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Institut de recherche pour le développement

Institut de recherche pour le développement

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154 Projects, page 1 of 31
  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-17-CE41-0002
    Funder Contribution: 223,400 EUR

    This project takes as starting points the religious plurality in Burkina Faso and some anthropological observations of the end of the 1950’s, which pointed the way religious conversion was a pathway of integration for the Burkinabe migrants in Ivory Coast. Then, we want to interrogate how religion can still be a way of getting integrated for migrants (returning, internals or internationals) who currently (re-) settle in Burkina Faso. The developments of the religious practices of migrants are interrogated through fieldwork researches in three regions of Burkina Faso: the capital Ouagadougou, which focuses internal, international and returning migrations; Koudougou, third town of the country and historical city of departure for migrants going to Ivory Coast; Sinikiéré and Ouarégou, two small towns of the « Bissa country », characterized by a strong migration tradition directed through Italy and Libya. The main hypothesis of that project is that religions in migration, although possibly associated with migratory logics of individuation or of emancipation, appeared until now as a factor of cohesion and of integration in the context of these four Burkinabe localities. Combining social anthropology, geography and history methodologies, we will study the migrants’ practices at a local scale (living area, family) and more globally in urban and rural public area. Integration will be interrogated in relation to the religious plurality of the context that characterized these towns. Then, it will be analysed from an articulation between spatial analysis (cartography of the places of worship) and socio-anthropological and historical fieldwork inquiries. Several entries will allow us to approach the notion of integration through religions in migration: religious conversion, by putting in perspective religious and migratory histories; the involvement of migrants in family ceremonies at a local level, as revealing their integration in local social networks; solidarity mechanisms such as zakat in Islam; the play of denominational NGOs and the associated equipment in the access to basic public services (health, education, social services); the visibility in the public area and the local governance stakes linked with religious in migration or returning migration. However, the limits of these processes of integration and the possibilities of being excluded will also be considered, especially in the national and sub-regional context presently weakened by the rise of terrorism and of violent radicalism. With this three years research project, a new team will be created around this thematic of religions and migrations in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the context of the partnership relations between the IMAF (UMR 243 IRD 8171 CNRS) and the INSS/CNRST in Burkina Faso. The researchers will do fieldwork together in the selected localities and will work in a multidisciplinary way. The dissemination of the results of the program relies on a strategy built around three main scientific events (a launch workshop, a study day at midterm and a final international conference). It is also based on training activities for students, on scientific publications and on other means more appropriated for the general public (book created in association with a photographer, film) or for politicians and decision-makers (policy brief). One of the main expected results is the proposal of another reading of the links between religions and migrations, decentring this question and considering it from the Burkinabe instance, in which these two dimensions are not necessarily understood as a cause of social exclusion or of discrimination when they are thought together.

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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-13-JS06-0002
    Funder Contribution: 156,000 EUR

    The ocean provides many provisioning services, such as food, employment, water, energy. It also provides regulating services. The most important one is the regulation of climate. The ocean absorbs 2 Pg of carbon annually, representing 1/3 of the annual anthropogenic inputs of CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). The availability of nitrogen is one of the main factors controlling primary productivity and carbon sequestration by the ocean. Biological N2 fixation by diazotrophic organisms such as Trichodesmium constitutes one of the major sources of ‘new’ nitrogen for the surface ocean with a net input estimated at 100-200.1012 g.yr-1. A critical question that remains unanswered so far is the fate of nitrogen newly fixed by diazotrophs in oceanic food webs. The objective of VAHINE is to answer this central question, that can be detailed by the following questions: Question 1. What is the primary route of transfer of newly-fixed N in the planktonic ecosystem, i.e. is N preferably transferred to the classical food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish larvae), or to the microbial food web? Question 2. What is the evolution of heterotrophic prokaryotes, pico-, nano-, microphytoplankton, and zooplankton assemblage before, during and after a Trichodesmium bloom, and the evolution of stocks and fluxes of biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si)? Question 3. Does the development of Trichodesmium increases the efficiency of carbon export? To date, this lack of knowledge is essentially due to two scientific and technical bottlenecks including 1/ the lack of techniques which allow us to trace the passage of this element through the different compartments of the food web, 2/ the logistical difficulties to follow the dynamic of a diazotroph bloom and co-occurring plankton for several weeks. We propose here to overcome these difficulties by using a combination of new powerful techniques developed by the proposed team, including 1/ high-resolution nanometer scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) coupled to 2/ flow cytometry cell sorting and 3/ 15N2 isotopic labelling (Bonnet et al., In Rev.). The overall strategy will combine experimental and modelling approaches. The experimental part consists in deploying triplicate large mesocosms (52 000 L, developed in the framework on a previous ANR project, DUNE) in New Caledonia during a Trichodesmium bloom (Task 1). To answer question 1, we will combine stable isotope labelling, cell sorting by flow cytometry, and NanoSIMS analyses (Task 2). To address question 2, we will determine the composition of the planktonic assemblage in the mesocosm (Task 3, action 1), and quantify stock and fluxes of biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si) (Task 3, action 2). To address question 3 (carbon export), sediment traps will be collected every day for mass fluxes, particulate C, N, P, Si measurements (Task 4), and real time particle size distribution and abundance will be monitored using a camera immerged inside the mesocosms (UVP). Finally, a delta15N budget will be performed order to quantify the part of export production sustained by N2 fixation (Task 4). The biogeochemical modelling approach which has already started in 2012 (Eco3M plateform, developed by the proposed team) (Task 5) will be used before the experiment as a prospective tool, and after, as a powerful tool to help answering the scientific questions. Five project meetings will be organized (Task 0, Management) to synthesize the degree of advancement of each Task, and decide whether or not we validate the deliverable of a specific action and go further in the realization of the project. Final end-products (new techniques, model) will be available to the scientific community (Task 6) (data base, publications, international scientific conferences), students, and to a broad audience through a documentary film realized by CANAL IRD.

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  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 5U01AI069429-05
    Funder Contribution: 1 USD
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  • Funder: ANR Project Code: ANR-14-CE14-0020
    Funder Contribution: 187,803 EUR

    Studies of infectious disease systems have typically tended to focus solely on the interaction between a host and a causative agent. This approach, inherited from medical methodology, has served epidemiologists well, especially for antigenically stable pathogens, such as measles or chickenpox. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that a broader perspective may be necessary and pathogens cannot be considered separately anymore. Indeed, numerous recent publications have identified interactions between pathogens in empirical dataset, especially through an alteration of host immune system or ecological interference between populations who are susceptible to become infected. Documented on a wide range of systems, from animal species to plant systems through human populations, the influence of pathogens interactions on epidemiological dynamics remains poorly understood. More importantly, including such interactions within a perspective of “pathogen community” would allow understanding how these communities behave and thus can inform public health policies. This is the perfect example of how fundamental knowledge in ecology can bring crucial insights into medical sciences. Relying on a dataset describing infection history at 12 different pathogen species across more than 4,500 individuals located within all different Gabonese provinces, we take the advantage of this unique opportunity to reach three main objectives: (i) detecting pathogen interactions at an individual level (ii) characterizing the structure of pathogen community at a population level and figuring out how such structure could emerge from pathogen interactions and (iii) identifying the characteristics of pathogen communities that could improve strategies of infectious diseases control. Such objectives make possible to inform public health authorities about the consequences, for each control strategy envisioned, on the alteration of pathogen community. These objectives will also allow to identify areas that can be considered as a potential hotspot for infectious diseases emergence because their specific structure of pathogen community. Thus, this project, deeply rooted within ecological thinking, will allow a better fundamental comprehension of ecological mechanisms involved in pathogen communities assemblage as well as may help to prevent, or even mitigate, devastating effects of pathogen epidemics.

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  • Funder: NIH Project Code: 5U01HD071889-03
    Funder Contribution: 479,336 USD
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