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University of Sheffield

Country: United Kingdom

University of Sheffield

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4,010 Projects, page 1 of 802
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ST/G001758/1
    Funder Contribution: 288,256 GBP

    Active galaxies have unusually bright star-like nuclei which cannot be explained in terms of the normal thermal emission of the hundreds of billions of stars that make up the galaxy haloes. It is though that such active galactic nuclei (AGN) result from the heating of gas accreted by super-massive black holes in the centres of the galaxies as part of the overall galaxy evolution process. In a major advance it has recently been shown that the masses of the super-massive black holes -- typically between a million and a billion times the mass of our Sun -- are closely related to the masses of the host galaxies. It has been suggested that this close relationship can be explained in terms of the negative feedback effect of the AGN: as the super-massive black holes grow through the accretion of gas they drive powerful outflows that eventually expel the gas from galaxies, halting the AGN activity and any further star formation in the galaxy haloes. The AGN feedback effect can also help to explain why there are relatively few high mass galaxies in the local Universe: the AGN outflows prevent galaxies from growing too massive by expelling the cooling gas that would otherwise form stars. However, despite its potentially key importance for understanding the evolution of galaxies, the AGN feedback effect is largely a theoretical construct, and does not yet have a solid basis in direct observations of active galaxies in the local Universe. There also remain large uncertainties about how and when the gas required to trigger the AGN activity is accreted as the galaxies evolve. Therefore we propose to use state-of-the-art techniques, based on the over 15 years research experience of the AGN group in Sheffield, to measure the powers of the AGN outflows in a variety of nearby active galaxies, and also investigate the dominant AGN triggering mechanism. This will allow us to assess the true significance of AGN for our general understanding of the galaxy evolution.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K030949/1
    Funder Contribution: 341,386 GBP

    Lower back pain is a major and growing healthcare problem in the UK. It causes morbidity and significantly reduces national productivity through employee absence. A major cause of lower back pain is degeneration of the intervertebral disc (DIVD). The most common treatment for DIVD is spinal fusion, which is a major surgical procedure with variable patient outcome. In principle, injectable gels that provide load support while allowing tissue regeneration can provide a non-surgical, cost-effective therapy for DIVD. We aim to establish an injectable synthetic copolymer gel that provides immediate load support (to alleviate pain) and then biodegrades to be replaced by regenerated tissue. A non-biodegradable injectable gel technology developed by the U. Manchester team has provided load support for degenerated IVDs. However, these gels fracture at high strain (low ductility) and do not recreate the nanometre-scale structural features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) within the intervertebral disc (IVD). Moreover, they were not able to support tissue regeneration. In the proposed work programme, we will design novel injectable biomimetic gels by combining new anisotropic block copolymer worm-like particles with new pH-responsive nanogel particles in order to produce the nanometre-scale features that are characteristic of the ECM within human IVDs. Such nanostructured gels should have improved ductility and provide both load support and the appropriate physical / biological cues to direct ECM synthesis and tissue growth. Furthermore, they will be designed to biodegrade and be gradually replaced by regenerated tissue. A successful outcome will establish a new family of injectable synthetic copolymer gels that should bring non-surgical therapies for DIVD closer to reality.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: 119413/1
    Funder Contribution: 538,141 GBP

    This project will study the interaction of culture and the mind, focusing on three central topics: (1) artefacts and material culture, (2) norms and moral psychology, and (3) theory of mind and folk epistemics. The project will bring together top scholars in a broad range of disciplines (including anthropology, archaeology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, economics, history, neuroscience, and philosophy) to investigate the philosophical consequences of the impact of culture on the mind and the cognitive and evolutionary foundations of culture. The project will centrally involve detailed cross-cultural studies in each of the three central focus areas.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 700863
    Overall Budget: 195,455 EURFunder Contribution: 195,455 EUR

    Society worldwide is more exposed to seismic hazards due to rapid population growth and urbanization. Since the turn of the millennium, fatalities due to earthquakes were over 60,000/year, with a $300 billion/year estimated direct economic loss. Recent major earthquakes (China 2008, Haiti 2010, Lorca 2011, Japan 2012, Nepal 2015) have highlighted yet again the vulnerability of the existing substandard building stock in Europe as well as in developing countries, mainly due to inappropriate design and poor construction practices. Although new technologies, such as Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP), are effective for strengthening substandard structures, their high material cost is an obstacle for their widespread application, especially in developing countries. This project aims to develop an innovative and economic strengthening solution by using a novel mortar-based composite (R-SRG), which comprises of recycled high strength steel cords, by-product of tyre recycling, embedded in an inorganic grout matrix. This novel technique can be efficiently used for flexural, axial and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members and it is cost effective (more than 40% cheaper than using FRP), fire resistant, sustainable, and has low environmental impact. While proof of concept studies by the applicant have demonstrated the efficiency of the SRG technique, this project bridges the knowledge gap by developing fundamental understanding, design-oriented models and performance-based design guidelines so that this new technique can be introduced in practice. The outcomes of this project will lead to a new generation of low-cost and efficient retrofitting systems for deteriorated or seismically deficient structures with high impact on both economy and society.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BB/K020986/1
    Funder Contribution: 93,520 GBP

    Doctoral Training Partnerships: a range of postgraduate training is funded by the Research Councils. For information on current funding routes, see the common terminology at https://www.ukri.org/apply-for-funding/how-we-fund-studentships/. Training grants may be to one organisation or to a consortia of research organisations. This portal will show the lead organisation only.

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