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  • Canada
  • 2018-2022
  • Papyrus : Dépôt institutionnel - Université de Montréal

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cordero Guzmán, Gustavo Segundo;

    Les membres de la famille de protéines de maintenance structurelle des chromosomes (SMC) sont des régulateurs essentiels de la stabilité génomique. Le complexe Smc5-6 est indispensable pour la réparation de l'ADN, la maintenance des télomères et le redémarrage des fourches de réplication bloquées. La façon dont le complexe Smc5-6 remplit ses fonctions pour favoriser la stabilité du génome est encore incertaine. Ici, nous avons développé une nouvelle stratégie de purification pour isoler un complexe réassemblé fonctionnel. Cette approche nous a permis d'effectuer d'importantes analyses biochimiques et structurelles du complexe humain Smc5-6. Nous montrons que le complexe humain se lie avec une affinité plus faible aux substrats ADNdb par rapport à ADNsb. Ce complexe a également été caractérisé par une séparation zonale en gradient continu pour déterminer la masse moléculaire du complexe heteropentamerique après filtration sur gel. Nous avons utilisé la méthode "Gradient Fixation" (GraFix) pour stabiliser le complexe Smc5/6 afin de visualiser celui-ci par microscopie électronique (EM). En conclusion, nous avons identifié avec succès les conditions natives pour la purification d'un complexe Smc5-6 humain entièrement assemblé et fonctionnel. En outre, nous avons montré que ce complexe est biochimiquement actif et lie le ADNsb et le ADNdb avec différentes affinités. L'achèvement de notre analyse structurale éclairera le mécanisme d'action du complexe Smc5-6 lors de la réparation de l'ADN. Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins are essential regulators of genomic stability. The Smc5-6 complex is indispensable for DNA repair, telomere maintenance and restart of stalled replication forks. How the Smc5-6 complex performs its functions to promote genome stability is still unclear. Here, we developed a novel purification strategy to isolate a reassembled complex. This approach allowed us to perform extensive biochemical and structural analyses of the human Smc5-6 complex. We show that the human complex binds with lower affinity to dsDNA substrates relative to ssDNA. This complex was also characterized by rate-zonal centrifugation to determine the molecular mass of the heteropentameric complex after gel filtration. We took advantage of the “Gradient Fixation” (GraFix) method to stabilize macromolecular complexes for single particle electron microscopy (EM). In conclusion, we have successfully identified native conditions for the purification of a fully assembled and functional human Smc5-6 complex. In addition, we showed that this complex is biochemically active and binds ssDNA and dsDNA with different affinities. Completion of our structural analysis will shed light on the mechanism of action of the Smc5-6 complex during DNA repair.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Caron, Miryam;

    Une préoccupation quant au bien-être et à la qualité de vie des enfants en relation avec leur vécu scolaire grandit au cœur des politiques gouvernementales et lors du choix scolaire surtout à l’entrée au primaire. Les parents se tournent plus qu’avant vers des environnements éducationnels alternatifs correspondant à leurs valeurs. Puisque chaque environnement éducationnel modèle différemment le quotidien de l’élève et qu’il manquerait d’outils de mesure adaptés aux enfants pour évaluer leur effet sur la qualité de vie, nous posons cette question: quelles sont les dimensions de la qualité de vie liée au vécu scolaire de l’élève (QDV-vs) de six à huit ans et comment la mesurer? La littérature scientifique fait ressortir des dimensions du quotidien du jeune élève pouvant avoir un effet sur sa qualité de vie: heures de sommeil, périodes d’activité physique et de jeux libres à l’extérieur, capacité d’attention pour des tâches scolaires (de jour et de soir), engagement parental et déplacements pour l’école. En s’appuyant sur les différentes recommandations des chercheurs, nous avons modélisé le concept de la QDV-vs pour les enfants de ce groupe d’âge. Les objectifs spécifiques de cette recherche sont d’élaborer un outil d’évaluation, basé sur notre cadre conceptuel, puis de le valider sur les plans conceptuels et de la faisabilité. Des experts scientifiques et de terrain ont contribué à cette recherche-développement. Les premiers ont porté un regard critique sur le cadre conceptuel et sur l’outil; les seconds, sur les aspects pratiques de l’utilisation de l’outil révisé. La contribution de cette recherche est d’offrir un premier outil d’évaluation de la QDV-vs des enfants de 6 à 8 ans dans différents environnements éducationnels. Concern for the well-being and quality of life of children in relation to their school experience grows at the heart of government policies and during school choice, especially at the start of primary school. Parents are turning more than before to alternative educational environments that match their values. Since each educational environment models the student's daily life differently and there is a lack of measures adapted to children that would assess their effect on quality of life, we ask this question: what are the dimensions of the quality of life linked to the school experience (QDV-vs) of students aged six to eight and how to measure it? Scientific literature highlights the dimensions of the daily life of young students that can influence their quality of life: hours of sleep, periods of physical activity and free play outside, ability to concentrate on school tasks (from day and evening), parental involvement and school commutes. Based on the various recommendations of the researchers, we modeled the concept of QOL-vs for children in this age group. The specific objectives of this research are to develop an assessment tool, based on our conceptual framework, and then to validate it on the conceptual and feasibility levels. Scientific and field experts have contributed to this research and development. The first took a critical look at the conceptual framework and the tool; the second, on the practical aspects of using the revised tool. The contribution of this research is to provide a first tool for assessing the quality of life of children aged 6 to 8 in different educational environments.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guimond, Jean-François;

    Introduction. La thérapie axée sur la répétition de tâches fonctionnelles est préconisée pour la réadaptation du membre supérieur à la suite d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Toutefois, aucun programme d’intervention n’opérationnalise l’ensemble des composantes clés du TOT en une démarche clinique valide de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie. Objectifs. 1) Établir la validité de contenu d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie et 2) proposer un modèle logique de l’intervention qui fait consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers. Méthodes. Un modèle logique d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie a été développé, puis soumis à deux méthodes de recherche pour valider le contenu et obtenir un consensus d’experts et d’usagers : 1) Méthode Delphi : 14 experts ont examiné des capsules audiovisuelles illustrant le programme d’intervention et ont répondu à deux questionnaires pour valider les objectifs, la nature de l’intervention, les ressources, les activités et les extrants; 2) Technique de groupe nominal : six usagers ayant un vécu expérientiel de l’intervention ont généré les effets ciblés. L’indice de validité de contenu, deux indices d’accord interjuges et l’analyse de contenu ont été utilisés pour analyser les données. Résultats. Près de 93 % du contenu du programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie obtient un indice de validité satisfaisant, dont 82 % qui font consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers dans un modèle logique révisé. Conclusion. Le modèle logique révisé propose une vision commune, quoiqu’incomplète, d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie basé sur le TOT. Les activités et les extrants de l’évaluation devront faire l’objet de validation lors d’une phase subséquente d’implantation. Un transfert de connaissances sur les moyens pour favoriser le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est aussi à prévoir pour réévaluer son rôle dans le programme d’intervention. Background. Task-Oriented Training (TOT) is the recommended approach for upper extremity rehabilitation after a stroke. To date, no program have operationalized all the key components of TOT into a valid upper extremity clinical rehabilitation process post stroke in occupational therapy. Objectives. 1) To determine the content validity of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy and 2) to propose a logic model reaching consensus among experts and patients. Methods. A logic model of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy was developed and validated. Two research methods were used to validate the content and to achieve a consensus of experts and patients : 1) Delphi method : 14 experts examined audiovisual capsules of the intervention and completed two questionnaires to validate the objectives, the nature of the intervention, the resources, the activities and the outputs; 2) Nominal group technique : six patients with experience of the intervention generated the outcomes. The content validity index, two interrater agreement statistics and a content analysis were used for data analysis. Results. Almost 93 % of the content of the upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy obtained a satisfactory validity index, including 82 % reaching consensus among experts and patients in a revised logic model. Conclusion. The revised logic model now offers a common, albeit incomplete, vision of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke based on the TOT in occupational therapy. Activities and outputs of the evaluation should be validated during a subsequent implementation phase. Knowledge translation on the modalities to promote self-efficacy is also to be planned to reassess its role in the intervention program.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Lara Gautier; Youssouf Karambé; Jean-Paul Dossou; Oumar Mallé Samb;

    There has been much talk about decolonizing global health lately. The movement, which has arisen in various communities around the world, suggests an interesting critique of the Western dominant model of representations. Building upon the ‘decolonial thinking’ movement from the perspective of Francophone African philosophers, we comment on its potential for inspiring the field of global healthinterventions. Using existing literature and personal reflections, we reflect on two widely known illustrations of global health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa – distribution of contraceptives and dissemination of Ebola virus prevention and treatment devices – featuring different temporal backdrops. We show how these solutions have most often targeted the superficial dimensions of global health problems, sidestepping the structures and mental models that shape the actions and reactions of African populations. Lastly, we question the ways through which the decolonial approach might indeed offer a credible positioning for rethinking global health interventions.

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    Global Public Health
    Article . 2020
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      Global Public Health
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Guillaume, Fontaine; Ivry, Zagury-Orly; Simon, de Denus; Marie, Lordkipanidzé; +5 Authors

    Objective To evaluate the effect of digital-based reading versus paper-based reading on reading comprehension among students, trainees, and residents participating in health professional education. Introduction Several reviews have examined the effects of reading media on reading comprehension; however, none have considered health professional education specifically. The growing use of electronic media in health professional education, as well as recent data on the consequences of digital-based reading on learning, justify the necessity to review the current literature to provide research and educational recommendations. Inclusion criteria Studies conducted with health professions students, trainees, and residents individually receiving educational material written in their first language in a paper-based or a digital-based format will be considered. Studies conducted among participants with cognitive impairment or reading difficulties will be excluded. Observational, experimental and quasi-experimental studies that assess reading comprehension measured by previously validated or researcher-generated tests will be considered. Methods Relevant studies will be sought from CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), without date or language restrictions. Two independent reviewers will perform title and abstract screening, full-text review, critical appraisal, and data extraction. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or with a third independent reviewer. Synthesis will occur at four levels (i.e., study, participant, intervention, and outcome levels) in a table format. Data will be synthesized descriptively and with meta-analyses if appropriate. Systematic review registration number CRD42020154519.

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    JBI Evidence Synthesis
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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      JBI Evidence Synthesis
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Bélanger, Dominique;

    Introduction: La demande pour les services de réadaptation en déficience physique que ce soit auditive, du langage, motrice ou visuelle est croissante. Préoccupés par l’accès et l’efficience des services, les milieux de réadaptation sont appelés à augmenter l’offre d’interventions de groupe. Objectif: Le premier objectif de cette étude est d’examiner les facilitateurs et obstacles à l’utilisation d’interventions de groupe en réadaptation. Le second objectif est d’explorer la perception des cliniciens, gestionnaires et usagers face aux enjeux liés à la qualité des soins, aux coûts ainsi qu’à l’atteinte des objectifs lors de ces interventions. Méthodologie: Un devis d’étude de cas multiples a été utilisé. Des cliniciens et gestionnaires de cinq centres de réadaptation de la région de Montréal ont été consultés à l’aide d’un questionnaire en ligne (n=162) et de groupes de discussion (n=20). Des entrevues individuelles ont été réalisées auprès d’usagers (n=4) ayant participé à des interventions de groupe. Des statistiques descriptives et quantitatives ont été effectuées pour les résultats du questionnaire. Les données qualitatives ont été rassemblées par thèmes et triangulées avec les résultats du questionnaire. Résultats: Parmi les principaux facilitateurs figurent l’intérêt des usagers, le potentiel d’influence entre les participants et la reconnaissance de la valeur de ces interventions. Les principaux obstacles sont la gestion de l’horaire, le temps requis pour la réflexion et la préparation des interventions et la masse critique d’usagers qui est parfois insuffisante pour former des groupes. Concernant le deuxième objectif, les interventions de groupe sont perçues comme étant sécuritaires. Elles devraient être offertes pour les bénéfices que l’on en tire plutôt que pour des motifs financiers et être en lien avec l’atteinte des objectifs des usagers. Elles doivent aussi être offertes en complémentarité aux interventions individuelles. Conclusion: Les interventions de groupe comportent de nombreux bénéfices. De mieux comprendre les perceptions des acteurs-clés pourra faciliter leur mise en œuvre ainsi que leur maintien. Des avenues de recommandations sont proposées afin d’aider les gestionnaires et intervenants à planifier leur offre de service et ainsi potentialiser les gains pour les usagers. Introduction: The demand for physical rehabilitation services in auditory, language, motor or visual impairment is growing. Concerned about the access and the efficiency of the services, rehabilitation settings are called upon to increasingly offer group interventions. Objectives: The first objective of this study is to examine the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of group interventions in rehabilitation. The second objective is to explore the perception of clinicians, managers and patients of issues related to quality of care, costs and the achievement of goals during those interventions. Methodology: A multiple case study design was used. Clinicians and managers from five rehabilitation centres in the Montreal area were consulted using an online questionnaire (n = 162) and focus groups. Individual interviews were conducted with patients who participated in group interventions. Descriptive and quantitative statistics were performed for the results of the questionnaire. The qualitative data were grouped by themes and triangulated with the results of the questionnaire. Results: Key facilitators include patient’s interest, potential for influence among participants, and recognition of the value of these interventions. The main obstacles are schedule management, time required for reasonning and planning the interventions and having a critical mass of patients which is sometimes insufficient to form groups. Regarding the second objective, group interventions are perceived as safe. They should be offered for profit rather than for financial reasons and be linked to the achievement of patient goals. They must also be offered as a complement to individual interventions. Conclusion: Group interventions provide many benefits. A better understanding of the perceptions of key actors will facilitate their implementation as well as their sustainability. Recommendations are proposed to help managers and clinicians plan services and at thus maximize benefits for patients.

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    Authors: Caru, Maxime;

    La promotion de l’activité physique en oncologie pédiatrique est un aspect essentiel des soins pour le patient. En effet, l'activité physique améliore significativement la capacité fonctionnelle, le système musculosquelettique, le système immunitaire, le système cardiovasculaire, ainsi que la santé psychologique des patients atteints. La place de l’activité physique en oncologie pédiatrique est au coeur de cette thèse qui s’est inscrite dans une démarche de cotutelle internationale de thèse répondant à plusieurs questions que se posent les patients atteints de cancer pédiatrique et les survivants de cancer pédiatrique, notamment ceux de la leucémie lymphoblastique aiguë (LLA). Entre autres, « comment le cancer et ses traitements affectent ma santé à court, moyen et long terme ? » Et « comment l’activité physique peut-elle me venir en aide ? » L’objectif principal est de mieux comprendre le déconditionnement physique et les mécanismes potentiels qui en découle chez les survivants de la LLA, tandis que le second objectif est d’explorer l’impact du diagnostic du cancer et d’un programme d’activité physique sur le comportement en activité physique d’enfants atteints de cancer. Pour répondre à ces questions, cette thèse s’intéresse aux paramètres tant physiologiques que psychologiques. Ainsi, les travaux réalisés au sein de cette thèse sont au nombre de cinq. Ils viennent préciser les effets des traitements contre le cancer sur la santé physique et psychologique des patients atteints ou ayant été atteints de cancer pédiatrique. La première étude de cette thèse vise à explorer les différences physiologiques entre les survivants de la LLA et la population canadienne en santé. Pour ces deux populations, les données en activité physique, ainsi que les données de condition cardiorespiratoire ont été comparées afin de fournir une meilleure compréhension des défis auxquels font face les survivants de la LLA au quotidien. La seconde étude vient apporter des réponses au déconditionnement physique des survivants de la LLA. Elle constitue la première étude au monde d’association génétique entre la condition cardiorespiratoire des survivants de la LLA et les gènes de l’aptitude à l’entraînement physique (trainability genes). Son impact auprès des cliniciens, des survivants, des patients et de leur famille est significatif puisqu’elle pourrait permettre, dans un futur proche, d’offrir un meilleur suivi aux patients atteints de la LLA en adéquation avec leur profil génétique et leur condition cardiorespiratoire. La troisième étude de cette thèse explore les effets néfastes à long terme des traitements contre le cancer sur les paramètres électrophysiologiques. Cette étude vise à mieux comprendre le déconditionnement physique des survivants de la LLA, notamment en ce qui a trait à leur système nerveux autonome qui subit d’importants changements. Ces paramètres, étroitement liés au système nerveux sympathique et parasympathique, sont d’une importance capitale dans la pratique sécuritaire d’une activité physique. Finalement, les deux dernières études sont étroitement liées et font suite au constat alarmant observé chez les survivants de la LLA. En ce sens, ces études découlent aussi de l’intérêt de proposer un programme d’activité physique en oncologie pédiatrique. Ces travaux viennent s’intéresser aux mesures de la théorie du comportement planifié, de l’estime de soi et de la condition physique perçue d’enfants atteints de cancer qui sont en cours de traitements. Le quatrième article de cette thèse documente les effets du diagnostic de cancer sur les paramètres psychologiques cités précédemment et montre l’importance de fournir aux enfants atteints de cancer un support en activité physique dès leur diagnostic. Le cinquième article peut être considéré comme une suite au quatrième article puisqu’il vient proposer un programme d’activité physique supervisé. Cette dernière étude montre les effets positifs de six semaines d’activité physique sur les paramètres physiologiques et psychologiques. Elle montre l’importance du support familial pour améliorer le comportement lié à l’activité physique des enfants et alerte les cliniciens sur le besoin réel et pressant de fournir aux enfants atteints de cancer un support en activité physique dès leur diagnostic. Physical activity promotion in pediatric oncology is an essential aspect of patient care. Indeed, physical activity significantly improves the functional capacity, musculoskeletal system, inflammatory system, immune system, cardiovascular system, as well as the psychological health of patients. Physical activity in pediatric oncology is central to this thesis, which was part of an international joint supervision approach, answering several questions posed by children with cancer and childhood cancer survivors, in particular those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among other things, "How does cancer and its treatments affect my health in the short, medium and long term?" And "How can physical activity help me?". The first aim is to better understand the physical deconditioning of childhood ALL survivors and the potential mechanisms that result from it. The second aim is to explore the impact of cancer diagnosis, as well as a supervised physical activity program on children's physical activity behavior during treatments. To answer these questions, this thesis focuses on physiological, epidemiological, genetic, electrophysiological and psychological parameters. There are five works carried out within this thesis. They specify the effects of cancer treatments on the physical and psychological health of children with cancer and childhood ALL survivors. The first study in this thesis aims to explore the physiological differences between childhood cancer survivors (i.e., ALL survivors) and the healthy Canadian population. For these two populations, physical activity data, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness data, were compared in order to provide a better understanding of the daily challenges faced by childhood ALL survivors. The second study in this thesis provides answers to childhood ALL survivors’ physical deconditioning. This study is the first in the exercise and oncology field to explore the genetic association between childhood ALL survivors’ cardiorespiratory fitness and their trainability genes. These findings have an important impact on clinicians, patients, survivors and their families since they could allow, in the near future, to offer better follow-up to ALL patients, in line with their genetic profile and their cardiorespiratory fitness. The third study in this thesis explores the harmful long-term effects of cancer treatments on the electrophysiological parameters of ALL survivors. This study aims to better understand the physical deconditioning of these survivors, especially in regard to their autonomic nervous system which undergoes significant changes. These parameters, closely linked to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, are of paramount importance in the safe practice of physical activity. Finally, the last two studies are closely linked and follow up on the alarming observation made in ALL survivors. In this sense, these studies also stem from the interest of proposing a physical activity program in pediatric oncology. This work focuses on measures of the theory of planned behavior, self-esteem and perceived physical condition of children with cancer who are undergoing treatment. The fourth article of this thesis documents the effects of cancer diagnosis on the psychological parameters mentioned above and shows the importance of providing children with cancer with physical activity support as soon as they are diagnosed. The fifth article can be considered as a follow-up to the fourth article since it proposes a supervised physical activity program in pediatric oncology. This latest study shows the positive effects of six weeks of physical activity on the physiological and psychological parameters. It shows the importance of family support to improve behavior linked to physical activity in children and alerts clinicians to the real and pressing need to provide children with cancer with support in physical activity as soon as they are diagnosed. Thèse présentée à l’Université de Montréal, Faculté de médecine, École de kinésiologie et des sciences de l’activité physique et à l’Université Paris Nanterre, Département de Psychologie dans le cadre de la cotutelle internationale de thèse entre les deux établissements

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    Authors: Loiselle, Amélie;

    Contexte : De nos jours, la plupart des femmes ont intégré le milieu du travail et les services de garde font partie du quotidien pour la majorité des enfants. Ces derniers représentent un milieu-clé dans la promotion de saines habitudes de vie. Les haltes-garderies communautaires (HGC) sont fréquentées par beaucoup d'enfants, dont certains en contexte de vulnérabilité, et n’ont pas encore été étudiées à l'échelle nationale en ce qui a trait à leurs pratiques, préoccupations, perceptions et besoins en lien avec l'alimentation et la nutrition à la petite enfance. Objectif : Décrire les pratiques et identifier les préoccupations, les besoins et les perceptions des HGC du Québec en lien avec l’alimentation des enfants fréquentant ces lieux. Méthodologie : À l’hiver 2018, un questionnaire autoadministré, en format électronique, a été envoyé aux représentants des 242 haltes-garderies communautaires membres de l’Association des haltes-garderies communautaires du Québec. L’approbation éthique a été obtenue du Comité d’éthique de la recherche en santé de l’Université de Montréal. Résultats : Un total de 104 HGC ont répondu au sondage pour un taux de participation d’environ 43 %. Le contexte socio-économique des parents est la barrière à la promotion des saines habitudes alimentaires la plus rapportée. Plusieurs thèmes de formation proposés engendrent un intérêt chez plus de 75 % des HGC . Les deux formats préférés pour les outils éducatifs sont le partage de ressources ou d’activités exemplaires développées par d’autres HGC et les textes simples à imprimer pour le personnel. Discussion : La situation particulière des enfants vivant en contexte de vulnérabilité et les communications aux parents semblent être des enjeux importants en HGC. Les éducatrices en HGC ressentent le besoin d’être davantage outillées sur plusieurs thèmes en nutrition, tels que les bonnes pratiques d’hygiène et de salubrité. Les formats d’outils usant de la technologie numérique correspondent aux besoins rapportés par le personnel en halte-garderie pour les formations et le partage d’informations. Background: Today, most women have entered the workplace and child care is a daily part of most children's lives. These are a key environments in promoting healthy lifestyle habits. The haltes-garderies communautaires (HGC)are frequented by many children, some of whom are vulnerable, and have not yet been studied in Quebec with respect to their practices, concerns, needs and perceptions related to feeding and nutrition in early childhood. Objective: To describe the practices and identify the concerns, needs and perceptions of the HGC of Quebec related to the feeding of children attending these places. Methodology: In the winter of 2018, a self-administered questionnaire, in electronic format, was sent to representatives of the 242 HGC that are members of the Association des haltes-garderies communautaires du Québec. Ethical approval was obtained from the Comité d’éthique de la recherche en santé of the University of Montreal. Results: A total of 104 HGCs responded to the survey for a participation rate of approximately 43%. The socio-economic background of parents is the most reported barrier to promoting healthy eating habits. Several proposed training themes generated interest among more than 75% of HGC. Themes related to parent / educator interactions are the most desired. The two preferred formats for educational tools are the sharing of resources or exemplary activities developed by other HGC and texts that are easy to print for staff. Discussion: The special situation of children living in a context of vulnerability and communication to parents seem to be important issues in HGC. Educators in HGC feel the need to be more equipped on several topics in nutrition, such as good hygiene and salubrity practices. Tool formats using digital technology correspond to the needs reported by day care staff for training and information sharing.

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    Authors: Sedliar, Kostiantyn;

    Il est difficile d'imaginer des entreprises modernes sans analyse, c'est une tendance dans les entreprises modernes, même les petites entreprises et les entrepreneurs individuels commencent à utiliser des outils d'analyse d'une manière ou d'une autre pour leur entreprise. Pas étonnant qu'il existe un grand nombre d'outils différents pour les différents domaines, ils varient dans le but de simples statistiques d'amis et de visites pour votre page Facebook à grands et sophistiqués dans le cas des systèmes conçus pour les grandes entreprises, ils pourraient être shareware ou payés. Parfois, vous devez passer une formation spéciale, être un spécialiste certifiés, ou même avoir un diplôme afin d'être en mesure d'utiliser l'outil d'analyse. D'autres outils offrent une interface d’utilisateur simple, avec des tableaux de bord, pour satisfaire leur compréhension d’information pour tous ceux qui les ont vus pour la première fois. Ce travail sera consacré aux outils d'analyse Web. Quoi qu'il en soit pour tous ceux qui pensent à utiliser l'analyse pour ses propres besoins se pose une question: "quel outil doit je utiliser, qui convient à mes besoins, et comment payer moins et obtenir un gain maximum". Dans ce travail je vais essayer de donner une réponse sur cette question en proposant le système de recommandation pour les outils analytiques web –WARES, qui aideront l'utilisateur avec cette tâche "simple". Le système WARES utilise l'approche hybride, mais surtout, utilise des techniques basées sur le contenu pour faire des suggestions. Le système utilise certains ratings initiaux faites par utilisateur, comme entrée, pour résoudre le problème du “démarrage à froid”, offrant la meilleure solution possible en fonction des besoins des utilisateurs. Le besoin de consultations coûteuses avec des experts ou de passer beaucoup d'heures sur Internet, en essayant de trouver le bon outil. Le système lui–même devrait effectuer une recherche en ligne en utilisant certaines données préalablement mises en cache dans la base de données hors ligne, représentée comme une ontologie d'outils analytiques web existants extraits lors de la recherche en ligne précédente. It is hard to imagine modern business without analytics; it is a trend in modern business, even small companies and individual entrepreneurs start using analytics tools, in one way or another, for their business. Not surprising that there exist many different tools for different domains, they vary in purpose from simple friends and visits statistic for your Facebook page, to big and sophisticated systems designed for the big corporations, they could be free or paid. Sometimes you need to pass special training, be a certified specialist, or even have a degree to be able to use analytics tool, other tools offers simple user interface with dashboards for easy understanding and availability for everyone who saw them for the first time. Anyway, for everyone who is thinking about using analytics for his/her own needs stands a question: “what tool should I use, which one suits my needs and how to pay less and get maximum gain”. In this work, I will try to give an answer to this question by proposing a recommender tool, which will help the user with this “simple task”. This paper is devoted to the creation of WARES, as reduction from Web Analytics REcommender System. Proposed recommender system uses hybrid approach, but mostly, utilize content–based techniques for making suggestions, while using some user’s ratings as an input for “cold start” search. System produces recommendations depending on user’s needs, also allowing quick adjustments in selection without need of expensive consultations with experts or spending lots of hours for Internet search, trying to find out the right tool. The system itself should perform as an online search using some pre–cached data in offline database, represented as an ontology of existing web analytics tools, extracted during the previous online search.

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    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

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    Authors: Cordero Guzmán, Gustavo Segundo;

    Les membres de la famille de protéines de maintenance structurelle des chromosomes (SMC) sont des régulateurs essentiels de la stabilité génomique. Le complexe Smc5-6 est indispensable pour la réparation de l'ADN, la maintenance des télomères et le redémarrage des fourches de réplication bloquées. La façon dont le complexe Smc5-6 remplit ses fonctions pour favoriser la stabilité du génome est encore incertaine. Ici, nous avons développé une nouvelle stratégie de purification pour isoler un complexe réassemblé fonctionnel. Cette approche nous a permis d'effectuer d'importantes analyses biochimiques et structurelles du complexe humain Smc5-6. Nous montrons que le complexe humain se lie avec une affinité plus faible aux substrats ADNdb par rapport à ADNsb. Ce complexe a également été caractérisé par une séparation zonale en gradient continu pour déterminer la masse moléculaire du complexe heteropentamerique après filtration sur gel. Nous avons utilisé la méthode "Gradient Fixation" (GraFix) pour stabiliser le complexe Smc5/6 afin de visualiser celui-ci par microscopie électronique (EM). En conclusion, nous avons identifié avec succès les conditions natives pour la purification d'un complexe Smc5-6 humain entièrement assemblé et fonctionnel. En outre, nous avons montré que ce complexe est biochimiquement actif et lie le ADNsb et le ADNdb avec différentes affinités. L'achèvement de notre analyse structurale éclairera le mécanisme d'action du complexe Smc5-6 lors de la réparation de l'ADN. Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins are essential regulators of genomic stability. The Smc5-6 complex is indispensable for DNA repair, telomere maintenance and restart of stalled replication forks. How the Smc5-6 complex performs its functions to promote genome stability is still unclear. Here, we developed a novel purification strategy to isolate a reassembled complex. This approach allowed us to perform extensive biochemical and structural analyses of the human Smc5-6 complex. We show that the human complex binds with lower affinity to dsDNA substrates relative to ssDNA. This complex was also characterized by rate-zonal centrifugation to determine the molecular mass of the heteropentameric complex after gel filtration. We took advantage of the “Gradient Fixation” (GraFix) method to stabilize macromolecular complexes for single particle electron microscopy (EM). In conclusion, we have successfully identified native conditions for the purification of a fully assembled and functional human Smc5-6 complex. In addition, we showed that this complex is biochemically active and binds ssDNA and dsDNA with different affinities. Completion of our structural analysis will shed light on the mechanism of action of the Smc5-6 complex during DNA repair.

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    Authors: Caron, Miryam;

    Une préoccupation quant au bien-être et à la qualité de vie des enfants en relation avec leur vécu scolaire grandit au cœur des politiques gouvernementales et lors du choix scolaire surtout à l’entrée au primaire. Les parents se tournent plus qu’avant vers des environnements éducationnels alternatifs correspondant à leurs valeurs. Puisque chaque environnement éducationnel modèle différemment le quotidien de l’élève et qu’il manquerait d’outils de mesure adaptés aux enfants pour évaluer leur effet sur la qualité de vie, nous posons cette question: quelles sont les dimensions de la qualité de vie liée au vécu scolaire de l’élève (QDV-vs) de six à huit ans et comment la mesurer? La littérature scientifique fait ressortir des dimensions du quotidien du jeune élève pouvant avoir un effet sur sa qualité de vie: heures de sommeil, périodes d’activité physique et de jeux libres à l’extérieur, capacité d’attention pour des tâches scolaires (de jour et de soir), engagement parental et déplacements pour l’école. En s’appuyant sur les différentes recommandations des chercheurs, nous avons modélisé le concept de la QDV-vs pour les enfants de ce groupe d’âge. Les objectifs spécifiques de cette recherche sont d’élaborer un outil d’évaluation, basé sur notre cadre conceptuel, puis de le valider sur les plans conceptuels et de la faisabilité. Des experts scientifiques et de terrain ont contribué à cette recherche-développement. Les premiers ont porté un regard critique sur le cadre conceptuel et sur l’outil; les seconds, sur les aspects pratiques de l’utilisation de l’outil révisé. La contribution de cette recherche est d’offrir un premier outil d’évaluation de la QDV-vs des enfants de 6 à 8 ans dans différents environnements éducationnels. Concern for the well-being and quality of life of children in relation to their school experience grows at the heart of government policies and during school choice, especially at the start of primary school. Parents are turning more than before to alternative educational environments that match their values. Since each educational environment models the student's daily life differently and there is a lack of measures adapted to children that would assess their effect on quality of life, we ask this question: what are the dimensions of the quality of life linked to the school experience (QDV-vs) of students aged six to eight and how to measure it? Scientific literature highlights the dimensions of the daily life of young students that can influence their quality of life: hours of sleep, periods of physical activity and free play outside, ability to concentrate on school tasks (from day and evening), parental involvement and school commutes. Based on the various recommendations of the researchers, we modeled the concept of QOL-vs for children in this age group. The specific objectives of this research are to develop an assessment tool, based on our conceptual framework, and then to validate it on the conceptual and feasibility levels. Scientific and field experts have contributed to this research and development. The first took a critical look at the conceptual framework and the tool; the second, on the practical aspects of using the revised tool. The contribution of this research is to provide a first tool for assessing the quality of life of children aged 6 to 8 in different educational environments.

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    Authors: Guimond, Jean-François;

    Introduction. La thérapie axée sur la répétition de tâches fonctionnelles est préconisée pour la réadaptation du membre supérieur à la suite d’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC). Toutefois, aucun programme d’intervention n’opérationnalise l’ensemble des composantes clés du TOT en une démarche clinique valide de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie. Objectifs. 1) Établir la validité de contenu d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie et 2) proposer un modèle logique de l’intervention qui fait consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers. Méthodes. Un modèle logique d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie a été développé, puis soumis à deux méthodes de recherche pour valider le contenu et obtenir un consensus d’experts et d’usagers : 1) Méthode Delphi : 14 experts ont examiné des capsules audiovisuelles illustrant le programme d’intervention et ont répondu à deux questionnaires pour valider les objectifs, la nature de l’intervention, les ressources, les activités et les extrants; 2) Technique de groupe nominal : six usagers ayant un vécu expérientiel de l’intervention ont généré les effets ciblés. L’indice de validité de contenu, deux indices d’accord interjuges et l’analyse de contenu ont été utilisés pour analyser les données. Résultats. Près de 93 % du contenu du programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie obtient un indice de validité satisfaisant, dont 82 % qui font consensus auprès d’experts et d’usagers dans un modèle logique révisé. Conclusion. Le modèle logique révisé propose une vision commune, quoiqu’incomplète, d’un programme de rééducation du membre supérieur post AVC en ergothérapie basé sur le TOT. Les activités et les extrants de l’évaluation devront faire l’objet de validation lors d’une phase subséquente d’implantation. Un transfert de connaissances sur les moyens pour favoriser le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est aussi à prévoir pour réévaluer son rôle dans le programme d’intervention. Background. Task-Oriented Training (TOT) is the recommended approach for upper extremity rehabilitation after a stroke. To date, no program have operationalized all the key components of TOT into a valid upper extremity clinical rehabilitation process post stroke in occupational therapy. Objectives. 1) To determine the content validity of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy and 2) to propose a logic model reaching consensus among experts and patients. Methods. A logic model of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy was developed and validated. Two research methods were used to validate the content and to achieve a consensus of experts and patients : 1) Delphi method : 14 experts examined audiovisual capsules of the intervention and completed two questionnaires to validate the objectives, the nature of the intervention, the resources, the activities and the outputs; 2) Nominal group technique : six patients with experience of the intervention generated the outcomes. The content validity index, two interrater agreement statistics and a content analysis were used for data analysis. Results. Almost 93 % of the content of the upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke in occupational therapy obtained a satisfactory validity index, including 82 % reaching consensus among experts and patients in a revised logic model. Conclusion. The revised logic model now offers a common, albeit incomplete, vision of an upper extremity rehabilitation program post stroke based on the TOT in occupational therapy. Activities and outputs of the evaluation should be validated during a subsequent implementation phase. Knowledge translation on the modalities to promote self-efficacy is also to be planned to reassess its role in the intervention program.

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    Authors: Lara Gautier; Youssouf Karambé; Jean-Paul Dossou; Oumar Mallé Samb;

    There has been much talk about decolonizing global health lately. The movement, which has arisen in various communities around the world, suggests an interesting critique of the Western dominant model of representations. Building upon the ‘decolonial thinking’ movement from the perspective of Francophone African philosophers, we comment on its potential for inspiring the field of global healthinterventions. Using existing literature and personal reflections, we reflect on two widely known illustrations of global health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa – distribution of contraceptives and dissemination of Ebola virus prevention and treatment devices – featuring different temporal backdrops. We show how these solutions have most often targeted the superficial dimensions of global health problems, sidestepping the structures and mental models that shape the actions and reactions of African populations. Lastly, we question the ways through which the decolonial approach might indeed offer a credible positioning for rethinking global health interventions.

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    Global Public Health
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Crossref