8 Projects, page 1 of 2
For a few years, we have observed the rise of new collaborative work spaces (NCWSs) remote from major cities. These places of social interaction echo the expectations of a population looking to evolve at the fringe, both geographically (away from great urban centers) and socially speaking (hoping for greater work life balance). This international project aims at studying the part played by these new peripheral centralities for workers. A multidisciplinary team of researchers working on German, Belgian, Canadian and French research fields will detail the impact on mobilities for the territories studied. This research project deepens and reorients another approaching completion on third places (INTIMIDE financed by the GIS M@rsouin and the Région Bretagne). The choices made by a new generation of independent workers, relying mostly on digital technology for their professional activities, could revitalize non metro areas often faced with the loss of economic and social activity and with negative net migration. This possibility depends both on the way these workers insert in a professional, institutional or social network and on the way they might contribute to their territory’s development be it direct or indirect. From this perspective, the emergence of NCWSs outside large metropolises works as part of the great societal trends at work today and notably the blurring between the location of residence and the location of work. The expectations of young workers regarding life and work quality, daily commute and the means of transportation to choose from –and more largely environmental stakes– remap the relationship to the territory and mobilities. Even if this trend remains rather uncommon, the growing part of these workers –among which a large part of independent workers, lonely entrepreneurs and teleworkers– testifies to the evolutions of our society. We postulate for these populations the existence of a larger life project, including not only their professional aspirations and activities but also their expectations in terms of life quality. The approach chosen differs from major explanations of professional mobility and residential choices as it includes non-economical and extra-professional arguments in our analysis model. The problematic is interested in knowing whether NCWs can become nodes of temporary spatial concentration as places of meeting and activity and intermediaries to access physical (face-to-face peer groups) and digital (broadband) networks. We are suggesting that nodes are forming at the margin of metropolises bringing about a relative centrality, far from traditional major actors and yet essential to the career path of independent workers. The objectives of the research follow three lines. The aim is: 1/ to understand the role of NCWSs by studying the geographical and social characteristics and paths of individuals who join them and the interactions between users and founding members within a common space and their external relations; 2/ to observe the various mobilities generated on the territory by these NCWSs and measure their ability to form a node, that is to say to become points of anchorage and territorial adherence; 3/ to analyze how individuals view their future in order to propose a prospective analysis of NCWSs that will be useful to the definition of planning strategies.
The ESTUER project takes the Loire estuary as an 'energy space', i.e. a node crossed by multiple flows of matter and energy (coal, gas, oil, electricity, but also tides, sun and wind), a place where energy infrastructures are projected (networks, power stations, ports) and a territory challenged by various stakeholders, from environmental mobilizations to the European Union, the Nantes metropolis, the Pays de la Loire region and the French state. Our hypothesis is that there is a strong link between material, political and social histories of energy spaces. Our ambition is to shed light on this link in the Loire estuary since the 1980s through an interdisciplinary approach combining geography, history, political science and sociology. Our main field of investigation is the Carnet site in the middle of the estuary where have been intertwined infrastructural changes, innovation policies and social mobilization around energy for 40 years. This place was chosen for two energy infrastructure projects: a nuclear power plant by EDF (1981-1997) and an eco-technology park by the harbor administration since 2019. These two projects were contested by groups of local residents, farmers, students, ecologists and citizens in a context of loss of energy, agricultural and material autonomy in the Loire-Atlantique area. Our study is organised around three research perspectives: 1) The technopolitics of energy examines the energy policies of regional, national and European administrations and the strategies of appropriation of physical, discursive and mental spaces by the actors of the land development; 2) The sociopolitics of environmental mobilizations focuses on the groups mobilized against energy projects for the last 40 years with a sociohistorical approach; 3) metabolism analysis examines the articulation of territorial metabolism and the local conflicts and struggles.
"SCIENTIFIC ISSUE: The project addresses the issue of the sustainability of home-to-work and home-to-study commutes in 2 Latin American metropolitan areas (Bogotá and Lima). These cities gather 10 million inhabitants and are characterized by a strong socio-residential segregation and a growth model that favors the urban sprawl in the outskirts rather than the densification of the central spaces. Young households and the working classes are thus relegated far from the center, where jobs are concentrated. Home-to-work journeys are therefore long distances and under very difficult conditions, because the supply of public transport is deficient, the car is inaccessible to low-income populations, and the roads are constantly congested. In opinion surveys, mobility conditions are the first reason for discontent after insecurity. In this context, and as sustainable development tends to become a norm in these cities for both public authorities and city dwellers, the issue of sustainable mobility represents a major challenge for the 21st century. How to promote more sustainable forms of mobility, by improving the quality of life of populations? What are the leverages that can encourage city dwellers to move towards more sustainable modes or practices, and what are the impediments that can discourage them from doing so? How can we enable people living in the disadvantaged suburbs, who experience the worst travel conditions, to access more sustainable forms of mobility? METHODOLOGY: The project will start with a bibliographic search and exploitation of secondary sources, mainly origin-destination surveys, available in several recent versions and comparable between the two cities. This work will be made available in the form of maps (webmapping) and will allow the identification of the ZATs (Transport Analysis Zones) where the conditions of mobility and accessibility to employment are the worst. Two of these ZAT will be selected in each city to roll out field surveys. A quantitative questionnaire survey will be applied to 400 households in each area and will focus on the conditions of daily mobility and the outlook for adopting more sustainable practices. It will be designed and supervised by the Consortium, but its application will be delegated to specialized service providers. The results will be processed in particular with a GIS designed for this purpose. At the same time, in-depth interviews will be administered to individuals belonging to the quantitative survey universe (at least 10% of the households surveyed are targeted). The study will focus on 3 population groups that are potentially vulnerable in their mobility, but that have not been studied in this way in Latin America: women, children and people with reduced mobility. To enrich the study, other qualitative approaches will be experimented: in situ ""commented"" journeys, focus groups, ""flash surveys"" at intersections. TEAM: The team of 20 people is international and multidisciplinary. It is evenly distributed between France, Colombia and Peru. It is composed of researchers with expertise in daily mobility and urban surveys in working-class neighborhoods. They will be assisted by administrative staff and by engineers, assistants and trainees. The coordinator will be supported by a co-leader in France and two scientific supervisors in each city. DISTINCTIVENESS: the project is unprecedented, distinctive and ambitious in its approach. It is international and interdisciplinary. It focuses on cities in the South where sustainable transport is a challenge. It focuses on vulnerable spaces and populations. The social utility and equity issues are strong. It offers a critical insight into sustainable mobility. The survey methodology is hybrid."
First analysis produced on territories heat by hurricanes Irma and Maria demonstrated a complete failure of waste services due to the amount of waste produce in a very short period (UN Environment / OCHA Joint Unit, 2017). In October 2017, the waste service of Saint Martin had to manage about 2,5 years of waste produced in 3 or 4 days. This statistic is generally observed everywhere when hurricanes heat. Lessons learnt point that waste management is a critical issue of the post crisis period. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the US, the cost of post disaster waste is higher than 33% of the total recovery cost. There is an issue linked with tourism activities of such territories: waste has a severe impact on this economy branch. Also the question of environment and health become crucial in this case because of water pollution, apparition of diseases… Finally, the location of waste produced by hurricanes has also an impact on the progress of first responders, accessibility of operators to repair their systems such as water or energy networks and production plants. International experiences show that improving post disaster waste management has a positive impact on day to day waste management. DéPOs proposals is specifically focusing on post hurricane waste management. This proposal is gathering partners recognized as experts in this specific area allowing associating multiple and complementary view angles: from predictive waste description and quantification (axe1) to integrated post hurricane waste management (axe3) with the use of spatial analysis and modeling (axe2). The proposal is based on operational research approach to improve knowledge in the West French Indies and to match the needs of these local waste managers in terms of post hurricane waste issues. Results will be tested on several pilot sites located in the West French Indies and methods will be chosen upstream with stakeholders. Waste managers of Martinique and Guadeloupe have confirmed their collaboration intentions. From a scientific point of view, DéPOs is a contribution to the research area so called “post crisis spatialized risks and resilience. The proposal is the step forward classical approaches based on hazard and vulnerability analysis: it aims at bringing operating resilience processes with prospective planning, adaptation of organizations and socio technical systems facing extreme events.
"The MOBI'KIDS project aims to understand daily mobilities and activities of families in urban areas in a context of changes in urban lifestyles and within the consolidation of travel modes alternative developed within the ""city demotorization” paradigm. More specifically the project concerns daily mobilities and spatial experiences of children in their step of independence learning. It contributes to identify the constraints and the shift levers of mobilities. Children mobilities are apprehended within their large environmental context, by taking into account the family context aiming to define a typology of “urban educative cultures” (UEC). Understood as a set of attitudes, values and daily spatial practices and experiences, UEC will be observed in a diversity of urban contexts in order: 1/ to show how they vary according to living contexts, families’ social situations and to urban lifestyles; 2/ to explain how they fluctuate and structure themselves from a spatiotemporal gradient defining between routines vs informal experiences. This objective will allow to explain the learning conditions of the city and to clarify the emergence of daily travels changes (including the alternatives to car mobility) and of use of the city by the children. The research field of the project will be focused on Rennes metropolis. It will aim at a first series of statistical analyses based on data of different surveys produced by the Local Organizing Authorities of Transport (Origin-Destination survey; Households / Travels surveys ) to release the main trends of children’s and their family mobilities according to the social and spatial dimensions. These first trends will allow to constitute the spatial and social sample. A sample of 140 families living in two urban contrasted sites (center versus urban periphery) of Rennes Metropolis will be surveyed in a first time. The methodology will be based on an original conceptual and technical protocol designed for the collection and analysis of multidimensional data: travels geo-localization, post-track recall interview and guided commented tours with individuals. A corpus describing the daily travel, its associated urban atmosphere, mobility and educational attitudes, will be constituted. The analysis of these quantitative and qualitative data will lead to three articulating readings: 1/ an informatics/geomatic reading will allow to release usual and unusual behavior (spatio-temporal pattern) from the recorded GPS tracks; 2/a semantic reading of data (post-track recall interview) will contribute to the analysis of lifestyles and characterization of the social and family contexts, habits, mobility and spaces preferences, environmental contexts of the travels and personal sense of the mobility; 3/a sensitive reading will lean on in-situ travel observation data collected with children to apprehend the material, sensory, practical and temporal contexts. This corpus of enriched tracks will contribute to define the profiles of CEU explaining learning conditions. Then, a monitoring-workshop supported by the local actor of Rennes Metropolis will be set up with a sub-sample of children interviewed in the first time (T1). This experiment based on changes of urban travel modes will consist in keeping up observations of children’s mobility over a more spread period to understand children’s mobility evolution and their spatial and social conditions and their spatial relations during a step of transition between the primary school and the middle school. This project conducted in an interdisciplinary approach is built on previous collaborations between stemming teams Social and Human Sciences and informatics and engineering sciences and two SME partners. It contributes to the development of hybrid tools for collection associating different kinds of data (GPS, accelerometer-data, discursive and in-situ-observations data) with the aim to improve the collection protocols of national survey about daily travels."