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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: S Jefferies; Rosalind A. Eeles; David E. Goldgar; Roger A'Hern; +12 Authors

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth commonest human malignancy with an estimate of nearly 900 000 new cases occurring worldwide in 1995 (Parkin et al, 1993). In this review, head and neck cancer is defined as squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the upper aerodigestive tract, superior to the clavicles, excluding skin cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The incidence of head and neck cancer is increasing in developing countries (Macfarlane et al, 1994). In England and Wales, the overall incidence is stable at 5000 cases/year (14/105 of the male and 5.5/105 of the female population), but within the head and neck sites, tumours of the larynx and oral cavity are increasing. Optimal management of SCCHN is by a multidisciplinary approach combining surgery, radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy. The presenting tumour site and nodal status have independent implications for both treatment and prognosis. Despite therapeutic changes the overall survival rate from SCCHN remains poor (Vokes et al, 1993). A component contributing to the poor overall survival, particularly in patients initially presenting with early tumours of the larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx, is the 10–30% chance of developing a second malignancy or multiple primary tumour (MPT) of the aerodigestive tract or elsewhere within 5 years (Day, 1992; Jovanic et al, 1994). There are various criteria for multiple primary tumour development. A classification described by Hong provides strict criteria to exclude recurrence of SCCHN (Hong et al, 1990). This includes:

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 1999
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    British Journal of Cancer
    Article
    License: CC BY ND SA
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    British Journal of Cancer
    Article . 1999
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 1999
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      British Journal of Cancer
      Article
      License: CC BY ND SA
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      British Journal of Cancer
      Article . 1999
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thompson, V.; Pennycook, G.; Trippas, D.; Evans, J.;

    There is much evidence that high-capacity reasoners perform better on a variety of reasoning tasks (Stanovich, 1999), a phenomenon that is normally attributed to differences in either the efficacy or the probability of deliberate (Type II) engagement (Evans, 2007). In contrast, we hypothesized that intuitive (Type I) processes may differentiate high- and low-capacity reasoners. To test this hypothesis, reasoners were given a reasoning task modeled on the logic of the Stroop Task, in which they had to ignore one dimension of a problem when instructed to give an answer based on the other dimension (Handley, Newstead, & Trippas, 2011). Specifically, in Experiment 1, 112 reasoners were asked to give judgments consistent with beliefs or validity for 2 different types of deductive reasoning problems. In Experiment 2, 224 reasoners gave judgments consistent with beliefs (i.e., stereotypes) or statistics (i.e., base-rates) on a base rate task; half responded under a strict deadline. For all 3 problem types and regardless of the deadline, high-capacity reasoners performed better for logic/statistics than did belief judgments when the 2 conflicted, whereas the reverse was true for low-capacity reasoners. In other words, for high-capacity reasoners, statistical information interfered with their ability to make belief-based judgments, suggesting that, for them, probabilities may be more intuitive than stereotypes. Thus, at least part of the accuracy-capacity relationship observed in reasoning may be because of intuitive (Type I) processes. (PsycINFO Database Record

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MPG.PuRearrow_drop_down
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2018
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MPG.PuRearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2018
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seilesh Kadambari; Heli Harvala; Peter Simmonds; Andrew J. Pollard; +1 Authors

    Human parechovirus infections are the second most common cause of viral meningitis in children. These infections are most frequently seen in infants younger than 90 days. Clinical manifestations include encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and sepsis, which can lead to serious neurodevelopmental sequelae in young infants. Molecular techniques, including PCR assays, are the preferred diagnostic methods and have contributed to an increase in reported cases, along with an increasing awareness of the causal role of human parechovirus in infant diseases. However, focused clinical and diagnostic investigations of human parechovirus in infants and the use of their results in management is varied, partly because of the scarcity of robust incidence data and spectrum of clinical presentations of the infection. In this Review, we outline clinical cohort and epidemiological studies that can be used to inform the evidence-based management of young infants with human parechovirus disease and identify key research priorities. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of these infections is required to inform an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment in the future.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases
    Article . 2019
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Article . 2019
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • Authors: G, Remington; J, Lee; O, Agid; H, Takeuchi; +5 Authors

    Clozapine was first introduced as an antipsychotic in the 1970's but a cluster of deaths, later linked to the drug's risk of agranulocytosis, led to its withdrawal in most countries. However, work in the 1980's established its unique efficacy in treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), which constitutes as many as 30% of those with the illness. Clozapine was reintroduced with this indication shortly thereafter, but because of this risk its use requires routine hematologic monitoring.An update is provided regarding clozapine's risk of neutropenia, agranulocytosis, and associated mortality. In addition, updates are provided on other side effects, specifically myocarditis and bowel obstruction, as evidence suggests these are more common than agranulocytosis and associated with higher mortality rates.Clozapine remains the only treatment indicated in TRS, but it is dramatically underutilized. Clearly there are serious side effects associated with its use, and while the focus has historically been on hematologic concerns, we highlight other side effects that also demand systematic monitoring. Because it is the only effective treatment option we have for TRS, though, efforts must be implemented that ensure its use in this population while maximizing safety.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Will Featherstone; Petr Vaníček;

    This paper reviews the fundamental definitions of geodetic and geocentric coordinate systems, whilst clarifying the distinction between coordinates and coordinate systems. It is then argued that the transformation of coordinates from a local geodetic datum to a geocentric datum should first employ a change of the coordinate system using a six- or four-parameter transformation, followed by further modeling of the distortion in the coordinates. It is also argued that the horizontal coordinate transformation should not include height information, since this forms an entirely different coordinate in another coordinate system.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Australian Surveyorarrow_drop_down
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    Australian Surveyor
    Article . 1999
    Data sources: Crossref
    Australian Surveyor
    Article . 1999
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Australian Surveyorarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Australian Surveyor
      Article . 1999
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      Australian Surveyor
      Article . 1999
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bradley, EJ; Griffiths, CEM; Sherratt, MJ; Bell, M; +1 Authors

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced photoageing of the skin is associated with characteristic clinical features including a sallow complexion, deep, coarse wrinkles and a loss of elasticity. Remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) with changes to fibrillar collagens, elastic fibres and glycosaminoglycans is likely to be a major contributing factor to these particular clinical signs. Over-the-counter (OTC) topical formulations are one popular management strategy for preventing and/or repairing photoaged skin, most commonly targeting wrinkles as these are often the most concerning clinical feature. Due to the cosmetic nature of such formulations, evidence of their clinical efficacy and mechanism of action is often limited. However, these formulations usually contain putative active ingredients which individually have been subject to in vitro and in vivo investigation for efficacy as photoageing interventions. This review highlights commonly found ingredients within OTC formulations and assesses the evidence for: (i) their efficacy in clinically and histologically improving photoaged skin; (ii) the potential mechanisms of action; and (iii) their ability to act synergistically with complementary ingredients to enhance the clinical outcome.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao The University of Ma...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Maturitas
    Article . 2015
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao The University of Ma...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Maturitas
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patrick P L, Tam; Janet, Rossant;

    Embryonic chimeras of the mouse are well-established tools for studying cell lineage and cell potential. They are also a key part of the analysis of complex phenotypes of mutant mice. By combining embryonic stem cell technology, molecularly tagged mutations and sensitive cell lineage markers,chimeras can provide invaluable insights into the tissue-specific requirement and the mode of action of many mouse genes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Developmentarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Development
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    Development
    Article . 2003
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    Development
    Article . 2003
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Developmentarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Development
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      Development
      Article . 2003
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      Development
      Article . 2003
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: R. Dhote; Hector Gomez; Roderick N. V. Melnik; Jean W. Zu;

    AbstractA variational formulation and numerical implementation of the phase-field models for shape memory alloys using distributed computing are reported in the paper. The numerical implementation is based on the isogeometric analysis framework, consti- tuting the rich NURBS basis functions. The phase field models are developed using the strain based order parameter and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. The fourth order fully coupled thermo-mechanical 2D and 3D models are solved with the isogeo- metric finite element methodology in the distributed computing environment. The weak scaling performance studies on the 2D model demonstrate current challenges and open a way for future improvements.

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    Authors: Mariann Oemisch; Stephanie Westendorff; Stefan Everling; Thilo Womelsdorf;

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are believed to coactivate during goal-directed behavior to identify, select, and monitor relevant sensory information. Here, we tested whether coactivation of neurons across macaque ACC and PFC would be evident at the level of pairwise neuronal correlations during stimulus selection in a spatial attention task. We found that firing correlations emerged shortly after an attention cue, were evident for 50–200 ms time windows, were strongest for neuron pairs in area 24 (ACC) and areas 8 and 9 (dorsal PFC), and were independent of overall firing rate modulations. For a subset of cell pairs from ACC and dorsal PFC, the observed functional spike-train connectivity carried information about the direction of the attention shift. Reliable firing correlations were evident across area boundaries for neurons with broad spike waveforms (putative excitatory neurons) as well as for pairs of putative excitatory neurons and neurons with narrow spike waveforms (putative interneurons). These findings reveal that stimulus selection is accompanied by slow time scale firing correlations across those ACC/PFC subfields implicated to control and monitor attention. This functional coupling was informative about which stimulus was selected and thus indexed possibly the exchange of task-relevant information. We speculate that interareal, transient firing correlations reflect the transient coordination of larger, reciprocally interacting brain networks at a characteristic 50–200 ms time scale.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTOur manuscript identifies interareal spike-train correlations between primate anterior cingulate and dorsal prefrontal cortex during a period where attentional stimulus selection is likely controlled by these very same circuits. Interareal correlations emerged during the covert attention shift to one of two peripheral stimuli, proceeded on a slow 50–200 ms time scale, and occurred between putative pyramidal and putative interneurons. Spike-train correlations emerged particularly for cell pairs tuned to similar contralateral target locations, thus indexing the interareal coordination of attention-relevant information. These findings characterize a possible way by which prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex circuits implement their control functions through coordinated firing when macaque monkeys select and monitor relevant stimuli for goal-directed behaviors.

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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2015
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      Journal of Neuroscience
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    Authors: Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; +2 Authors

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. Author Summary Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that affects an estimated 600 million people in developing countries. Treatment is currently dependent on a single drug which is only active against the adult form of the disease. Treatment of infected patients eliminates adult worms but leaves any juveniles to survive and develop, thus continuing the infection. A drug acting equally against adult and juvenile worms is likely to be more effective at eliminating the disease. We have identified quality chemical leads with balanced activity against all life stages of the parasite and with a good window over cytotoxicity, which could form the basis of an exciting new drug discovery project.

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    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    Authors: S Jefferies; Rosalind A. Eeles; David E. Goldgar; Roger A'Hern; +12 Authors

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth commonest human malignancy with an estimate of nearly 900 000 new cases occurring worldwide in 1995 (Parkin et al, 1993). In this review, head and neck cancer is defined as squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the upper aerodigestive tract, superior to the clavicles, excluding skin cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The incidence of head and neck cancer is increasing in developing countries (Macfarlane et al, 1994). In England and Wales, the overall incidence is stable at 5000 cases/year (14/105 of the male and 5.5/105 of the female population), but within the head and neck sites, tumours of the larynx and oral cavity are increasing. Optimal management of SCCHN is by a multidisciplinary approach combining surgery, radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy. The presenting tumour site and nodal status have independent implications for both treatment and prognosis. Despite therapeutic changes the overall survival rate from SCCHN remains poor (Vokes et al, 1993). A component contributing to the poor overall survival, particularly in patients initially presenting with early tumours of the larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx, is the 10–30% chance of developing a second malignancy or multiple primary tumour (MPT) of the aerodigestive tract or elsewhere within 5 years (Day, 1992; Jovanic et al, 1994). There are various criteria for multiple primary tumour development. A classification described by Hong provides strict criteria to exclude recurrence of SCCHN (Hong et al, 1990). This includes:

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    British Journal of Cancer
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    British Journal of Cancer
    Article . 1999
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      British Journal of Cancer
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    Authors: Thompson, V.; Pennycook, G.; Trippas, D.; Evans, J.;

    There is much evidence that high-capacity reasoners perform better on a variety of reasoning tasks (Stanovich, 1999), a phenomenon that is normally attributed to differences in either the efficacy or the probability of deliberate (Type II) engagement (Evans, 2007). In contrast, we hypothesized that intuitive (Type I) processes may differentiate high- and low-capacity reasoners. To test this hypothesis, reasoners were given a reasoning task modeled on the logic of the Stroop Task, in which they had to ignore one dimension of a problem when instructed to give an answer based on the other dimension (Handley, Newstead, & Trippas, 2011). Specifically, in Experiment 1, 112 reasoners were asked to give judgments consistent with beliefs or validity for 2 different types of deductive reasoning problems. In Experiment 2, 224 reasoners gave judgments consistent with beliefs (i.e., stereotypes) or statistics (i.e., base-rates) on a base rate task; half responded under a strict deadline. For all 3 problem types and regardless of the deadline, high-capacity reasoners performed better for logic/statistics than did belief judgments when the 2 conflicted, whereas the reverse was true for low-capacity reasoners. In other words, for high-capacity reasoners, statistical information interfered with their ability to make belief-based judgments, suggesting that, for them, probabilities may be more intuitive than stereotypes. Thus, at least part of the accuracy-capacity relationship observed in reasoning may be because of intuitive (Type I) processes. (PsycINFO Database Record

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    Authors: Seilesh Kadambari; Heli Harvala; Peter Simmonds; Andrew J. Pollard; +1 Authors

    Human parechovirus infections are the second most common cause of viral meningitis in children. These infections are most frequently seen in infants younger than 90 days. Clinical manifestations include encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and sepsis, which can lead to serious neurodevelopmental sequelae in young infants. Molecular techniques, including PCR assays, are the preferred diagnostic methods and have contributed to an increase in reported cases, along with an increasing awareness of the causal role of human parechovirus in infant diseases. However, focused clinical and diagnostic investigations of human parechovirus in infants and the use of their results in management is varied, partly because of the scarcity of robust incidence data and spectrum of clinical presentations of the infection. In this Review, we outline clinical cohort and epidemiological studies that can be used to inform the evidence-based management of young infants with human parechovirus disease and identify key research priorities. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of these infections is required to inform an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and treatment in the future.

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    The Lancet Infectious Diseases
    Article . 2019
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