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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martine Lizotte; Bennet Juhls; Atsushi Matsuoka; Philippe Massicotte; +43 Authors

    Climate warming and related drivers of soil thermal change in the Arctic are expected to modify the distribution and dynamics of carbon contained in perennially frozen grounds. Thawing of permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta region of northwestern Canada, coupled with increases in river discharge and coastal erosion, trigger the release of terrestrial organic matter (OMt) from the largest Arctic drainage basin in North America into the Arctic Ocean. While this process is ongoing, well-established, and its rate is accelerating, the fate of the newly-mobilized organic matter, as it transits from the watershed through the delta and into the marine system, remains poorly understood. In the framework of the European Horizon 2020 Nunataryuk programme, and as part of the Work Package 4 (WP4) Coastal Waters theme, four field expeditions were conducted in the Mackenzie Delta region and southern Beaufort Sea from April to September 2019. The temporal sampling design allowed the survey of ambient conditions in the coastal waters under full ice cover prior to the spring freshet, during ice break-up in summer, as well as anterior to the freeze-up period in fall. To capture the fluvial-marine transition zone, and with distinct challenges related to shallow waters and changing seasonal and meteorological conditions, the field sampling was conducted in close partnership with members of the communities of Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, using several platforms: helicopters, snowmobiles and small boats. Water column profiles of physical and optical variables were measured in situ, while surface water, groundwater and sediment samples were collected and preserved for the determination of the composition and sources of OMt, including particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as a suite of physical, chemical and biological variables. Here we present an overview of the standardized datasets, including hydrographic profiles, remote sensing reflectance, temperature and salinity, particle absorption, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, colored dissolved organic matter absorption, fluorescent dissolved organic matter intensity, suspended particulate matter, total particulate carbon, total particulate nitrogen, stable water isotopes, radon in water, bacterial abundance, and a string of phytoplankton pigments including total chlorophyll. Datasets and related metadata can be found in Juhls et al. 2021. https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.937587.

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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Earth System Science Data
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Science...arrow_drop_down
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2023
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      Earth System Science Data
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Fabrice Martins; A. Hervé; J. C. Bouret; W. L. F. Marcolino; +5 Authors

    The evolution of massive stars is still partly unconstrained. Mass, metallicity, mass loss and rotation are the main drivers of stellar evolution. Binarity and magnetic field may also significantly affect the fate of massive stars. Our goal is to investigate the evolution of single O stars in the Galaxy. For that, we use a sample of 74 objects comprising all luminosity classes and spectral types from O4 to O9.7. We rely on optical spectroscopy obtained in the context of the MiMeS survey of massive stars. We perform spectral modelling with the code CMFGEN. We determine the surface properties of the sample stars, with special emphasis on abundances of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Most of our sample stars have initial masses in the range 20 to 50 Msun. We show that nitrogen is more enriched and carbon/oxygen more depleted in supergiants than in dwarfs, with giants showing intermediate degrees of mixing. CNO abundances are observed in the range of values predicted by nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. More massive stars, within a given luminosity class, appear to be more chemically enriched than lower mass stars. We compare our results with predictions of three types of evolutionary models and show that, for two sets of models, 80% of our sample can be explained by stellar evolution including rotation. The effect of magnetism on surface abundances is unconstrained. Our study indicates that, in the 20-50 Msun mass range, the surface chemical abundances of most single O stars in the Galaxy are fairly well accounted for by stellar evolution of rotating stars. Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures. Accepted in Astronomy & Astrophysics

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Crossref
    HAL AMU; HAL-UPMC
    Article . 2015
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: Crossref
      HAL AMU; HAL-UPMC
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Danielle S. Bassett; Kathleen E. Cullen; Simon B. Eickhoff; Martha J. Farah; +14 Authors

    The first issue of Nature Reviews Neuroscience was published 20 years ago, in 2000. To mark this anniversary, in this Viewpoint article we asked a selection of researchers from across the field who have authored pieces published in the journal in recent years for their thoughts on notable and interesting developments in neuroscience, and particularly in their areas of the field, over the past two decades. They also provide some thoughts on current lines of research and questions that excite them.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Other literature type . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . 2020
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    Authors: John P. Stott; David Sobral; Ian Smail; Richard G. Bower; +2 Authors

    We use the HiZELS narrow-band H-alpha survey in combination with CANDELS, UKIDSS and WIRDS near-infrared imaging, to investigate the morphologies, merger rates and sizes of a sample of H-alpha emitting galaxies in the redshift range z=0.40 - 2.23, an epoch encompassing the rise to the peak of the star formation rate density. Merger rates are estimated from space- and ground-based imaging using the M20 coefficient. To account for the increase in the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) of the star forming `main-sequence' with redshift, we normalise the star-formation rate of galaxies at each epoch to the typical value derived from the H-alpha luminosity function. Once this trend in sSFR is removed we see no evidence for an increase in the number density of star-forming galaxies or the merger rate with redshift. We thus conclude that neither is the main driver of the enhanced star-formation rate density at z=1-2, with secular processes such as instabilities within efficiently fuelled, gas-rich discs or multiple minor mergers the most likely alternatives. However, we find that 40-50% of starburst galaxies, those with enhanced specific star formation at their epoch, are major mergers and this fraction is redshift independent. Finally, we find the surprising result that the typical size of a star-forming galaxy of a given mass does not evolve across the redshift range considered, suggesting a universal size-mass relation. Taken in combination, these results indicate a star-forming galaxy population that is statistically similar in physical size, merger rate and mass over the 6 Gyr covered in this study, despite the increase in typical sSFR. Comment: MNRAS in press

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    Authors: Clémentine Delan-Forino; Jules Deforges; Lionel Benard; Bruno Sargueil; +2 Authors

    International audience; Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs, interactions with host factors appear to be closely related to their structural and catalytic characteristics. Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), a member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates via a symmetric OPEN ACCESS Viruses 2014, 6 490 RNA-dependant rolling-circle process, involving self-cleavage via hammerhead ribozymes. Consequently, it is assumed that ASBVd plus and minus strands adopt similar structures. Moreover, by computer analyses, a quasi-rod-like secondary structure has been predicted. Nevertheless, secondary and tertiary structures of both polarities of ASBVd remain unsolved. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic of each strand of ASBVd through biophysical analyses. We report that ASBVd transcripts of plus and minus polarities exhibit differences in electrophoretic mobility under native conditions and in thermal denaturation profiles. Subsequently, the secondary structures of plus and minus polarities of ASBVd were probed using the RNA-selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) method. The models obtained show that both polarities fold into different structures. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a kissing-loop interaction within the minus strand that may play a role in in vivo viroid life cycle.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Viruses
    Article . 2014
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    Viruses
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    Authors: Cora Uhlemann; Sandrine Codis; C. Pichon; Francis Bernardeau; +1 Authors

    We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically-averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading-order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few percent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellent agreement with N-body simulations for a wide range of densities. This formalism should prove valuable for accurately probing the quasi-linear scales of low redshift surveys for arbitrary primordial power spectra. Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, minor corrections and added references, accepted for publication in MNRAS

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    Authors: Angélique Richard; Elodie Vallin; Caroline Romestaing; Damien Roussel; +2 Authors

    AbstractIt has been suggested that a switch from glycolysis, with lactate production, toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) could be a driving force during stem cell differentiation.Based upon initial results, from our previous work, showing a drop in LDHA mRNA level during the differentiation of chicken erythroid progenitors, we studied metabolism behavior to question whether such switch might also be operating in those cells.We first analyzed the level of 9 enzymes, including LDHA, involved either in glycolysis or OXPHOS, in self-renewing and differentiating cells. Our results suggest that erythroid differentiation might be accompanied by an enhancement of the respiratory chains and glycolysis activities at 12h, followed by a strong decline of the glycolytic pathway and a stabilization of OXPHOS.To confirm that OXPHOS might be increased and glycolysis decreased during erythroid differentiation, we measured lactate concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of self-renewing and differentiating cells. Our findings show that at 12h-24h of differentiation, a surge of energy is needed, which could be fueled jointly by glycolysis and OXPHOS. Then the energy demand comes back to normal and might be supplied by OXPHOS instead of lactate production through glycolysis.These results support the hypothesis that erythroid differentiation is associated with a metabolic switch from glycolysis to OXPHOS.We also assessed LDHA role in erythroid progenitors self-renewal and the metabolic status changes. Inhibition experiments showed that LDHA activity could be involved in the maintenance of erythroid progenitors self-renewal, and its decline could influence their metabolic status.Finally, we investigated whether these metabolic rearrangements were necessary for erythroid differentiation. The addition of an inhibitor of the respiratory chains affected progenitors ability to differentiate, suggesting that the metabolic switch from glycolysis toward OXPHOS might act as a driving force for erythroid differentiation.Author summarySingle-cell based gene expression data from one of our previous publication pointed out significant variations of LDHA level, an important metabolism player, during erythroid differentiation. Deeper investigations highlighted that a metabolic switch occurred along differentiation of erythroid cells as previously emphasized in stem cell differentiation. More precisely our finding showed that self-renewing progenitor cells relied mostly upon a glycolytic, lactate-productive, metabolism and required LDHA activity, whereas differentiating cells, mainly involved the aerobic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However our careful kinetic study demonstrated that these metabolic rearrangements were coming along with a particular temporary event, occurring within the first 24h of erythroid differentiation. The activity of glycolytic metabolism and OXPHOS rose jointly with ATP production at 12-24h of the differentiation process before lactate-productive glycolysis sharply fall down and energy needs decline. Finally, our results showed that the metabolic switch mediated through LDHA drop and OXPHOS upkeep might be necessary for erythroid differentiation. We also discuss the possibility that metabolism, gene expression and epigenetics could act together in a circular manner as a driving force for differentiation.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Article . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Lionel Pintard; Vincent Archambault;

    The Polo kinase is an essential regulator of cell division. Its ability to regulate multiple events at distinct subcellular locations and times during mitosis is remarkable. In the last few years, a much clearer mechanistic understanding of the functions and regulation of Polo in cell division has emerged. In this regard, the importance of coupling changes in activity with changes in localization is striking, both for Polo itself and for its upstream regulators. This review brings together several new pieces of the puzzle that are gradually revealing how Polo is regulated, in space and time, to enable its functions in the early stages of mitosis in animal cells. As a result, a unified view of how mitotic entry is spatio-temporally regulated is emerging.

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    Article . 2018
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    Authors: Jean Boulvert; Théo Cavalieri; Josué Costa-Baptista; Logan Schwan; +6 Authors

    International audience; This article presents a numerical optimization procedure of continuous gradient porous layer properties to achieve perfect absorption under normal incidence. This design tool is applied on a graded porous medium composed of a periodic arrangement of ordered unit cells allowing to link the effective acoustic properties to its geometry. The best micro-geometry continuous gradient providing the optimal acoustic reflection and/or transmission is designed via a nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm. The acoustic performances of the so-designed continuous graded material are discussed with respect to the optimized homogeneous, i.e. non-graded, and monotonically graded material. The numerical results show a shifting of the perfect absorption peak to lower frequencies or a widening of the perfect absorption frequency range for graded materials when compared to uniform ones. The results are validated experimentally on 3D-printed samples therefore confirming the relevance of such gradient along with the efficiency of the control of the entire design process. a) jean.boulvert@univ-lemans.fr;

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    PolyPublie; Journal of Applied Physics
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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      PolyPublie; Journal of Applied Physics
      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Authors: Marc-Antoine Stoeckel; Yoann Olivier; Marco Gobbi; Dmytro Dudenko; +17 Authors

    Charge transport in organic semiconductors is notoriously extremely sensitive to the presence of disorder, both internal and external (i.e. related to the interactions with the dielectric layer), especially for n-type materials. Internal dynamic disorder stems from large thermal fluctuations both in intermolecular transfer integrals and (molecular) site energies in weakly interacting van der Waals solids and sources transient localization of the charge carriers. The molecular vibrations that drive transient localization typically operate at low-frequency (< a-few-hundred cm-1), which renders it difficult to assess them experimentally. Hitherto, this has prevented the identification of clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. In addition, the disorder can also be external, being controlled by the gate insulator dielectric properties. Here we report on a comprehensive study of charge transport in two closely related n-type molecular organic semiconductors using a combination of temperature-dependent inelastic neutron scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy corroborated by electrical measurements, theory and simulations. We provide unambiguous evidence that ad hoc molecular design enables to free the electron charge carriers from both internal and external disorder to ultimately reach band-like electron transport. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1909.05344

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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2021
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    Advanced Materials
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Martine Lizotte; Bennet Juhls; Atsushi Matsuoka; Philippe Massicotte; +43 Authors

    Climate warming and related drivers of soil thermal change in the Arctic are expected to modify the distribution and dynamics of carbon contained in perennially frozen grounds. Thawing of permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta region of northwestern Canada, coupled with increases in river discharge and coastal erosion, trigger the release of terrestrial organic matter (OMt) from the largest Arctic drainage basin in North America into the Arctic Ocean. While this process is ongoing, well-established, and its rate is accelerating, the fate of the newly-mobilized organic matter, as it transits from the watershed through the delta and into the marine system, remains poorly understood. In the framework of the European Horizon 2020 Nunataryuk programme, and as part of the Work Package 4 (WP4) Coastal Waters theme, four field expeditions were conducted in the Mackenzie Delta region and southern Beaufort Sea from April to September 2019. The temporal sampling design allowed the survey of ambient conditions in the coastal waters under full ice cover prior to the spring freshet, during ice break-up in summer, as well as anterior to the freeze-up period in fall. To capture the fluvial-marine transition zone, and with distinct challenges related to shallow waters and changing seasonal and meteorological conditions, the field sampling was conducted in close partnership with members of the communities of Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, using several platforms: helicopters, snowmobiles and small boats. Water column profiles of physical and optical variables were measured in situ, while surface water, groundwater and sediment samples were collected and preserved for the determination of the composition and sources of OMt, including particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as a suite of physical, chemical and biological variables. Here we present an overview of the standardized datasets, including hydrographic profiles, remote sensing reflectance, temperature and salinity, particle absorption, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, colored dissolved organic matter absorption, fluorescent dissolved organic matter intensity, suspended particulate matter, total particulate carbon, total particulate nitrogen, stable water isotopes, radon in water, bacterial abundance, and a string of phytoplankton pigments including total chlorophyll. Datasets and related metadata can be found in Juhls et al. 2021. https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.937587.

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    Earth System Science Data
    Article . 2023
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