689 Projects, page 1 of 138
In the project “Tracing the Invisible. Old Norse and Latin in Medieval Manuscripts (INVISIBILIA)”, I propose to investigate bilingualism in medieval Northern Europe by focussing on the most popular media of the time: manuscripts. I will trace their Latin components, which have mostly been neglected in research until the present day, and make them accessible to the scientific community digitally, thus providing essential texts and finding aids for the Latin sections. I will analyse the interaction of the Latin with the Old Norse texts. By relating them to the production, dissemination and use of manuscripts by people from different social backgrounds, I will give a deep insight into the European literacy of medieval Icelanders and Norwegians in the time span ca. 1100 – ca. 1500. INVISIBILIA will focus on the manuscripts held in the Arnamagnaean Collections in Copenhagen and Reykjavik, which represent approx. 90 % of the total number of Old Norse codices. Any exemplar containing both Old Norse and Latin as clearly distinct entities will contribute to the corpus of the study, about 400 manuscripts in total. I will approach this corpus according to three major research objectives, namely a full catalogue of the Latin entities, a comprehensive multi-level edition, and a comparative study. The results of the three research objectives will be integrated in an enhanced publication, realising the latest developments in Digital Humanities. This open access, on-line website will exchange data with existing scientific databases and make it possible for other scholars to collaborate actively. By spanning the borders between Traditional and Material Philology, Cataloguing and Editing, and Traditional and Digital Humanities, INVISIBILIA reaches out to scholars of medieval Scandinavia and Medieval Latin alike. The research results will be directly comparable to other pre-modern bilingual literary systems and challenge the isolationism still found in Old Norse-Icelandic scholarship.
Human social interaction and learning depends on making the right inferences about other people’s thoughts, a process commonly called mentalizing, or Theory of Mind, a cognitive achievement which several decades of research concluded was reached at around age 4. The last 10 years has radically changed this view, and innovative new paradigms suggest that even preverbal infants can think about others’ minds. This new developmental data has created arguably one of the biggest puzzles in the history of developmental science: How can infants be mentalizing when years of research have shown that a) pre-schoolers fail at mentalizing tasks and b) mentalizing depends on the development of cognitive control, language, and brain maturation? The key issue is whether behaviour that looks like infant mentalizing really is mentalizing, or might infants’ success belie alternative processes? The most powerful strategy for resolving this puzzle is to look to brain activity. By applying the same methods and paradigms across infancy and early childhood, DEVOMIND will investigate whether infants’ success on mentalizing tasks recruits the same network of brain regions, and neural processes, that we know are involved in success in older children and adults. In the second half of the project, we will use our neural indicators of mentalizing to test a completely novel hypothesis in which infants’ success is possible because they have a limited ability to distinguish self from other. Although novel, this hypothesis deserves to be tested because it has the potential to explain both infants’ success and preschoolers’ failures under a single, unified theory. By bringing a neuroimaging approach to the puzzle of early mentalizing, DEVOMIND will allow us to move beyond the current impasse, and to generate a new theory of Theory of Mind.
TET2 (Tet Methylcytosine Dioxygenase 2) is a DNA demethylase frequently mutated in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification with key roles in the specification of cellular identity, and, when deregulated, in cancer. DNA methylation is a reversible process and, only recently, it was discovered that TET (Ten-eleven Translocation) proteins mediate DNA demethylation. Mammals have three TET homologues (TET1-3). While TET1 and TET3 share an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (CXXC motif), TET2 has lost its CXXC motif during evolution. Therefore, it is not understood how TET2 binds DNA. Due to the lack of a known DNA-binding domain in TET2, I hypothesize that TET2 may require to interact with proteins to be recruited to DNA, which is essential for its function. Hence, the main goal of my proposal is to understand how TET2 binds to DNA and to identify interacting proteins that participate in this recruitment. I also aim to unveil whether cancer-associated mutations affect TET2 recruitment. To achieve these goals, I will perform a structural-functional analysis of TET2. First, I will perform Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by whole genome sequencing of wildtype and truncated TET2. Thus, I will identify the region(s) required for the binding of TET2 to DNA. Next, I will seek proteins that interact with TET2 through the previously identified region by Mass Spectrometry and I will test their involvement in TET2 recruitment to DNA. Furthermore, I will perform similar experiments to inspect the impact of TET2 missense mutations found in human cancer on TET2 recruitment to DNA. Altogether, this project will yield a better understanding of how TET2 is recruited to DNA. The results obtained will significantly impact the epigenetic field and allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which TET2 exerts its function in normal cells and how TET2 mutations contribute to cancer.
Plants in the legume (Fabaceae) family are able to fix atmospheric N2 under N-limiting conditions, thereby diminishing the need for N-fertilization. N2-fixation has a high requirement for photosynthates and ATP, and is thus tightly controlled by both the N-availability in the soil and P-level in the plant. Increasing the P-uptake through formation of branched root system and abundant root hairs will increase the N2-fixing capacity and thereby improve the overall nutrient use efficiency (NUE). Small signalling peptides are a largely un-characterized group of regulatory molecules in plants that induce signal transduction pathways upon binding to their complementary receptor signalling modules. Even in the most studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana only a few of the more than one thousand putative SSPs have been characterized. Very recent work has revealed unique roles of SSPs in alteration of the root system architecture in response to nutrient availability, including the formation of root hairs under P-limiting conditions. Hence, a deeper understanding of the functional roles of SSPs appears to be of key importance for improving NUE. This project aims at advancing our knowledge of SSPs involved in the adaptation to nutrient limiting conditions in legumes beyond current state-of-the-art. This will be achieved using a novel bottom-up bioinformatic approach and unique mutant populations. The scientific objectives are (i) to identify the receptor signalling module and the down-stream target genes in the signal transduction pathway of a newly discovered P-responsive SSP essential for root hair formation, and (ii) to discover unknown N- and P-responsive SSPs in the roots and nodules of the legume model species Medicago truncatula with the aim of (iii) investigating the effect of SSPs on improving NUE. The proposed work will substantially advance our understanding of the functions in which SSPs are involved and will open up for new solutions aimed at improving NUE.
The research project “DISAGROUP – The Role of Groups in Complex Disagreement” will investigate the phenomenon of complex disagreement in society from a philosophical perspective. Social epistemology has been mainly devoted to the study of peer disagreement (the kind of disagreement among individuals who share the same evidence and intellectual capacities). However, real-life disagreements such as long-standing religious, political or economic disagreements have a much more complex structure: the involved parties are not normally individual epistemic peers but groups that do not possess the same evidence or intellectual resources, they involve a lot of claims and are usually sustained not for the sake of knowledge but by elements such as faith, hate, intolerance or distrust. DISAGROUP aims to fill a gap in the philosophical literature by giving a general account of the structural elements that make most real-life disagreements so complex and difficult to understand, with a particular focus on the role played by groups in sustaining complex disagreements. In particular, DISAGROUP will address four main research questions: (1) Are the beliefs and other attitudes that ground complex disagreements beliefs and attitudes of groups with their own distinctive agency or by contrast of individuals that merely happen to believe the same thing? (2) Is complex disagreement better characterized in terms of belief or alternatively in terms of acceptance? (3) Can complex disagreement be characterized (at least partially) in terms of a difference in epistemic virtues among the disagreeing parties (groups) and, if so, what kind of virtues are they? (4) What is the rational response to complex disagreement? More specifically, does complex disagreement rationally compel groups to revise their beliefs or joint acceptances or does it also compel them to become more intellectual virtuous?