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ZMT

Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Research
Country: Germany
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10 Projects, page 1 of 2
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-17-FRAL-0001
    Funder Contribution: 694,283 EUR

    The South Pacific region represents a unique context in which local communities and their political representatives are increasingly committed to integrated management of marine resources and spaces after a predicted dissolution of related community-based activities in the 1970s. This holds especially true for fisheries, the main field of activity in this oceanscape and a critical component of local livelihoods, national and regional economies, and global fish supplies. Fisheries remain one of the most important concerns on the national and regional policy agendas in the Pacific. Recent studies have started to take into account the multi-faceted aspects of Pacific fisheries by articulating ecological and economic perspectives. Our project aims at broadening this endeavour by re-embedding coastal and oceanic fisheries in their wider context and by exploring the large web of socio-cultural, geopolitical and policy connections within which fishing practices occur. For this, we will conduct an interdisciplinary and multi-level analysis across diverse scales and dimensions of fisheries, fisheries management and marine governance in the South Pacific region, including local perceptions and practices, global changes and drivers, and national and regional management frameworks and strategies. This analysis will focus on three study areas: New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji where fieldwork periods will be conducted. Three thematic areas will be at the core of the project’s cross-sectional investigations: 1) An environmental anthropology assessment of social values of places and resources in connection with offshore and inshore fisheries; 2) A socio-political ecology perspective on interwoven fisheries and conservation issues within marine protected areas; 3) A policy analysis of the inclusion of fisheries in marine spatial planning. The project outcomes will be five-fold: 1) The production of policy briefs to be disseminated to regional stakeholders on these three thematic areas, with a spot-light on the neglected ‘sea of connections’ in which fisheries are embedded. 2) The production of knowledge exchange pathways between local marine resource users, local students and other stakeholders of South Pacific fisheries via, for instance, local perceptions of fishing activities in a broader context of natural resource uses and values, conservation initiatives and issues, and conflicts related to boundaries. 3) The contribution to the advancement of cross-cutting knowledge in the multi-faceted field of fisheries management and marine governance. 4) The participation in the endeavour to build new forms of integrative governance of the sea including all stakeholders, and in which both Pacific countries and territories and the European Union are closely working together. 5) The strengthening of the existing working ties between the French and German partners, to complement respective national research landscapes.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 771859
    Overall Budget: 1,314,800 EURFunder Contribution: 1,314,800 EUR

    State-of-the-art simulations and observations highlight the self-organization of convective clouds. Our recent work shows two aspects: these clouds are capable of unexpected increase in extreme precipitation when temperature rises; interactions between clouds produce the extremes. As clouds interact, they organize in space and carry a memory of past interaction and precipitation events. This evidence reveals a severe shortcoming of the conventional separation into "forcing" and "feedback" in climate model parameterizations, namely that the "feedback" develops a dynamics of its own, thus driving the extremes. The major scientific challenge tackled in INTERACTION is to make a ground-breaking departure from the established paradigm of "quasi-equilibrium" and instantaneous convective adjustment, traditionally used for parameterization of "sub-grid-scale processes" in general circulation models. To capture convective self-organization and extremes, the out-of-equilibrium cloud field must be described. In INTERACTION, I will produce a conceptual model for the out-of-equilibrium system of interacting clouds. Once triggered, clouds precipitate on a short timescale, but then relax in a "recovery" state where further precipitation is suppressed. Interaction with the surroundings occurs through cold pool outflow,facilitating the onset of new events in the wake. I will perform tailored numerical experiments using cutting-edge large-eddy simulations and very-high-resolution observational analysis to determine the effective interactions in the cloud system. Going beyond traditional forcing-and-feedback descriptions, I emphasize gradual self-organization with explicit temperature dependence. The list of key variables of atmospheric water vapor, temperature and precipitation must therefore be amended by variables describing organization. Capturing the self-organization of convection is essential for understanding of the risk of precipitation extremes today and in a future climate.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 295191
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 813360
    Overall Budget: 4,039,160 EURFunder Contribution: 4,039,160 EUR

    Coral reefs are the economically most highly valued ecosystems in the world. However, ongoing anthropogenic environmental changes have severely degraded their environments. Analyses of fossil data show that reefs living in so-called turbid habitats, characterized by the influence of terrestrial run-off, played an important role in the origins and maintenance of reef ecosystems. Key questions addressed in 4D-REEF are: 1) What did pristine reefs look like?; 2) Can we predict which areas will most likely support coral reefs in future climate change scenarios?; 3) Is it possible to develop monitoring tools that can be used to compare current and past conditions? We will study examples from the Holocene, prior to significant anthropogenic impact, and the Pliocene, a future greenhouse analogue, and compare them with the present-day reef conditions. These new data will provide the essential baselines for predicting the impact of ongoing global environmental change. 4D-REEF will develop new techniques for data collection, analysis, and visualisation that can be applied in future data-intensive projects in the Earth and Life Sciences. The increasingly complex, large size and 3D nature of datasets calls for the application of innovative techniques to be developed and standardised through cross-sectoral collaborations between Earth and Life scientists and visualisation experts. 4D-REEF will bring together leading groups and experts from a range of research environments, including universities, natural history museums, an applied science institute, SME, and NGO. This will generate a training environment in which the ESRs can make informed decisions to pursue high-level careers in or outside academia, and modify their training programme accordingly. Because of our interdisciplinary approach, the current need to understand biotic response to on-going environmental change, we believe that this is an ideal topic for the training of a cohort of Early Stage Researchers.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 734271
    Overall Budget: 1,544,540 EURFunder Contribution: 1,460,790 EUR

    Marine environments are subject to growing pressures as traffic, increasing demand and changing land-use of coastal areas, seabed exploitation, dredging or mining, fishing, tourism, development of renewable energies, etc. Sustainably managed oceans and seas can contribute to economic growth and employment, and will allow the international community to meet its global targets, including the reduction of poverty and hunger as detailed in the global 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Thus, marine environments are considered opportunities for future growth not only in Europe, but also in bordering marine areas like the tropical Atlantic. As a consequence, new frameworks will be increasingly needed to regulate and optimize the range of feasible uses of marine areas and resources. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) aims at reconciling human uses and conservation, and offers an attractive setting to combine different uses of marine resources within a single area. There is an urgent and critical need for research on the application of MSP in tropical areas. The research should critically address the fact that the policy framework originally designed for the European Union (EU) may not fit the specificities of Southern countries. PADDLE will bring together internationally renowned researchers and actors, from countries bordering the tropical Atlantic and from the EU, to create a network and a colloborative platform, which will build theory and methods for pertinent MSP in tropical areas. This interdisciplinary team will be a pillar of knowledge-based MSP by providing critical analyses of the tools and methods used, and by designing innovative approaches to efficient MSP. The PADDLE proposal will create the first North-South interdisciplinary consortium on MSP in the tropics, highlighting opportunities and limits of tropical MSP and producing toolboxes for a broad range of stakeholders.

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