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UCT

University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa
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142 Projects, page 1 of 29
  • Funder: SNSF Project Code: 125930
    Funder Contribution: 53,900
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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ES/J018058/1
    Funder Contribution: 399,719 GBP

    This project falls primarily under the previous Call (in 2010) on "Inequality and Development". Social assistance programmes - including 'social' pensions, conditional and unconditional cash transfers, and workfare through public employment programmes - have attracted considerable attention as a mechanism for reducing poverty and inequality, and stimulating development in the global South. Little attention has been paid, however, to the politics of programmes that "just give money to the poor". This research project will analyse how and why social assistance programmes are adopted in different parts of Africa, drawing comparisons with Brazil and India. The central question is "what works and what doesn't work politically?", i.e. what makes reforms politically feasible and sustainable? The research will examine, for selected countries across Southern, East and West Africa, each stage of the policy-making and implementation process. How do ideas get onto the policy agenda? What shapes elite and public opinion on reforms? Under what circumstances do reforms become salient electorally, or in competition between or within political parties? What influence do civil society organisations, aid donors or international agencies exert over policy-making? How are reforms affected by legislative, executive or bureaucratic procedures within the state? In short, what factors favour and what factors impede policy reforms? The goal is to understand why policies are not adopted as much as why they are and the final form that they take. The research will pay particular attention to the ways in which socio-economic inequalities and ethnic or racial differences affect the politics of welfare reforms. Economic inequalities ironically make it fiscally easier to reduce poverty gaps through cash transfers. Politically salient ethnic or racial differences are generally understood to impede programmatic policy-making. The combination of the two (as in South Africa) might make it politically easier to introduce reforms, if visible and effective poverty reduction is expected to reduce social and political tensions. Through a comparison of different countries, this research will inform an understanding of the political mechanisms through which socio-economic inequalities and regional or ethnic differences affect the political feasibility of welfare reforms. This research will be conducted through a combination of existing research conducted through UCT, supplemented with focused new research in selected countries. Existing research foundations include a review of policy across the region, case-study research on reforms in South Africa, surveys of public opinion (through Afrobarometer and other research), legislative processes (through the African Legislatures Project), cross-national studies of public expenditure on health care programmes, and the relationships between civil society and public policy-making. New empirical research will focus precisely on elite and public opinion on welfare policy reforms, political processes with respect to welfare policy-making in state and civil society, and the determinants of expenditure on welfare programmes in the selected countries. The project will contribute new understanding of how poverty alleviation can be delivered in a range of settings, including how the design of policies affects their political feasibility and the efficacy of interventions at different stages of the policy-making process. Whilst building on the strengths of a major research institution in the global South, the project will also help to build capacity there.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: MC_PC_16097
    Funder Contribution: 267,193 GBP

    Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a form of cancer of the oesophagus that is very common in many developing countries, with about 85% of cases occurring in these countries. There are no early symptoms and the patients report to hospital when the cancer is already at an advanced stage. Despite the high incidence in many parts of Africa, very little is known about the causes of the disease and the genetic risk if individuals. In this study we will do whole genome sequence analysis on patient DNA in order to identify the genetic changes and potential environmental carcinogens and mutagens that could play a role in the development of the disease. We will also explore the use of this information for personalised anticancer drug therapy based on patient specific gene defects

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: MC_PC_MR/T03775X/1
    Funder Contribution: 220,113 GBP

    This body of work will have broad clinical, societal and academic impacts. Given that multimorbidity is increasing and affecting a wide range of ages; a greater understanding of treatment burden and capacity issues that influence self- management and health outcomes is essential to inform clinical care, health service delivery and resource allocation. The intended impact of the findings of this work is improved health and wellbeing of people living with HIV/ NCD multimorbidity in LMIC contexts by influencing clinical practice and health care policy while at the same time highlighting points for intervention. International policy makers and public health advocates who are striving to improve care and outcome for the growing numbers of people with multimorbidity globally will benefit because they will have access to a theoretical model of HIV/NCD workload-capacity adapted to low-and-middle income settings as well as a revised modification of the WHO Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC) Framework. National and provincial policymakers and health service managers will benefit because they are currently grappling with how to re-organise policies and services to improve chronic care and associated outcomes for multimorbidity. Having a better understanding of patient treatment burden and the state of patient capacity through their involvement in the research process and stakeholder meetings will enable them to formulate more realistic and patient-centred care strategies. Healthcare providers, through participation in the research process, will gain insight and understanding of patient and caregivers' experiences of workload. In addition, our dissemination efforts will ensure increased awareness of the issues of treatment burden and capacity issues for those with HIV/ NCD multimorbidity and its implications for policy and practice. Thus, the findings are likely to inform and influence practitioners' attitudes and advance a more patient-centred approach in their provision of care. Patients and care givers will benefit from being provided with the opportunity to reflect on and discuss their experiences of treatment burden in a sympathetic setting. This is likely to assist in opening communication with each other and their health providers. Our dissemination efforts to policy makers and practitioners may also influence the care provided to this patient population in the longer term. Local researchers will benefit from skills transfer from UK theorists and clinicians on the issue of patient workload-capacity. The UK researchers will benefit from an enhanced understanding of how the constructs in these models can be applied to a LMIC setting. Health system researchers will benefit from an improved understanding of this issue for the development and testing of measures and interventions for patients with multimorbidity. Society: Ultimately such research will contribute to improving the health status and quality of life of the growing number of people living with multimorbidity.

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  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: ES/T015446/1
    Funder Contribution: 1,957,890 GBP

    The Agenda 2030 of the UN sets out ambitious challenges for society to achieve 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While all SDGs are important in Africa, those related to poverty (SDG 1, 8), inequality (SDG 5, 10) and climate change (SDG 13, 7) are especially relevant. Africa has some of the highest global poverty rates, levels of inequality, climate vulnerabilities, and shortfalls in energy access. Making substantial progress on all these SDGs will require action in any single SDG domain that maximises synergies and co-benefits and avoids as much as possible negative trade-offs. Aims and Objectives: Our project's overarching research question is: How do African societies design and implement climate action to improve sustainable livelihoods, and reduce both poverty and inequality? For example, all African countries need to adapt their food systems to be more resilient to climate change, but there are different routes to achieving this - such as investing in large-scale industrialised agriculture or supporting small-scale farmers to be more climate smart - which can result in very different livelihood benefits across society. Our second objective is to build a network of African-UK researchers who can bring deep disciplinary expertise to bear on this interdisciplinary problem. In particular, our project brings together two newly-established ARUA Centres of Excellence (CoE) on climate change and inequalities, with world-leading expertise from the UK, to form this network and to work at the nexus of climate change, inequality and poverty. Our Approach: To address the climate-poverty-inequality nexus in Africa we have created an interdisciplinary research team with expertise in development economics, livelihoods, poverty and inequality, climate policy and governance, energy and mitigation, and adaptation. We will answer our research questions through comparative research across three country settings - Ghana, Kenya and South Africa - that will allow us to synthesise commonalities and differences across these different contexts. Our approach is multi-scale and multi-dimensional, seeking to understand i) the political, economic and policy context within which transformative climate actions are enabled (or prevented); ii) how socio-economic and climate change policies have affected livelihood trajectories of different groups in society; iii) the potential outcomes from climate change actions, with a focus on how these outcomes vary across social groups, especially between men and women, but also social differences such as education, income, and land tenure; iv) how existing climate actions are working (or not) to build sustainable livelihood trajectories for communities; v) understanding the country-wide social and economic benefits of different climate actions, when applied at scale. Our project will involve close collaboration with leaders in policy and practice, and also with communities, so that their needs and priorities inform our research, and so that our research in turn shifts their thinking and actions. Project Outcomes: - A well-established, pan-African research network that has multiple collaborations within this project, and in new projects leveraged out of this project. - Evidence on the synergies and trade-offs between climate action, poverty and inequality. - Evidence on how specific national priority climate actions can be designed to deliver co-benefits for livelihoods and reducing poverty and inequality. - Ultimately, climate policies and associated actions to be transformative in improving livelihoods and well-being, reducing poverty and inequality, rather than business as usual at national and global political levels.

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