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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bahniwal, Ravninder;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship@Westernarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship@Westernarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dixon, J. Scott;

    Competencies have been used for many years to align the values, behaviour, knowledge, and skills of individuals with the goals of the organizations in which they are employed. The organization in which I am employed in the role as a technical instructor, previously did not have a curriculum in place to support a competency-based model for the apprentices who are working in an aviation maintenance capacity. This action research paper outlines the redesigned curriculum, grafting reflective and social learning aspects; the result of is intended to affect positive change in the learning practices of both the individual and organization.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bill, Kristen;

    Recent shifts in wildfire activity in regions of boreal North America indicate decreased resiliency of carbon pools and forest state. Here, I quantify the initial response and long-term recovery of belowground carbon pools to wildfire across various vegetation trajectories in ~140,000km2 area of the Northwest Territories, Canada, across 502 stands ranging from 1-100 years post-fire. Recovery of soil organic carbon depth and stocks post-fire are regulated primarily by time, moisture level, and their interaction. Hydric sites store more carbon than mesic and dry sites, and rates of post-fire soil carbon accumulation are slower in wetter stands than in mesic or dry stands. My results also suggest that shifts in vegetation state are likely to reduce soil organic carbon depth and stocks during the fire-free period. By modelling across gradients of fire history, hydrology, and vegetation dominance, we can predict the short- and long-term consequences of wildfire for ecosystem carbon behaviour. This research was funded by Northern Science Training Program (NSTP), Northern Water Futures, NASA, and was in kind partnership with the Government of the Northwest Territories.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace at the Univer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kaller, Damon M;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wally, Owen Stephen Donald;

    Genetic engineering is a promising strategy for creating agriculturally significant resistance in carrot. Several different transgenic strategies, in addition to conducting a detailed quantification of commonly used promoters to achieve disease resistance were investigated. Tissue-specific patterns and levels of protein expression were characterized in transgenic carrot plants transformed with the ?-glucuronidase gene driven by five promoters: Cauliflower moasaic virus 35S, double 35S (D35S), Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ3), mannopine synthase (mas2) or rooting loci promoter (rolD). UBQ3 promoter provided the highest levels of expression in roots, while D35S and 35S promoters had high expression in leaves. rolD and Mas2 promoters had enhanced root expression; however levels were much lower compared to the constitutive promoters, which were subsequently used in this research. Genes encoding a rice peroxidase (POC1), wheat chitinase (383) and ?1,3- glucanase (638) were introduced into carrot. Lines expressing 638 alone had no enhanced resistance to B. cinerea or S. scleorotiorum, while 383 lines reduced disease symptoms by up to 40%. When 638 and 383 were co-expressed resistance levels were similar to 383 alone. High levels of disease resistance were seen in lines expressing POC1 with 70-90% reduction in symptoms to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. POC1 lines had 20-30% increases in lignin levels in petioles and roots, which was enhanced with pathogen challenge. Several defence genes exhibited strong induction in POC1 expressing plants when induced with fungal cell wall elicitor. Additionally, POC1 lines had reduced H2O2 accumulation during oxidative burst response. POC1 derived resistance was effective towards necrotrophic pathogens. Over-expression of Arabidopsis Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related protein 1 was studied in carrot, with two independent lines successfully generated and analyzed. There was no detectable activation of the systemic acquire resistance (SAR) pathways in the absence of pathogens, however, the lines exhibited more intense and longer lasting activation of SAR when elicited with fungal cell walls or Salicylic acid. Both lines were highly resistant against biotrophic and necrotrophic foliar pathogens and the roots were resistant towards A. radicina, indicating broad-spectrum disease resistance. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of engineering disease resistance in carrot using several different approaches.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Simon Fraser Univers...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Administrator, UWindsor;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship at UWind...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scholarship at UWindsor
    Other literature type . 2016
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      Scholarship at UWindsor
      Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Tran, Hong Hanh;

    Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made subunit vaccines against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), I have developed several viral vectors which express partial PRRSV glycoprotein 5 (GP5). In this thesis, I demonstrated that viral vectors can increase the expression of proteins for vaccine development in a variety of host plants. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the C-terminus of GP5 fused with GFP (GP5C-GFP) were expressed at up to 37.29 mg/kg and 4.36 mg/kg fresh weight of leaf tissue, respectively, in soybean plants via biolistic bombardment, using viral vectors derived from Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)-based vector was employed to display chimeric virus particles, presenting the neutralizing epitope (NE) of GP5, at levels as high as 35.84 mg/kg of cucumber leaf fresh weight, via agroinfiltration. In addition, GFP and the ectodomain of GP5 fused with GFP (GP5e-GFP) were successfully produced at up to 2.03 g/kg and 36.53 mg/kg fresh weight of leaf tissue, respectively, in Nicotiana benthamiana using transient expression of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV)-based vectors. Co-infiltration of viral vectors with p19, a silencing suppressor, can help to mitigate the toxicity of GP5e to plant tissue and enhance the accumulation of this protein. These plant-made products may be tested as oral subunit vaccines against PRRSV in pigs during future experimental trials. Overall, the results demonstrate that viral systems can produce low-cost, versatile and robust vaccines that have a great impact in the fight against viral diseases, especially in developing countries.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scholarship@Westernarrow_drop_down
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    Scholarship@Western
    Other literature type . 2017
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      Scholarship@Western
      Other literature type . 2017
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jodie L. Rummer;

    ![Figure][1] There are two major strategies available to mammals to survive winter: hibernation, where large animals drop their metabolic rate, and non-hibernation, where small mammals utilise fat stores to maintain their body temperature. According to Stuart Egginton from the University of

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Experimen...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Morris, D.W.;

    A Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}_\mathbb{Q}$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ is said to be $\mathbb{R}$-universal if every homomorphism from $\mathfrak{g}_\mathbb{Q}$ to $\mathfrak{gl}(n,\mathbb{R})$ is conjugate to a homomorphism into $\mathfrak{gl}(n,\mathbb{Q})$ (for every $n$). By using Galois cohomology, we provide a short proof of the known fact that every real semisimple Lie algebra has an $\mathbb{R}$-universal $\mathbb{Q}$-form. We also provide a classification of the $\mathbb{R}$-universal Lie algebras that are semisimple.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Наукова електронна б...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Наукова електронна б...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: J Johnson; David A. Case; T Yamazaki; Sergey Gusarov; +2 Authors

    Implicit solvent models offer an attractive way to estimate the effects of a solvent environment on the properties of small or large solutes without the complications of explicit simulations. One common test of accuracy is to compute the free energy of transfer from gas to liquid for a variety of small molecules, since many of these values have been measured. Studies of the temperature dependence of these values (i.e. solvation enthalpies and entropies) can provide additional insights into the performance of implicit solvent models. Here, we show how to compute temperature derivatives of hydration free energies for the 3D-RISM integral equation approach. We have computed hydration free energies of 1123 small drug-like molecules (both neutral and charged). Temperature derivatives were also used to calculate hydration energies and entropies of 74 of these molecules (both neutral and charged) for which experimental data is available. While direct results have rather poor agreement with experiment, we have found that several previously proposed linear hydration free energy correction schemes give good agreement with experiment. These corrections also provide good agreement for hydration energies and entropies though simple extensions are required in some cases.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
    Article . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
      Article . 2016
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1,323,892 Research products
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    Authors: Bahniwal, Ravninder;
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    Authors: Dixon, J. Scott;

    Competencies have been used for many years to align the values, behaviour, knowledge, and skills of individuals with the goals of the organizations in which they are employed. The organization in which I am employed in the role as a technical instructor, previously did not have a curriculum in place to support a competency-based model for the apprentices who are working in an aviation maintenance capacity. This action research paper outlines the redesigned curriculum, grafting reflective and social learning aspects; the result of is intended to affect positive change in the learning practices of both the individual and organization.

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    Authors: Bill, Kristen;

    Recent shifts in wildfire activity in regions of boreal North America indicate decreased resiliency of carbon pools and forest state. Here, I quantify the initial response and long-term recovery of belowground carbon pools to wildfire across various vegetation trajectories in ~140,000km2 area of the Northwest Territories, Canada, across 502 stands ranging from 1-100 years post-fire. Recovery of soil organic carbon depth and stocks post-fire are regulated primarily by time, moisture level, and their interaction. Hydric sites store more carbon than mesic and dry sites, and rates of post-fire soil carbon accumulation are slower in wetter stands than in mesic or dry stands. My results also suggest that shifts in vegetation state are likely to reduce soil organic carbon depth and stocks during the fire-free period. By modelling across gradients of fire history, hydrology, and vegetation dominance, we can predict the short- and long-term consequences of wildfire for ecosystem carbon behaviour. This research was funded by Northern Science Training Program (NSTP), Northern Water Futures, NASA, and was in kind partnership with the Government of the Northwest Territories.

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    Authors: Kaller, Damon M;
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    Authors: Wally, Owen Stephen Donald;

    Genetic engineering is a promising strategy for creating agriculturally significant resistance in carrot. Several different transgenic strategies, in addition to conducting a detailed quantification of commonly used promoters to achieve disease resistance were investigated. Tissue-specific patterns and levels of protein expression were characterized in transgenic carrot plants transformed with the ?-glucuronidase gene driven by five promoters: Cauliflower moasaic virus 35S, double 35S (D35S), Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ3), mannopine synthase (mas2) or rooting loci promoter (rolD). UBQ3 promoter provided the highest levels of expression in roots, while D35S and 35S promoters had high expression in leaves. rolD and Mas2 promoters had enhanced root expression; however levels were much lower compared to the constitutive promoters, which were subsequently used in this research. Genes encoding a rice peroxidase (POC1), wheat chitinase (383) and ?1,3- glucanase (638) were introduced into carrot. Lines expressing 638 alone had no enhanced resistance to B. cinerea or S. scleorotiorum, while 383 lines reduced disease symptoms by up to 40%. When 638 and 383 were co-expressed resistance levels were similar to 383 alone. High levels of disease resistance were seen in lines expressing POC1 with 70-90% reduction in symptoms to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. POC1 lines had 20-30% increases in lignin levels in petioles and roots, which was enhanced with pathogen challenge. Several defence genes exhibited strong induction in POC1 expressing plants when induced with fungal cell wall elicitor. Additionally, POC1 lines had reduced H2O2 accumulation during oxidative burst response. POC1 derived resistance was effective towards necrotrophic pathogens. Over-expression of Arabidopsis Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related protein 1 was studied in carrot, with two independent lines successfully generated and analyzed. There was no detectable activation of the systemic acquire resistance (SAR) pathways in the absence of pathogens, however, the lines exhibited more intense and longer lasting activation of SAR when elicited with fungal cell walls or Salicylic acid. Both lines were highly resistant against biotrophic and necrotrophic foliar pathogens and the roots were resistant towards A. radicina, indicating broad-spectrum disease resistance. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of engineering disease resistance in carrot using several different approaches.

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    Authors: Administrator, UWindsor;
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    Authors: Tran, Hong Hanh;

    Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made subunit vaccines against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), I have developed several viral vectors which express partial PRRSV glycoprotein 5 (GP5). In this thesis, I demonstrated that viral vectors can increase the expression of proteins for vaccine development in a variety of host plants. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the C-terminus of GP5 fused with GFP (GP5C-GFP) were expressed at up to 37.29 mg/kg and 4.36 mg/kg fresh weight of leaf tissue, respectively, in soybean plants via biolistic bombardment, using viral vectors derived from Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)-based vector was employed to display chimeric virus particles, presenting the neutralizing epitope (NE) of GP5, at levels as high as 35.84 mg/kg of cucumber leaf fresh weight, via agroinfiltration. In addition, GFP and the ectodomain of GP5 fused with GFP (GP5e-GFP) were successfully produced at up to 2.03 g/kg and 36.53 mg/kg fresh weight of leaf tissue, respectively, in Nicotiana benthamiana using transient expression of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV)-based vectors. Co-infiltration of viral vectors with p19, a silencing suppressor, can help to mitigate the toxicity of GP5e to plant tissue and enhance the accumulation of this protein. These plant-made products may be tested as oral subunit vaccines against PRRSV in pigs during future experimental trials. Overall, the results demonstrate that viral systems can produce low-cost, versatile and robust vaccines that have a great impact in the fight against viral diseases, especially in developing countries.

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    Authors: Jodie L. Rummer;

    ![Figure][1] There are two major strategies available to mammals to survive winter: hibernation, where large animals drop their metabolic rate, and non-hibernation, where small mammals utilise fat stores to maintain their body temperature. According to Stuart Egginton from the University of

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    Authors: Morris, D.W.;

    A Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}_\mathbb{Q}$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ is said to be $\mathbb{R}$-universal if every homomorphism from $\mathfrak{g}_\mathbb{Q}$ to $\mathfrak{gl}(n,\mathbb{R})$ is conjugate to a homomorphism into $\mathf