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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Banyar Aung; Margaret Y. Gruber; Lisa Amyot; Khaled W. Omari; +2 Authors

    MicroRNA156 (miR156) is a regulator of flowering time and biomass production through regulation of members of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family. To expand our investigations on the utility of miR156 in alfalfa, we generated transgenic alfalfa expressing a heterologous miR156 from Lotus japonicus (LjmiR156a). 5′ RACE and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the same three SPL genes (MsSPL6, MsSPL12, and MsSPL13) targeted by MsmiR156d are also targets of LjmiR156a in alfalfa. Ectopic expression of LjmiR156a down-regulated these SPL genes in transgenic alfalfa, coupled with reduced internode length, a more extreme delay in flowering time than occurred with MsmiR156d, enhanced shoot branching, and elevated biomass production. While root length was maintained, nodulation was reduced in some transgenic genotypes. Furthermore, heterologous expression of LjmiR156a enhanced the contents of starch, soluble sugars, and phenolics in all transgenic genotypes in contrast to the impact from MsmiR156d enhancement, even though the effects on lignin, cellulose, pectin, structural sugars, flavonoids, and carotenoids were variable among the new alfalfa genotypes. The variations among the traits/genotypes reflect the change in expression of alfalfa SPL genes targeted by LjmiR156a and show that LjmiR156a could be employed as a tool to improve quality and yield of alfalfa biomass.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Plant Biotechnology ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Plant Biotechnology Reports
    Article . 2015
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Plant Biotechnology ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Plant Biotechnology Reports
      Article . 2015
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hossein Saghlatoon; Rashid Mirzavand; Pedram Mousavi;

    This article presents an all-in-one system for the detection of the relative permittivity of samples in direct contact with a sensor antenna, based on the frequency variation detection and using a cost- and energy-effective manner. In a specific application, in which the antenna should be in contact with the sensing material, characteristics of the antenna change with respect to the frequency spectrum for different materials. Conventionally, a frequency spectrum monitoring device is required to monitor these changes, and the sensing data should be obtained by postprocessing the observation. The proposed system converts the sensing information in the frequency response of the device to a voltage, which can be utilized further for transmission as well as compensating and frequency retuning the system. The sensor antenna loads the radio frequency oscillator at the transmitter resulting in a change at the operating frequency of the system. A small portion of the signal is sampled and used for recovery in a phase/frequency comparator (PFC). The output of the PFC is a voltage corresponding to the difference between the operating frequency and the reference signal. The proposed sensor system is fabricated at the 915-MHz ultrahigh-frequency radio frequency identification band using on–off keying modulation as an evaluation, and the measured results with some known samples are presented. Since the proposed technique is implemented by utilizing the building blocks of a conventional transmitter, the power consumption and cost of the system are kept intact.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
    Article . 2021
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
      Article . 2021
      License: IEEE Copyright
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Van Dijken, Jaron G.; Brett, Michael J.;

    a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure. We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Molecules
    Other literature type . Article . 2012
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Molecules
    Article . 2012
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    Molecules
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NRC Publications Archive
    Other literature type . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Molecules
      Other literature type . Article . 2012
      License: CC BY
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      Molecules
      Article . 2012
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      Molecules
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NRC Publications Archive
      Other literature type . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Manh-Kien Tran; Andre DaCosta; Anosh Mevawalla; Satyam Panchal; +1 Authors

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are an important component of energy storage systems used in various applications such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. There are many chemistries of Li-ion battery, but LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA are four commonly used types. In order for the battery applications to operate safely and effectively, battery modeling is very important. The equivalent circuit model (ECM) is a battery model often used in the battery management system (BMS) to monitor and control Li-ion batteries. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate the performance of three different ECMs (1RC, 2RC, and 1RC with hysteresis) on four Li-ion battery chemistries (LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA). The results indicated that all three models are usable for the four types of Li-ion chemistries, with low errors. It was also found that the ECMs tend to perform better in dynamic current profiles compared to non-dynamic ones. Overall, the best-performed model for LFP and NCA was the 1RC with hysteresis ECM, while the most suited model for NMC and LMO was the 1RC ECM. The results from this study showed that different ECMs would be suited for different Li-ion battery chemistries, which should be an important factor to be considered in real-world battery and BMS applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Batteriesarrow_drop_down
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    Batteries
    Other literature type . Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Batteries
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Batteries
    Article . 2021
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      Batteries
      Other literature type . Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Batteries
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      Batteries
      Article . 2021
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  • Authors: A. Chow; Songnian Li; Alan S. Fung;

    ABSTRACTThis research presents a method to determine the maximum potential for the capturing of solar radiation on the rooftop of buildings in an urban environment. This involves the modeling of solar energy potential and comparison to historical building energy demand profiles through the use of 3-D solar simulation software tools and geographic information systems (GIS). The objective is to accurately identify the amount of surface area that is suitable for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and to estimate the hourly PV electricity generation potential of existing building rooftops in an urban environment. This study demonstrates a viable approach for modeling urban solar energy and offers valuable information for electricity distributors, policy makers, and urban energy planners to facilitate the substantial design of a green built environment. The developed methodology is comprised of three main sections: (1) determination of suitable rooftop area, (2) determination of the amount of incident solar...

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wei Xiao; Qian Sun; Jian Liu; Biwei Xiao; +9 Authors

    The pursuit of a high-capacity anode material has been urgently required for commercializing sodium-ion batteries with a high energy density and an improved working safety. In the absence of thermodynamically stable sodium intercalated compounds with graphite, constructing nanostructures with expanded interlayer distances is still the mainstream option for developing high-performance carbonaceous anodes. In this regard, a surface-functionalized and pore-forming strategy through a facile CO2 thermal etching route was rationally adopted to engineer negligible oxygenated functionalities on commercial carbon for boosting the sodium storage process. Benefitted from the abundant ionic/electronic pathways and more active reaction sites in the microporous structure with noticeable pseudocapacitive behaviors, the functionalized porous carbon could achieve a highly reversible capacity of 505 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1, an excellent rate performance of 181 mA h g-1 at 16,000 mA g-1, and an exceptional rate cycle stability of 176 mA h g-1 at 3200 mA g-1 over 1000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to a synergistic mechanism, fully utilizing the graphitic and amorphous structures for synchronous intercalations of sodium ions and solvated sodium ion compounds, respectively. Additionally, the controllable generation and evolution of a robust but thin solid electrolyte interphase film with the emergence of obvious capacitive reactions on the defective surface, favoring the rapid migration of sodium ions and solvated species, also contribute to a remarkable electrochemical performance of this porous carbon black.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
    Article . 2020
    License: STM Policy #29
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
      Article . 2020
      License: STM Policy #29
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    Authors: Kévin Lamy; Thierry Portafaix; Béatrice Josse; Colette Brogniez; +33 Authors

    We have derived values of the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) at solar noon using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet Model (TUV) driven by ozone, temperature and aerosol fields from climate simulations of the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). Since clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate projections, we simulated only the clear-sky UVI. We compared the modelled UVI climatologies against present-day climatological values of UVI derived from both satellite data (the OMI-Aura OMUVBd product) and ground-based measurements (from the NDACC network). Depending on the region, relative differences between the UVI obtained from CCMI/TUV calculations and the ground-based measurements ranged between −5.9% and 10.6%. We then calculated the UVI evolution throughout the 21st century for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5). Compared to 1960s values, we found an average increase in the UVI in 2100 (of 2–4%) in the tropical belt (30°N-30°S). For the mid-latitudes, we observed a 1.8 to 3.4 % increase in the Southern Hemisphere for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0, and found a 2.3% decrease in RCP 8.5. Higher increases in UVI are projected in the Northern Hemisphere except for RCP 8.5. At high latitudes, ozone recovery is well identified and induces a complete return of mean UVI levels to 1960 values for RCP 8.5 in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, UVI levels in 2100 are higher by 0.5 to 5.5% for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0 and they are lower by 7.9% for RCP 8.5. We analysed the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) on UVI from 1960 by comparing CCMI sensitivity simulations (1960–2100) with fixed GHGs or ODSs at their respective 1960 levels. As expected with ODS fixed at their 1960 levels, there is no large decrease in ozone levels and consequently no sudden increase in UVI levels. With fixed GHG, we observed a delayed return of ozone to 1960 values, with a corresponding pattern of change observed on UVI, and looking at the UVI difference between 2090s values and 1960s values, we found an 8 % increase in the tropical belt during the summer of each hemisphere. Finally we show that, while in the Southern Hemisphere the UVI is mainly driven by total ozone column, in the Northern Hemisphere both total ozone column and aerosol optical depth drive UVI levels, with aerosol optical depth having twice as much influence on the UVI as total ozone column does.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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  • Authors: Ankit Jain; Oleksandr Voznyy; Edward H. Sargent;

    We use high-throughput density functional theory calculations to screen lead-free perovskite-like materials with compositions A2BB′X6, ABX4, and A3B2X9 for optoelectronic performance. We screen monovalent A and B′ cations from Na, K, Rb, Cs Cu, and Ag, trivalent B cations from Ga, In, and Sb, and monovalent anions from Cl, Br, and I. Our screening procedure is based on formation energy and hybrid HSE06 functional predicted bandgaps. We screened more than 480 compounds and found 10 compounds that have bandgaps in the 1.5–2.5 eV range. Of these 10 compounds, seven are new, not having been reported before. We further characterize effective masses, density of states, and absorption coefficients of these selected compounds for their suitability in optoelectronic applications. All 10 of these selected compounds are lead-free and are solution processable. These compounds pave a path forward for lead-free photovoltaics and light emission devices.

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  • Authors: Spencer P, Pitre; Christopher D, McTiernan; Juan C, Scaiano;

    Over the past decade, the field of photoredox catalysis has gained increasing attention in synthetic organic chemistry because of its wide applicability in sustainable free-radical-mediated processes. Numerous examples have shown that under carefully optimized conditions, efficient and highly selective processes can be developed through excitation of a photosensitizer using inexpensive, readily available light sources. However, despite all of these recent advancements, some generalizations and/or misconceptions have become part of the photoredox culture, and often many of these discoveries lack in-depth investigations into the excited-state kinetics and underlying mechanisms. In this Account, we begin with a tutorial for understanding both the redox properties of excited states and how to measure the kinetics of excited-state processes. We discuss the generalization of direct excitation of closed-shell species to generate more potent reductive or oxidative excited states, using the helium atom as a quantitative example. We also outline how to apply redox potentials to calculate whether the proposed electron transfer events are thermodynamically feasible. In the second half of our tutorial, we discuss how to measure the kinetics of excited-state processes using techniques such as steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and transient spectroscopy and how to apply the data using Stern-Volmer and kinetic analysis. Then we shift gears to discuss our recent contributions to the field of photoredox catalysis. Our lab focuses on developing transition-metal-free alternatives to ruthenium and iridium bipyridyl complexes for these transformations, with the goal of developing systems in which the reaction kinetics is more favorable. We have found that methylene blue, a member of the thiazine dye family, can be employed in photoredox processes such as oxidative hydroxylations of arylboronic acids to phenols. Interestingly, we were able to demonstrate that methylene blue is more efficient for this reaction than Ru(bpy)3Cl2, which upon further examination using transient spectroscopic techniques we were able to relate to the reductive quenching ability of the aliphatic amine. Recently we were also successful in applying methylene blue for radical trifluoromethylation reactions, which is discussed in detail. Finally, we have also demonstrated that common organic electron donors, such as α-sexithiophene, can be used in photoredox processes, which we demonstrate using the dehalogenation of vic-dibromides as a model system. This is a particularly interesting system because well-defined, long-lived intermediates allowed us to fully characterize the catalytic cycle. Once again, through an in-depth kinetic analysis we were able to gain valuable insights into our reaction mechanism, which demonstrates how powerful a tool proper kinetic analysis can be in the design and optimization of photoredox processes.

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    Authors: S. R. Stroberg; J. D. Holt; Achim Schwenk; J. Simonis;

    We predict the limits of existence of atomic nuclei, the proton and neutron drip lines, from the light through medium-mass regions. Starting from a chiral two- and three-nucleon interaction with good saturation properties, we use the valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group to calculate ground-state and separation energies from helium to iron, nearly 700 isotopes in total. We use the available experimental data to quantify the theoretical uncertainties for our ab initio calculations towards the drip lines. Where the drip lines are known experimentally, our predictions are consistent within the estimated uncertainty. For the neutron-rich sodium to chromium isotopes, we provide predictions to be tested at rare-isotope beam facilities. Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, supplementary material included; accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters

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    Physical Review Letters
    Article . 2021
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      Physical Review Letters
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11,905 Research products
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Banyar Aung; Margaret Y. Gruber; Lisa Amyot; Khaled W. Omari; +2 Authors

    MicroRNA156 (miR156) is a regulator of flowering time and biomass production through regulation of members of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family. To expand our investigations on the utility of miR156 in alfalfa, we generated transgenic alfalfa expressing a heterologous miR156 from Lotus japonicus (LjmiR156a). 5′ RACE and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the same three SPL genes (MsSPL6, MsSPL12, and MsSPL13) targeted by MsmiR156d are also targets of LjmiR156a in alfalfa. Ectopic expression of LjmiR156a down-regulated these SPL genes in transgenic alfalfa, coupled with reduced internode length, a more extreme delay in flowering time than occurred with MsmiR156d, enhanced shoot branching, and elevated biomass production. While root length was maintained, nodulation was reduced in some transgenic genotypes. Furthermore, heterologous expression of LjmiR156a enhanced the contents of starch, soluble sugars, and phenolics in all transgenic genotypes in contrast to the impact from MsmiR156d enhancement, even though the effects on lignin, cellulose, pectin, structural sugars, flavonoids, and carotenoids were variable among the new alfalfa genotypes. The variations among the traits/genotypes reflect the change in expression of alfalfa SPL genes targeted by LjmiR156a and show that LjmiR156a could be employed as a tool to improve quality and yield of alfalfa biomass.

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    Plant Biotechnology Reports
    Article . 2015
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      Plant Biotechnology Reports
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hossein Saghlatoon; Rashid Mirzavand; Pedram Mousavi;

    This article presents an all-in-one system for the detection of the relative permittivity of samples in direct contact with a sensor antenna, based on the frequency variation detection and using a cost- and energy-effective manner. In a specific application, in which the antenna should be in contact with the sensing material, characteristics of the antenna change with respect to the frequency spectrum for different materials. Conventionally, a frequency spectrum monitoring device is required to monitor these changes, and the sensing data should be obtained by postprocessing the observation. The proposed system converts the sensing information in the frequency response of the device to a voltage, which can be utilized further for transmission as well as compensating and frequency retuning the system. The sensor antenna loads the radio frequency oscillator at the transmitter resulting in a change at the operating frequency of the system. A small portion of the signal is sampled and used for recovery in a phase/frequency comparator (PFC). The output of the PFC is a voltage corresponding to the difference between the operating frequency and the reference signal. The proposed sensor system is fabricated at the 915-MHz ultrahigh-frequency radio frequency identification band using on–off keying modulation as an evaluation, and the measured results with some known samples are presented. Since the proposed technique is implemented by utilizing the building blocks of a conventional transmitter, the power consumption and cost of the system are kept intact.

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    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
    Article . 2021
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      IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
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    Authors: Van Dijken, Jaron G.; Brett, Michael J.;

    a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure. We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment

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    Article . 2012
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    Molecules
    Other literature type . Article . 2012
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    Molecules
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    NRC Publications Archive
    Other literature type . 2012
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      Molecules
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      Molecules
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      Molecules
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      NRC Publications Archive
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    Authors: Manh-Kien Tran; Andre DaCosta; Anosh Mevawalla; Satyam Panchal; +1 Authors

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are an important component of energy storage systems used in various applications such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. There are many chemistries of Li-ion battery, but LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA are four commonly used types. In order for the battery applications to operate safely and effectively, battery modeling is very important. The equivalent circuit model (ECM) is a battery model often used in the battery management system (BMS) to monitor and control Li-ion batteries. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate the performance of three different ECMs (1RC, 2RC, and 1RC with hysteresis) on four Li-ion battery chemistries (LFP, NMC, LMO, and NCA). The results indicated that all three models are usable for the four types of Li-ion chemistries, with low errors. It was also found that the ECMs tend to perform better in dynamic current profiles compared to non-dynamic ones. Overall, the best-performed model for LFP and NCA was the 1RC with hysteresis ECM, while the most suited model for NMC and LMO was the 1RC ECM. The results from this study showed that different ECMs would be suited for different Li-ion battery chemistries, which should be an important factor to be considered in real-world battery and BMS applications.

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    Batteries
    Other literature type . Article . 2021
    License: CC BY