of moderate ARDS, 46.6% (95% CI, 44.5%-48.6%); and of severe ARDS, 23.4% (95% CI, 21.7%-25.2%). ARDS represented 0.42 cases per ICU bed over 4 weeks and represented 10.4% (95% CI, 10.0%-10.7%) of ICU admissions and 23.4% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinical recognition of ARDS ranged from 51.3% (95% CI, 47.5%-55.0%) in mild to 78.5% (95% CI, 74.8%-81.8%) in severe ARDS. Less than two-thirds of patients with ARDS received a tidal volume 8 of mL/kg or less of predicted body weight. Plateau pressure was measured in 40.1% (95% CI, 38.2-42.1), whereas 82.6% (95% CI, 81.0%-84.1%) received a positive end-expository pressure (PEEP) of less than 12 cm H2O. Prone positioning was used in 16.3% (95% CI, 13.7%-19.2%) of patients with severe ARDS. Clinician recognition of ARDS was associated with higher PEEP, greater use of neuromuscular blockade, and prone positioning. Hospital mortality was 34.9% (95% CI, 31.4%-38.5%) for those with mild, 40.3% (95% CI, 37.4%-43.3%) for those with moderate, and 46.1% (95% CI, 41.9%-50.4%) for those with severe ARDS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among ICUs in 50 countries, the period prevalence of ARDS was 10.4% of ICU admissions. This syndrome appeared to be underrecognized and undertreated and associated with a high mortality rate. These findings indicate the potential for improvement in the management of patients with ARDS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02010073.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Axel S. Merseburger; Daniel Castellano; Thomas Powles; Yohann Loriot; Margitta Retz; Jens Voortman; Robert Huddart; Craig Gedye; Michiel S. van der Heijden; Howard Gurney; +5 more
    Country: Netherlands

    PURPOSE: Atezolizumab is an established treatment option for pretreated urothelial carcinoma, demonstrating efficacy in phase II/III trials. The SAUL study enrolled a broader patient population to determine safety and efficacy in underrepresented subgroups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic urinary tract carcinoma received atezolizumab 1,200 mg every 3 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, loss of clinical benefit, or patient/physician decision. The primary endpoint was safety. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Analyses by programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) status, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) and renal impairment were prespecified; post hoc analyses explored outcomes by tumor location. RESULTS: A total of 1,004 patients were enrolled. Subgroup analyses in patients with older age, renal impairment, or upper tract urothelial carcinoma showed safety and efficacy similar to those in patients without these characteristics. Patients with ECOG PS 2 had clinical features typically associated with aggressive disease; median overall survival was 2.3 months versus 10.0 months in patients with ECOG PS0/1. Patients with PD-L1 expression on ≥5% of tumor-infiltrating immune cells tended to have better outcomes than those with <5% PD-L1 expression, although conclusions on the relative efficacy of atezolizumab cannot be drawn from this single-arm study. CONCLUSIONS: The understudied populations included in the SAUL study had similar outcomes to those in more selected populations included in phase II/III trials of atezolizumab, except for those with ECOG PS 2. Age ≥80 years and/or creatinine clearance <30 ml/minute does not preclude administration of atezolizumab; however, treatment risk versus benefit must be carefully assessed in patients with ECOG PS 2.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marie-Eve Naud; Étienne Artigau; Lison Malo; Loïc Albert; René Doyon; David Lafrenière; Jonathan Gagné; Didier Saumon; Caroline V. Morley; France Allard; +4 more
    Publisher: American Astronomical Society
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | PEPS (247060), NSERC

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE. 18 p., 10 fig., published in ApJ. May 20th, 2014: Small corrections compared to the journal version: 1) addition of the an important reference to 1RSX 1609-2105b from Lafreni\`ere et al. 2008, 2010, 2) update of the url for Andrew Mann metallicity calibration, 3) correction of a few factual mistakes in section 2.2.4), 4) aesthetic reformatting of urls

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Suzan Bsat; Saber Amin Yavari; Maximilian Munsch; Edward R. Valstar; Amir A. Zadpoor;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Netherlands

    Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM), can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH) treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M) and immersion times (6, 24 h) of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    T. Aaltonen; Ronen Alon; S. Amerio; A. Anastassov; Alberto Annovi; Giorgio Apollinari; J. A. Appel; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; A. Aurisano; +207 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: Spain, Italy
    Project: EC | TAUKITFORNEWPHYSICS (302103), SNSF | Measurements of Higgs bos... (153664), NSERC

    This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the A. P. Sloan Foundation; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany; the Korean World Class University Program, the National Research Foundation of Korea; the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Royal Society, United Kingdom; the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, and Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Spain; the Slovak R&D Agency; the Academy of Finland; the Australian Research Council (ARC); and the EU community Marie Curie Fellowship Contract No. 302103. This work was also supported by the Shrum Foundation, the Weizman Institute of Science and the Israel Science Foundation. Results of a study of the substructure of the highest transverse momentum (pT) jets observed by the CDF Collaboration are presented. Events containing at least one jet with pT>400 GeV/c in a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb−1, collected in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, are selected. A study of the jet mass, angularity, and planar-flow distributions is presented, and the measurements are compared with predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. A search for boosted top-quark production is also described, leading to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 38 fb on the production cross section of top quarks with pT>400 GeV/c. Peer Reviewed et al.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Kuo-Ting Chen; Jim Nieuwenhuizen; Maryana Handula; Yann Seimbille;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Country: Netherlands

    We herein describe the development of a novel dual-modality optical/radio-imaging agent for general and site-specific labeling of biovectors through a 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT)/1,2-aminothiol click reaction. The CBT-based multifunctional single-attachment-point (MSAP) agent enables a single-step synthesis of various dual-modality probes characterized by rapid conjugation, high labeling yields, metabolically stable products and applicability to orthogonal two-step labeling of sensitive biomolecules. In addition, the two-step radiolabeling protocol and click reaction were optimized by using CBT scavengers to improve the reaction rate and molar activity of the imaging probes. Our methodology allows for a simple and efficient synthetic route to produce a variety of dual-modality imaging agents for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance.