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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jimmy A. Irwin; W. Peter Maksym; Gregory R. Sivakoff; Aaron J. Romanowsky; Dacheng Lin; Tyler Speegle; Ian Prado; David T. Mildebrath; Jay Strader; Jifeng Liu; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: NSERC , NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (1515084), NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (1514763), NSF | Black Holes in Globular C... (1308124)

    An X-ray flaring source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697. Two flares were seen, separated by four years. The flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. Both flares were very brief. There is no optical counterpart at the position of the flares, but if the source was at the distance of NGC 4697, the luminosities were 10^39 erg/s. Here we report the results of a search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies looking for similar such flares. We found two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultra-compact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies. One source flared once to a peak luminosity of 9 x 10^40 erg/s, while the other flared five times to 10^40 erg/s. All of the flare rise times were <1 minute, and they then decayed over about an hour. When not flaring, the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron star or black hole X-ray binaries, but they are located in old stellar populations, unlike the magnetars, anomalous X-ray pulsars or soft gamma repeaters that have repetitive flares of similar luminosities. Published in the Oct 20 2016 issue of Nature

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Fergus J. Couch; Kyriaki Michailidou; Marjanka K. Schmidt; Mark N. Brook; Nick Orr; Suhn K. Rhie; Elio Riboli; Heather Spencer Feigelson; Loic Le Marchand; +207 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098233-06), NIH | Discovery Expansion and R... (5U19CA148065-04), NIH | Breast &prostate cancer &... (1U01CA098216-01), NIH | Breast &Prostate Cancer &... (1U01CA098758-01), WT , EC | COGS (223175), NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098710-06), NIH | Genetic epidemiology of c... (3R01CA122340-03S1)

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a metaanalysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P= 2.1 x 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 x 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 x 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P&gt; 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elaine Ruth Martyn;
    Publisher: University of New Brunswick Libraries - UNB
    Country: Canada
  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Suping Cai; Liyu Huang; Jia Zou; Longlong Jing; Buzhong Zhai; Gongjun Ji; Karen M von Deneen; Junchan Ren; Aifeng Ren; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Project: NIH | Alzheimers Disease Neuroi... (1U01AG024904-01), CIHR , NIH | "MR Morphometrics and Cog... (5K01AG030514-02), NIH | UC Davis Alzheimer's Core... (3P30AG010129-28S1)

    We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate changes in the thalamus functional connectivity in early and late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Data of 25 late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) patients, 30 early stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) patients and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the thalamus and those in all other brain regions. Compared to healthy controls, we found functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and a set of brain areas was decreased in LMCI and/or EMCI including right fusiform gyrus (FG), left and right superior temporal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus extending into supplementary motor area, right insula, left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) extending into middle occipital gyrus (MOG). We also observed increased functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and several regions in LMCI and/or EMCI including left FG, right MOG, left and right precuneus, right MTG and left inferior temporal gyrus. In the direct comparison between the LMCI and EMCI groups, we obtained several brain regions showed thalamus-seeded functional connectivity differences such as the precentral gyrus, hippocampus, FG and MTG. Briefly, these brain regions mentioned above were mainly located in the thalamo-related networks including thalamo-hippocampus, thalamo-temporal, thalamo-visual, and thalamo-default mode network. The decreased functional connectivity of the thalamus might suggest reduced functional integrity of thalamo-related networks and increased functional connectivity indicated that aMCI patients could use additional brain resources to compensate for the loss of cognitive function. Our study provided a new sight to understand the two important states of aMCI and revealed resting-state fMRI is an appropriate method for exploring pathophysiological changes in aMCI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Chrysanthou; A. C. Maycock; M. P. Chipperfield; S. Dhomse; H. Garny; H. Garny; D. Kinnison; H. Akiyoshi; M. Deushi; R. R. Garcia; +12 more
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Sources and Impacts of Sh... (NE/R001782/1), UKRI | Understanding and Attribu... (NE/M018199/1)

    We perform the first multi-model intercomparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation using hindcast simulations from the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). We examine simulations over the period 1980–2009 from seven models in which the meteorological fields are nudged towards a reanalysis dataset and compare these with their equivalent free-running simulations and the reanalyses themselves. We show that for the current implementations, nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of the stratospheric residual circulation and that the inter-model spread is similar, or even larger, than in the free-running simulations. The nudged models generally show slightly stronger upwelling in the tropical lower stratosphere compared to the free-running versions and exhibit marked differences compared to the directly estimated residual circulation from the reanalysis dataset they are nudged towards. Downward control calculations applied to the nudged simulations reveal substantial differences between the climatological lower-stratospheric tropical upward mass flux (TUMF) computed from the modelled wave forcing and that calculated directly from the residual circulation. This explicitly shows that nudging decouples the wave forcing and the residual circulation so that the divergence of the angular momentum flux due to the mean motion is not balanced by eddy motions, as would typically be expected in the time mean. Overall, nudging meteorological fields leads to increased inter-model spread for most of the measures of the mean climatological stratospheric residual circulation assessed in this study. In contrast, the nudged simulations show a high degree of consistency in the inter-annual variability in the TUMF in the lower stratosphere, which is primarily related to the contribution to variability from the resolved wave forcing. The more consistent inter-annual variability in TUMF in the nudged models also compares more closely with the variability found in the reanalyses, particularly in boreal winter. We apply a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to separate the drivers of inter-annual and long-term variations in the simulated TUMF; this explains up to ∼75 % of the variance in TUMF in the nudged simulations. The MLR model reveals a statistically significant positive trend in TUMF for most models over the period 1980–2009. The TUMF trend magnitude is generally larger in the nudged models compared to their free-running counterparts, but the intermodel range of trends doubles from around a factor of 2 to a factor of 4 due to nudging. Furthermore, the nudged models generally do not match the TUMF trends in the reanalysis they are nudged towards for trends over different periods in the interval 1980–2009. Hence, we conclude that nudging does not strongly constrain long-term trends simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) in the residual circulation. Our findings show that while nudged simulations may, by construction, produce accurate temperatures and realistic representations of fast horizontal transport, this is not typically the case for the slower zonal mean vertical transport in the stratosphere. Consequently, caution is required when using nudged simulations to interpret the behaviour of stratospheric tracers that are affected by the residual circulation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Logan, Clare V.; Murray, Jennie E.; Parry, David A.; Robertson, Andrea; Bellelli, Roberto; Tarnauskaitė, Žygimantė; Challis, Rachel; Cleal, Louise; Borel, Valerie; Fluteau, Adeline; +36 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Project: EC | HUMGENSIZE (281847), NIH | UT Southwestern Center fo... (4UL1TR001105-04), WT | Causes and Consequences o... (210752), EC | GrowCELL (788093)

    During genome replication, polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) acts as the major leading-strand DNA polymerase. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in POLE, encoding the Pol ε catalytic subunit POLE1, in 15 individuals from 12 families. Phenotypically, these individuals had clinical features closely resembling IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary anomalies in males), a disorder previously associated with gain-of-function mutations in CDKN1C. POLE1-deficient individuals also exhibited distinctive facial features and variable immune dysfunction with evidence of lymphocyte deficiency. All subjects shared the same intronic variant (c.1686+32C>G) as part of a common haplotype, in combination with different loss-of-function variants in trans. The intronic variant alters splicing, and together the biallelic mutations lead to cellular deficiency of Pol ε and delayed S-phase progression. In summary, we establish POLE as a second gene in which mutations cause IMAGe syndrome. These findings add to a growing list of disorders due to mutations in DNA replication genes that manifest growth restriction alongside adrenal dysfunction and/or immunodeficiency, consolidating these as replisome phenotypes and highlighting a need for future studies to understand the tissue-specific development roles of the encoded proteins.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guangzhao Chen; Xia Li; Xiaoping Liu; Yimin Chen; Xun Liang; Jiye Leng; Xiaocong Xu; Weilin Liao; Yue’an Qiu; Qianlian Wu; +1 more
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio

    Despite its small land coverage, urban land and its expansion have exhibited profound impacts on global environments. Here, we present the scenario projections of global urban land expansion under the framework of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our projections feature a fine spatial resolution of 1 km to preserve spatial details. The projections reveal that although global urban land continues to expand rapidly before the 2040s, China and many other Asian countries are expected to encounter substantial pressure from urban population decline after the 2050s. Approximately 50–63% of the newly expanded urban land is expected to occur on current croplands. Global crop production will decline by approximately 1–4%, corresponding to the annual food needs for a certain crop of 122–1389 million people. These findings stress the importance of governing urban land development as a key measure to mitigate its negative impacts on food production. Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) is a crucial scenario describing the potential of future socio-economic development. The authors here investigate long-term effects of various government policies suggested by different SSPs on urban land and reveal the impact of future urban expansion on other land and food production.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Niloofar Gharesi; Mohammad Mehdi Arefi; Roozbeh Razavi-Far; Jafar Zarei; Shen Yin;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Canada

    Abstract In recent years advanced signal processing techniques are used increasingly to excavate the nonstationary vibration signals and extract elemental-fault information. However, managing and analyzing a multicomponent signal mixed with background noise using only a single analysis tool is not a simple task and may lead to low diagnostic accuracy and a delayed diagnosis. This paper introduces a novel intelligent neuro-wavelet based system with high diagnostic accuracy based on nonrecursive variational mode decomposition (VMD) and wavelet-based neural network, which mainly consists of three steps (i.e. feature extraction (FE), dimension reduction (DR), and fault classification). Firstly, the vibration signals are segmented and processed by a novel nonrecursive VMD, which can decompose the nonstationary signals into a series of discrete modes adaptively, to extract informative features from vibration signals. Multi-Class generalized discriminant analysis is then used in the second step that aims to reduce the dimension of the feature set and improve the computational burden by selecting meaningful information and removing redundant features. In the next step, the obtained features vector is fed to a state-of-the-art hierarchical multi-resolution classifier, so-called wavelet neural network (WNN), which possesses the advantages of both wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for the decision-making. Additionally, to evaluate the information extraction capability of VMD, the subsequent DR method and the calculation accuracy of WNN, other state-of-the-art techniques are used in this work. In this regard, the superiority of the proposed approach is also confirmed through an experimental comparison with published works in the literature.

search
Include:
The following results are related to Canada. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
102,645 Research products, page 1 of 10,265
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jimmy A. Irwin; W. Peter Maksym; Gregory R. Sivakoff; Aaron J. Romanowsky; Dacheng Lin; Tyler Speegle; Ian Prado; David T. Mildebrath; Jay Strader; Jifeng Liu; +1 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: NSERC , NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (1515084), NSF | Collaborative Research: R... (1514763), NSF | Black Holes in Globular C... (1308124)

    An X-ray flaring source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697. Two flares were seen, separated by four years. The flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. Both flares were very brief. There is no optical counterpart at the position of the flares, but if the source was at the distance of NGC 4697, the luminosities were 10^39 erg/s. Here we report the results of a search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies looking for similar such flares. We found two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultra-compact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies. One source flared once to a peak luminosity of 9 x 10^40 erg/s, while the other flared five times to 10^40 erg/s. All of the flare rise times were <1 minute, and they then decayed over about an hour. When not flaring, the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron star or black hole X-ray binaries, but they are located in old stellar populations, unlike the magnetars, anomalous X-ray pulsars or soft gamma repeaters that have repetitive flares of similar luminosities. Published in the Oct 20 2016 issue of Nature

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Fergus J. Couch; Kyriaki Michailidou; Marjanka K. Schmidt; Mark N. Brook; Nick Orr; Suhn K. Rhie; Elio Riboli; Heather Spencer Feigelson; Loic Le Marchand; +207 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: CIHR , NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098233-06), NIH | Discovery Expansion and R... (5U19CA148065-04), NIH | Breast &prostate cancer &... (1U01CA098216-01), NIH | Breast &Prostate Cancer &... (1U01CA098758-01), WT , EC | COGS (223175), NIH | Characterizing Genetic Su... (5U01CA098710-06), NIH | Genetic epidemiology of c... (3R01CA122340-03S1)

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a metaanalysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P= 2.1 x 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 x 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 x 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P&gt; 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elaine Ruth Martyn;
    Publisher: University of New Brunswick Libraries - UNB
    Country: Canada
  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yu Hao; Zhijie Xu; Jing Wang; Ying Liu; Jiulun Fan;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    With the purpose of automatic detection of crowd patterns including abrupt and abnormal changes, a novel approach for extracting motion “textures” from dynamic Spatio-Temporal Volume (STV) blocks formulated by live video streams has been proposed. This paper starts from introducing the common approach for STV construction and corresponding Spatio-Temporal Texture (STT) extraction techniques. Next the crowd motion information contained within the random STT slices are evaluated based on the information entropy theory to cull the static background and noises occupying most of the STV spaces. A preprocessing step using Gabor filtering for improving the STT sampling efficiency and motion fidelity has been devised and tested. The technique has been applied on benchmarking video databases for proof-of-concept and performance evaluation. Preliminary results have shown encouraging outcomes and promising potentials for its real-world crowd monitoring and control applications.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Duan Li; Christopher Wayne Schmidt;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    A smooth cost distribution can be a desirable feature in optimal control design when concerning even distribution of control energy and uniform resource allocation. This consideration is formulated in this paper for discrete-time linear systems where a square cost-variation term is attached to a primal quadratic performance index in an additive form. An analytical control law is obtained for the resulting non-linear-quadratic and nonseparable optimal control problem using a multilevel solution scheme. Investigating the trade-off between minimizing the primal quadratic performance index and minimizing the square cost-variation term offers some useful insights into multiobjective design of control systems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Suping Cai; Liyu Huang; Jia Zou; Longlong Jing; Buzhong Zhai; Gongjun Ji; Karen M von Deneen; Junchan Ren; Aifeng Ren; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Project: NIH | Alzheimers Disease Neuroi... (1U01AG024904-01), CIHR , NIH | "MR Morphometrics and Cog... (5K01AG030514-02), NIH | UC Davis Alzheimer's Core... (3P30AG010129-28S1)

    We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate changes in the thalamus functional connectivity in early and late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Data of 25 late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) patients, 30 early stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (EMCI) patients and 30 well-matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the thalamus and those in all other brain regions. Compared to healthy controls, we found functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and a set of brain areas was decreased in LMCI and/or EMCI including right fusiform gyrus (FG), left and right superior temporal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus extending into supplementary motor area, right insula, left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) extending into middle occipital gyrus (MOG). We also observed increased functional connectivity between the left/right thalamus and several regions in LMCI and/or EMCI including left FG, right MOG, left and right precuneus, right MTG and left inferior temporal gyrus. In the direct comparison between the LMCI and EMCI groups, we obtained several brain regions showed thalamus-seeded functional connectivity differences such as the precentral gyrus, hippocampus, FG and MTG. Briefly, these brain regions mentioned above were mainly located in the thalamo-related networks including thalamo-hippocampus, thalamo-temporal, thalamo-visual, and thalamo-default mode network. The decreased functional connectivity of the thalamus might suggest reduced functional integrity of thalamo-related networks and increased functional connectivity indicated that aMCI patients could use additional brain resources to compensate for the loss of cognitive function. Our study provided a new sight to understand the two important states of aMCI and revealed resting-state fMRI is an appropriate method for exploring pathophysiological changes in aMCI.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Chrysanthou; A. C. Maycock; M. P. Chipperfield; S. Dhomse; H. Garny; H. Garny; D. Kinnison; H. Akiyoshi; M. Deushi; R. R. Garcia; +12 more
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Sources and Impacts of Sh... (NE/R001782/1), UKRI | Understanding and Attribu... (NE/M018199/1)

    We perform the first multi-model intercomparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation using hindcast simulations from the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). We examine simulations over the period 1980–2009 from seven models in which the meteorological fields are nudged towards a reanalysis dataset and compare these with their equivalent free-running simulations and the reanalyses themselves. We show that for the current implementations, nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of the stratospheric residual circulation and that the inter-model spread is similar, or even larger, than in the free-running simulations. The nudged models generally show slightly stronger upwelling in the tropical lower stratosphere compared to the free-running versions and exhibit marked differences compared to the directly estimated residual circulation from the reanalysis dataset they are nudged towards. Downward control calculations applied to the nudged simulations reveal substantial differences between the climatological lower-stratospheric tropical upward mass flux (TUMF) computed from the modelled wave forcing and that calculated directly from the residual circulation. This explicitly shows that nudging decouples the wave forcing and the residual circulation so that the divergence of the angular momentum flux due to the mean motion is not balanced by eddy motions, as would typically be expected in the time mean. Overall, nudging meteorological fields leads to increased inter-model spread for most of the measures of the mean climatological stratospheric residual circulation assessed in this study. In contrast, the nudged simulations show a high degree of consistency in the inter-annual variability in the TUMF in the lower stratosphere, which is primarily related to the contribution to variability from the resolved wave forcing. The more consistent inter-annual variability in TUMF in the nudged models also compares more closely with the variability found in the reanalyses, particularly in boreal winter. We apply a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to separate the drivers of inter-annual and long-term variations in the simulated TUMF; this explains up to ∼75 % of the variance in TUMF in the nudged simulations. The MLR model reveals a statistically significant positive trend in TUMF for most models over the period 1980–2009. The TUMF trend magnitude is generally larger in the nudged models compared to their free-running counterparts, but the intermodel range of trends doubles from around a factor of 2 to a factor of 4 due to nudging. Furthermore, the nudged models generally do not match the TUMF trends in the reanalysis they are nudged towards for trends over different periods in the interval 1980–2009. Hence, we conclude that nudging does not strongly constrain long-term trends simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) in the residual circulation. Our findings show that while nudged simulations may, by construction, produce accurate temperatures and realistic representations of fast horizontal transport, this is not typically the case for the slower zonal mean vertical transport in the stratosphere. Consequently, caution is required when using nudged simulations to interpret the behaviour of stratospheric tracers that are affected by the residual circulation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Logan, Clare V.; Murray, Jennie E.; Parry, David A.; Robertson, Andrea; Bellelli, Roberto; Tarnauskaitė, Žygimantė; Challis, Rachel; Cleal, Louise; Borel, Valerie; Fluteau, Adeline; +36 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Project: EC | HUMGENSIZE (281847), NIH | UT Southwestern Center fo... (4UL1TR001105-04), WT | Causes and Consequences o... (210752), EC | GrowCELL (788093)

    During genome replication, polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) acts as the major leading-strand DNA polymerase. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in POLE, encoding the Pol ε catalytic subunit POLE1, in 15 individuals from 12 families. Phenotypically, these individuals had clinical features closely resembling IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary anomalies in males), a disorder previously associated with gain-of-function mutations in CDKN1C. POLE1-deficient individuals also exhibited distinctive facial features and variable immune dysfunction with evidence of lymphocyte deficiency. All subjects shared the same intronic variant (c.1686+32C>G) as part of a common haplotype, in combination with different loss-of-function variants in trans. The intronic variant alters splicing, and together the biallelic mutations lead to cellular deficiency of Pol ε and delayed S-phase progression. In summary, we establish POLE as a second gene in which mutations cause IMAGe syndrome. These findings add to a growing list of disorders due to mutations in DNA replication genes that manifest growth restriction alongside adrenal dysfunction and/or immunodeficiency, consolidating these as replisome phenotypes and highlighting a need for future studies to understand the tissue-specific development roles of the encoded proteins.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guangzhao Chen; Xia Li; Xiaoping Liu; Yimin Chen; Xun Liang; Jiye Leng; Xiaocong Xu; Weilin Liao; Yue’an Qiu; Qianlian Wu; +1 more
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio

    Despite its small land coverage, urban land and its expansion have exhibited profound impacts on global environments. Here, we present the scenario projections of global urban land expansion under the framework of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our projections feature a fine spatial resolution of 1 km to preserve spatial details. The projections reveal that although global urban land continues to expand rapidly before the 2040s, China and many other Asian countries are expected to encounter substantial pressure from urban population decline after the 2050s. Approximately 50–63% of the newly expanded urban land is expected to occur on current croplands. Global crop production will decline by approximately 1–4%, corresponding to the annual food needs for a certain crop of 122–1389 million people. These findings stress the importance of governing urban land development as a key measure to mitigate its negative impacts on food production. Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) is a crucial scenario describing the potential of future socio-economic development. The authors here investigate long-term effects of various government policies suggested by different SSPs on urban land and reveal the impact of future urban expansion on other land and food production.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Niloofar Gharesi; Mohammad Mehdi Arefi; Roozbeh Razavi-Far; Jafar Zarei; Shen Yin;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Canada

    Abstract In recent years advanced signal processing techniques are used increasingly to excavate the nonstationary vibration signals and extract elemental-fault information. However, managing and analyzing a multicomponent signal mixed with background noise using only a single analysis tool is not a simple task and may lead to low diagnostic accuracy and a delayed diagnosis. This paper introduces a novel intelligent neuro-wavelet based system with high diagnostic accuracy based on nonrecursive variational mode decomposition (VMD) and wavelet-based neural network, which mainly consists of three steps (i.e. feature extraction (FE), dimension reduction (DR), and fault classification). Firstly, the vibration signals are segmented and processed by a novel nonrecursive VMD, which can decompose the nonstationary signals into a series of discrete modes adaptively, to extract informative features from vibration signals. Multi-Class generalized discriminant analysis is then used in the second step that aims to reduce the dimension of the feature set and improve the computational burden by selecting meaningful information and removing redundant features. In the next step, the obtained features vector is fed to a state-of-the-art hierarchical multi-resolution classifier, so-called wavelet neural network (WNN), which possesses the advantages of both wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for the decision-making. Additionally, to evaluate the information extraction capability of VMD, the subsequent DR method and the calculation accuracy of WNN, other state-of-the-art techniques are used in this work. In this regard, the superiority of the proposed approach is also confirmed through an experimental comparison with published works in the literature.