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Methods and tools for the optimization of modular electrical power distribution cabinets in aeronautical applications

Authors: Morentin Etayo, Alvaro;

Methods and tools for the optimization of modular electrical power distribution cabinets in aeronautical applications

Abstract

In recent years, aircraft manufacturers have been making progress in the design of more efficient aircrafts to reduce the environmental footprint. To attain this target, aircrafts manufactures work on the replacement of the hydraulic and bleed systems for electrical systems leading to a “More Electrical Aircraft”. However, the expected mass gain is a challenge, as previous technologies have been developed and optimized for decades. The new electrical solutions need to be look into detail to be competitive with previous technologies. All degrees of freedom must be considered, that is, new technologies and architectures. In particular, an HVDC network that reduces the number of rectifier stages seems a promising solution. From the HVDC network, the different three phase AC loads will be supplied by a series of power generic inverters. As the power consumption of the different loads change during the flight mission, the same inverter is used to supply different loads. The connection between the inverters and the loads is managed by a matrix of contactors. The proposed solution also considers redundant configurations, thus increasing system robustness. The design of the innovative system is presented in this document. That is, determining the optimal trade-off between the number of power inverters and the nominal power of each generic inverter that will also impact the size of the matrix of contactors. However, to assess the combinatory problem, the mass of the different components as a function of the nominal power needs to be calculated. A design environment is therefore created to perform automatic and optimized design of power converters. The different components are described using a “direct modelling” approach and coded using “object-oriented” programming. The components are validated experimentally or by numerical simulations. The different models are coupled to an optimization environment and to a frequency solver allowing a fast calculation of the steady-state waveforms. The optimization environment performs the precise design of the different parts of the power inverter: heatsink, power module, DC filter and coupling inductor. The power inverter is designed for different values of nominal power and switching frequency. The optimization assesses as well the usage of different technologies. Finally, the results are used to determine the optimal trade-off between the number of inverters and the nominal power of each inverter using a heuristic algorithm.; Depuis des années, les avionneurs sont engagés pour la réduction de l’empreinte environnementale à travers le développement de nouveaux concepts. Ainsi, le remplacement des systèmes hydrauliques (hydraulicless) et pneumatiques (bleedless) de l’avion par des systèmes électriques sont envisagés d’où l’apparition du concept d’avion « plus électrique ». Toutefois, les gains espérés (diminution du coût, de la consommation de carburant ou de la masse) suite à cette substitution ne sont pas si faciles à obtenir, car les technologies précédentes ont bénéficié de plusieurs dizaines d’années de développement et d’optimisation. Les solutions électriques nouvellement proposées doivent donc elles aussi être très abouties pour être véritablement concurrentielles ; tous les degrés de liberté doivent être envisagés, qu’il s’agisse des technologies ou des architectures. En particulier, l’usage d’un nouveau réseau HVDC (540 V) semble être une solution prometteuse. A partir de ce réseau HVDC, les différentes charges AC triphasées sont alimentées par une série d’onduleurs génériques. Compte tenu de la disparité des consommations pendant les différentes phases de vol, le même onduleur peut servir à alimenter plusieurs charges. La connexion entre les onduleurs et les charges est gérée par une matrice de contacteurs. Cette solution innovante considère également des cas de redondance pour augmenter la robustesse de la solution. La conception de ce nouveau système est présentée dans ce rapport de thèse. Le compromis optimal entre le nombre d’onduleurs et la puissance nominale de chaque onduleur doit être obtenu. Ce choix déterminera fortement la taille de la matrice de contacteurs. Cependant, pour adresser cette problématique, il est nécessaire de connaître la masse des différents composants en fonction de la puissance requise. Un environnement de conception est ainsi créé dans le but de réaliser le dimensionnement optimal de convertisseurs de puissance. Les différents composants sont décrits utilisant une approche « directe » et sont codés sous le formalisme « orienté-objet ». Ces modèles sont ensuite validés expérimentalement ou par simulation numérique. Les différents modèles sont couplés à un environnement d’optimisation et à un solveur fréquentiel qui permet une résolution rapide des formes d’ondes du régime permanent. L’environnement d’optimisation réalise le dimensionnement précis des différentes parties de l’onduleur : dissipateur, module de puissance, filtre côté continu et inductance de couplage. Un onduleur est proposé pour différentes puissances nominales et fréquences de découpage. L’optimisation adresse également le choix des différentes technologies. Finalement, les résultats sont utilisés pour déterminer le meilleur compromis entre nombre d’onduleurs et puissance de l’onduleur à partir d’un algorithme heuristique.

Country
France
Keywords

Optimization, Avion plus électrique, Baie électronique, Shared power electronics, [SPI.NRJ]Engineering Sciences [physics]/Electric power, Conception automatique de convertisseurs, Alimentations/convertisseurs mutualisés, More electric aircraft, Conception d’éléments magnétiques, Power magnetics design, Power electronics automatic design, Power electronics cabinet, Optimisation

J. Muhlethaler, J. Biela, J. W. Kolar and A. Ecklebe, “Improved Core-Loss Calculation for Magnetic Components Employed in Power Electronic Systems,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 964-973, Feb. 2012. [OpenAIRE]

doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2162252 K. Terashima, K. Wada, T. Shimizu, T. Nakazawa, K. Ishii and Y. Hayashi, “Evaluation of the iron loss of an inductor based on dynamic minor characteristics,” Power Electronics and Applications, 2007 European Conference on, Aalborg, 2007, pp.1-8. doi: 10.1109/EPE.2007.4417555

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
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