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Country: Norway
70 Projects, page 1 of 14
  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101067156
    Funder Contribution: 210,911 EUR
    Partners: NORCE

    The Arctic sea-ice is an important ecosystem that guarantees food security and plays a key role in the regulation of the global climate, affecting the livelihoods of people beyond the Arctic region. The Arctic sea-ice is shrinking, and studies predict an Arctic sea-ice free summer by 2050. The impacts of a sea-ice free Arctic on the climate system and human activities are little understood, mainly due to the limited availability of tools to reconstruct and understand the Arctic sea-ice history. State-of-the-art sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses offer novel solutions to better understand sea-ice ecosystems. ARCTISTIC proposes to i) design and test novel molecular tools (ddPCR assays) to trace sea-ice associated taxa in marine sediments, ii) validate the new ddPCR proxies against established tools for sea-ice reconstruction (lipid biomarkers) and iii) assess the impact of sea-ice changes on biodiversity using metabarcoding analysis on the same sediment samples, and bioinformatics. ARCTISTIC research activities will deliver a novel and innovative toolbox for sea-ice reconstructions. Tools and data will be made available in open access publications, with the aim to accelerate Arctic sea-ice reconstructions beyond ARCTISTIC. ARCTISTIC presents an excellent opportunity for the exchange of the latest skills and approaches for sea-ice reconstruction between myself and NORCE (Norway), with a secondment at AWI (Germany). ARCTISTIC will allow me to develop new skills in sedaDNA methods, palaeoceanographic proxy development and bioinformatics, expand my research network and gain a stronger understanding of Arctic ecosystems and sea-ice history. I will also develop transferrable skills in science communication and project management to ensure a future career path as an independent researcher.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 818449
    Overall Budget: 2,615,860 EURFunder Contribution: 2,615,860 EUR
    Partners: NORCE

    Arctic sea ice decline is the exponent of the rapidly transforming Arctic climate. The ensuing local and global implications can be understood by studying past climate transitions, yet few methods are available to examine past Arctic sea ice cover, severely restricting our understanding of sea ice in the climate system. The decline in Arctic sea ice cover is a ‘canary in the coalmine’ for the state of our climate, and if greenhouse gas emissions remain unchecked, summer sea ice loss may pass a critical threshold that could drastically transform the Arctic. Because historical observations are limited, it is crucial to have reliable proxies for assessing natural sea ice variability, its stability and sensitivity to climate forcing on different time scales. Current proxies address aspects of sea ice variability, but are limited due to a selective fossil record, preservation effects, regional applicability, or being semi-quantitative. With such restraints on our knowledge about natural variations and drivers, major uncertainties about the future remain. I propose to develop and apply a novel sea ice proxy that exploits genetic information stored in marine sediments, sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA). This innovation uses the genetic signature of phytoplankton communities from surface waters and sea ice as it gets stored in sediments. This wealth of information has not been explored before for reconstructing sea ice conditions. Preliminary results from my cross-disciplinary team indicate that our unconventional approach can provide a detailed, qualitative account of past sea ice ecosystems and quantitative estimates of sea ice parameters. I will address fundamental questions about past Arctic sea ice variability on different timescales, information essential to provide a framework upon which to assess the ecological and socio-economic consequences of a changing Arctic. This new proxy is not limited to sea ice research and can transform the field of paleoceanography.

  • Open Access mandate for Publications
    Funder: EC Project Code: 706093
    Overall Budget: 196,400 EURFunder Contribution: 196,400 EUR

    Earth system models (ESM) are widely used to predict future climate and inform policy (e.g. IPCC). Recent research suggests that ESM do a poor job predicting future climate because they exclude microbial biogeochemical cycling and soil heterogeneity (e.g. texture), which affect the climate system. As an ecosystem ecologist with a strong background in microbial drivers of biogeochemistry, my primary goal is to use data from a robust global study measuring the effect of climate change on ecosystem processes to enhance the next generation of ESM making them more accurate and relevant to global policy. To achieve this goal I have developed key collaborations. Dr. H. Lee is an expert ecological modeler with an interest in enhancing ESM. NorESM is a leading ESM developed in Norway and used in many international modelling programs e.g. IPCC. Dr. A. Classen manages a 10 site global network measuring the ecosystem level impacts of warming. Dr. W. Wieder has initiated the development of the Microbial Mineral Carbon Stabilization (MiMiCS) model, which considers microbial drivers and soil heterogeneity; however this module requires verification and integration into ESM. My objectives are to (1) Train at the with Dr. Lee and develop ESM simulations for our 10 sites, (2) Generate a field based dataset with the help of Dr. Classen and (3) Compare simulations and field data to verify and enhance MiMiCS and (4) Integrate the newly enhanced MiMiCS into NorESM. During this action I will enhance my career by becoming a key user of cutting-edge ESM, furthering international collaborations, and enhancing European based ESM. Moreover, I will transfer my knowledge of biogeochemistry and ecosystem ecology to model developers and scientists internationally with the goal of creating synergies. The end goal of this action is to ultimately improve our ability to model future climates bringing our predicted climate scenarios closer to reality in order to better inform key policy.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 610055
  • Open Access mandate for Publications and Research data
    Funder: EC Project Code: 101069931
    Overall Budget: 2,520,250 EURFunder Contribution: 2,496,000 EUR

    The ColdSpark project will validate a novel non-thermal plasma technology to produce hydrogen at an industrial scale from methane, with a process energy efficiency of 79%, achieving a conversion rate of 85% with zero CO2 emissions. This will be achieved by designing an industrial relevant reactor that leverages the best features of the non-thermal plasma technologies, gliding arc and corona discharge, to ensure high efficiency and scalability. The innovation addresses for the first time the critical step of matching the reactor with a pulsed power supply. It enables a perfect fine-tuning of the cracking process parameters, to find the right electron density and energy distribution in the plasma reactor, to maximise energy efficiency. The up- and downstream gas management will be optimised to further contribute to the system’s compatibility to existing infrastructure. The project will develop and test a novel plasma reactor at lab scale and validate it in conjunction with the power supply at large-scale, pursuing the industry’s most power efficient generation of hydrogen alongside high-value carbon. The technology will assess its application for both, natural gas and biomethane producers. A low energy cost (< 15 kWh/kg H2 produced) without the need for catalysts and water, makes the proposed solution the most cost-competitive, environment-friendly, and less complex to implement. The reactor design and modularity bring lower CAPEX and OPEX and make it easily scalable and flexible. The project gathers the expertise of a mix of academic, research, and industrial partners from five countries, which bring both outstanding research and topic competence, as well as knowledge and access to the solution for end-user industries.