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Publication . Article . 2018

Retracted: Consumer‐resource interactions along urbanization gradients drive natural selection*

Denon Start; Colin Bonner; Arthur E. Weis; Benjamin Gilbert;
Closed Access
Published: 12 Jul 2018 Journal: Evolution, volume 72, pages 1,863-1,873 (issn: 0014-3820, eissn: 1558-5646, Copyright policy )
Publisher: Wiley

Urbanization is an important component of global change. Urbanization affects species interactions, but the evolutionary implications are rarely studied. We investigate the evolutionary consequences of a common pattern: the loss of high trophic-level species in urban areas. Using a gall-forming fly, Eurosta solidaginis, and its natural enemies that select for opposite gall sizes, we test for patterns of enemy loss, selection, and local adaptation along five urbanization gradients. Eurosta declined in urban areas, as did predation by birds, which preferentially consume gallmakers that induce large galls. These declines were linked to changes in habitat availability, namely reduced forest cover in urban areas. Conversely, a parasitoid that attacks gallmakers that induce small galls was unaffected by urbanization. Changes in patterns of attack by birds and parasitoids resulted in stronger directional selection, but loss of stabilizing selection in urban areas, a pattern which we suggest may be general. Despite divergent selective regimes, gall size did not very systematically with urbanization, suggesting but not conclusively demonstrating that environmental differences, gene flow, or drift, may have prevented the adaptive divergence of phenotypes. We argue that the evolutionary effects of urbanization will have predictable consequences for patterns of species interactions and natural selection.

Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Natural selection Directional selection Ecology Biology biology.organism_classification Habitat Urbanization Gall Eurosta Stabilizing selection Local adaptation


Genetics, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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  • Funder: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
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